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  • Regulation  (84)
  • Glutamine synthetase  (54)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; Amoebae ; Aminopeptidases ; Acid proteases ; Regulation ; Development ; Differential gene activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cultivation of Physarum polycephalum amoebae in two media with different protein contents revealed a regulation of aminopeptidases and proteases depending on the albumin content of the medium: in growing amoebae and plasmodia the aminopeptidases have similar isoenzyme patterns and relative activities against nitroanilides. One alanine and four leucine aminopeptidase isoenzymes were found within the slightly acid pH range. During growth amoebae secrete—different from plasmodia—leucine aminopeptidase into the medium with low protein content. In an albumin-rich medium additional alanine aminopeptidase activity was found. Out of nine plasmodial proteases four were found in amoebae too. Only one band (pI 3.6) was present in the protein-poor medium. No protease activity could be detected in the proteinrich medium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Rhodopseudomonas acidophila ; Glutamine synthetase ; Glutamate synthase ; Glutamate dehydrogenase ; Alanine dehydrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 7050 assimilated ammonia via a constitutive glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase enzyme system.Glutamine synthetase had a K m for NH 4 + of 0.38 mM whilst the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide linked glutamate synthase had a K m for glutamine of 0.55 mM. R. acidophila utilized only a limited range of amino acids as sole nitrogen sources: l-alanine, glutamine and asparagine. The bacterium did not grow on glutamate as sole nitrogen source and lacked glutamate dehydrogenase. When R. acidophila was grown on l-alanine as the sole nitrogen source in the absence of N2 low levels of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide linked l-alanine dehydrogenase were produced. It is concluded, therefore, that this reaction was not a significant route of ammonia assimilation in this bacterium except when glutamine synthetase was inhibited by methionine sulphoximine. In l-alanine grown cells the presence of an active alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and, on occasions, low levels of an alanine-oxaloacetate aminotransferase were detected. Alanine-2-oxo-glutarate aminotransferase could not be demonstrated in this bacterium.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Glutamine synthetase ; Bacterial evolution ; Pseudomonas ; Alcaligenes ; Acintobacter ; Enterobacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Antibody to purified glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli was prepared and used for an immunological comparison of glutamine synthetases from species of Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus, Erwinia, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Xanthomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus. The results of Ouchterlony double diffusion experiments and quantitative microcomplement fixation studies indicated that the amino acid sequence of this enzyme was highly conserved in different organisms. The order of relationship to E. coli was found to be similar to that derived from immunological investigations of other enzymes. In addition, congruence was observed between ribosomal RNA homology and the results of the microcomplement fixation experiments. The results also suggested that some species of Alcaligenes were more closely related to species of Pseudomonas than to each other. Immunological comparisons of glutamine synthetases appear to be very useful for the elucidation of relationships among distantly related species and genera.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Streptococcus cremoris ; Cell wall proteinase ; Calcium dependency ; Regulation ; Translational control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The persistent accumulation of proteinase (PIII) activity in the cell wall of Streptococcus cremoris strain AM1 during growth depends on the presence of Ca2+-ions in the medium. In the absence of calcium initial accumulation of activity in the cell wall is observed, followed by a decrease to a low final level. Under this condition no increase of proteolytic activity is found in the extracellular fluid. A possible function of calcium in the stabilization of the enzyme is discussed. Prolonged accumulation of catalytically active proteinase PIII in the cell wall occurs in the absence of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis. This process involves de novo protein synthesis supported by preformed proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid, which is possibly either intrinsically long-lived or is stabilized following its transcription. The level of the extracellular concentration of amino acids and/or peptides regulates the translation of newly synthesized proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid and, possibly, the growth of the organism in milk.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Collagenase ; Alkaline protease ; Temperature control ; Oxygen control ; Regulation ; Vibrio alginolyticus ; Secretion exoproteins ; Cerulenin ; Quinacrine ; Microbial ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The production of an extracellular collagenase and an alkaline protease by Vibrio alginolyticus during stationary phase was inhibited by a temperature shift from 30 to 37°C and by a lack of oxygen. The stability of the exoproteases was unaffected by incubation at 37°C and aeration. The optimum growth temperature for the V. alginolyticus strain was 33.5°C Aeration enhanced the rate of growth of exponential phase cells. Temperature and oxygen did not affect the growth of stationary phase cells when the exoproteases were being produced. Macromolecular synthesis in stationary phase cells was not affected by temperature. There was no rapid release of the exoproteases after temperature shift down and chloramphenicol inhibited the production of the enzymes when added at time of temperature shift down from 37 to 30°C. The regulation of exoprotease production by temperature and oxygen was specific and has implications regarding the ecology of V. alginolyticus. Cerulenin, quinacrine and O-phenanthroline inhibited the production of the exoproteases.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nitrogen control ; Glutamate dehydrogenase ; Urease ; Histidase ; Glutamine auxotrophs ; Glutamine synthetase ; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the formation of urease, histidase and some other enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation is repressed by ammonia in the growth medium. The key metabolite in this process appears to be glutamine or a product derived from it, since ammonia and glutamate did not repress urease and histidase synthesis in a mutant lacking glutamine synthetase activity when growth was limited for glutamine. The synthesis of these enzymes was repressed in cells growing in the presence of excess glutamine. High levels of glutamine were also required for the derepression of NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase formation in the glutamine synthetase-negative mutant.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nitrogenase ; Glutamine synthetase ; Repression ; Amino acid pools ; Adenine nucleotide pools ; Azolobacter vinelandii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract When continuous cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii were supplied with ammonium or nitrate in amounts, which just repressed nitrogenase synthesis completely, both the intracellular glutamine level and the degree of adenylylation of the glutamine synthetase (GS) increased only slightly (from 0.45–0.50 mM and from 2 to 3 respectively), while the total GS level remained unaffected. Higher amounts of ammonium additionally inhibited the nitrogenase activity, caused a strong rise in the intracellular glutamine concentration and adenylylation of the GS, but caused no change in the ATP/ADP ratio. These results are considered as evidence that in A. vinelandii the regulation of nitrogenase synthesis is not linked to the adenylylation state of the GS and to the intracellular glutamine level, and that the inhibition of the nitrogenase activity as a consequence of a high extracellular ammonium level is not mediated via a change in the energy charge.
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