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  • 1
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bender, Eric -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S59. doi: 10.1038/533S59a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167392" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Discovery/*economics/*methods/organization & administration/trends ; Drug Industry/economics/*methods/organization & administration/*trends ; Humans ; Leadership ; Patient Advocacy
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brown, Eryn -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):137-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27092378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Architectural Accessibility ; *Awareness ; Career Choice ; *Disabled Persons/psychology/statistics & numerical data ; *Employment/statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Hemiptera/physiology ; Humans ; Laboratories/manpower ; Male ; *Research Personnel/psychology/statistics & numerical data ; Science/education/*manpower ; *Self-Help Devices ; Social Stigma ; Students/psychology/statistics & numerical data ; Universities/manpower ; Workplace
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Melott, Adrian L -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):40-1. doi: 10.1038/532040a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078562" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Climate Change/history ; *Earth (Planet) ; Extinction, Biological ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Iron Radioisotopes/*analysis/chemistry ; Stars, Celestial/*chemistry ; Time Factors
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willyard, Cassandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):166-8. doi: 10.1038/532166a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075079" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/economics/therapeutic use ; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics/*therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*drug effects/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Humans ; Immunotherapy, Adoptive/economics/trends ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics/*methods/trends ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/genetics/pathology ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/chemically induced/genetics/prevention & control ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Selection, Genetic/*drug effects/genetics ; Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tracy, Cameron L -- Dustin, Megan K -- Ewing, Rodney C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):149-51. doi: 10.1038/529149a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, California, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, California, USA. ; Frank Stanton professor in nuclear security at the Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, California, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; New Mexico ; Plutonium/adverse effects ; *Policy Making ; Radioactive Hazard Release/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data ; *Radioactive Waste/adverse effects ; Risk Assessment ; *Safety/statistics & numerical data
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wells, Michael F -- Wimmer, Ralf D -- Schmitt, L Ian -- Feng, Guoping -- Halassa, Michael M -- F31 MH098641/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R00 NS078115/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH107680/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH10768/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):58-63. doi: 10.1038/nature17427. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 1003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007844" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Attention ; Attention Deficit Disorder with ; Hyperactivity/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Behavior, Animal ; Disease Models, Animal ; Electric Conductivity ; Female ; GABAergic Neurons/metabolism/pathology ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Learning Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Neural Inhibition ; Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/metabolism ; Sleep ; Sleep Deprivation/genetics/physiopathology ; Thalamic Nuclei/pathology/*physiopathology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):138-9. doi: 10.1038/529138a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Animals ; Cats ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data/veterinary ; Dogs ; Ebolavirus/*isolation & purification ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/prevention & control/*veterinary/virology ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Livestock/virology ; Pets/virology ; Rodentia/virology ; Zoonoses/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S53. doi: 10.1038/533S53a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167389" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Azepines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Industry ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Neglected Diseases ; *Open Access Publishing ; Triazoles ; Tropical Medicine
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):10-1. doi: 10.1038/529010a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chad/epidemiology ; Disease Eradication ; Dog Diseases/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission ; Dogs ; Dracunculiasis/*epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/*veterinary ; Dracunculus Nematode/*isolation & purification ; Drinking Water/parasitology/standards ; Humans ; Rivers/parasitology ; Zoonoses/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):18. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Developmental Biology/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence/methods ; Embryo Research/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Embryo, Mammalian/embryology/metabolism ; Genetic Engineering/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*legislation & jurisprudence
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S49. doi: 10.1038/531S49a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981725" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cities ; Climate Change ; Communicable Diseases ; Floods ; Humans ; Mental Health ; Stress, Psychological ; *Urban Health ; Urban Population
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holmes, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S54-5. doi: 10.1038/533S54a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167390" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Access to Information ; Biological Science Disciplines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Discovery ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watson, Traci -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7602):155. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Egypt ; Female ; *Flowers ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Infrared Rays ; *Mummies/history ; Religion/history ; *Symbolism ; Tattooing/*history
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic 'dual RNA-seq' approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and reveal the molecular impact of bacterial riboregulators. We identify a PhoP-activated small RNA, PinT, which upon bacterial internalization temporally controls the expression of both invasion-associated effectors and virulence genes required for intracellular survival. This riboregulatory activity causes pervasive changes in coding and noncoding transcripts of the host. Interspecies correlation analysis links PinT to host cell JAK-STAT signalling, and we identify infection-specific alterations in multiple long noncoding RNAs. Our study provides a paradigm for a sensitive RNA-based analysis of intracellular bacterial pathogens and their hosts without physical separation, as well as a new discovery route for hidden functions of pathogen genes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westermann, Alexander J -- Forstner, Konrad U -- Amman, Fabian -- Barquist, Lars -- Chao, Yanjie -- Schulte, Leon N -- Muller, Lydia -- Reinhardt, Richard -- Stadler, Peter F -- Vogel, Jorg -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):496-501. doi: 10.1038/nature16547. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Wurzburg, RNA Biology Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Wurzburg, Core Unit Systems Medicine, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Leipzig, Department of Computer Science and Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, Hartelstrasse 16-18, D-04107 Leipzig, Germany. ; University of Vienna, Theoretical Biochemistry Group, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Wahringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Max Planck Genome Centre Cologne, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linne-Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Rd, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA. ; Research Centre for Infectious Diseases (ZINF), University of Wurzburg, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Proteins/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genes, Bacterial/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/*genetics ; Humans ; Janus Kinases/metabolism ; Mice ; Microbial Viability/genetics ; RNA, Bacterial/*genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/metabolism ; STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/cytology/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Virulence/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):283-4. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983516" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Athletes/*psychology ; Athletic Performance/*physiology/*psychology ; Bicycling/physiology/psychology ; Biomedical Enhancement/ethics/*methods ; Brain/*physiology ; Doping in Sports ; Fatigue/prevention & control ; Humans ; Physical Endurance/physiology ; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology ; Skiing/physiology/psychology ; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation ; Uncertainty
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):160-3. doi: 10.1038/531160a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961640" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization/genetics/physiology ; African Swine Fever/immunology/virology ; Animal Culling/methods ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Bees/genetics/parasitology/physiology ; Breeding ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Carps/anatomy & histology/genetics ; Cattle/genetics/immunology/physiology ; Chick Embryo/immunology ; Chickens/genetics ; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods ; Culicidae/genetics/parasitology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Disease Vectors ; Egg Hypersensitivity/prevention & control ; Elephants/genetics/physiology ; Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Food, Genetically Modified ; Genetic Engineering/*methods/trends ; Humans ; Infertility, Female/genetics ; Lyme Disease/prevention & control/transmission ; Macaca/genetics ; Malaria/prevention & control/transmission ; Mammoths/genetics/physiology ; Pets/anatomy & histology/genetics ; Rett Syndrome/genetics/physiopathology/psychology ; Salmon/genetics/growth & development ; Schistosomiasis/prevention & control/transmission ; Swine ; Swine, Miniature/anatomy & histology/genetics/immunology/virology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):253-4. doi: 10.1038/530253b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887453" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*economics/*trends ; Child ; *Federal Government ; *Goals ; Humans ; Immunotherapy ; Information Dissemination ; Neoplasms/*therapy ; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy ; United States
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cyranoski, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):449. doi: 10.1038/529449a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Experimentation ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory ; Autistic Disorder/*genetics/physiopathology/psychology ; CRISPR-Cas Systems ; China ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Deep Brain Stimulation ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; *Genetic Engineering ; Humans ; Japan ; Macaca fascicularis/*genetics/psychology ; Male ; Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2/genetics ; Monkey Diseases/*genetics/physiopathology/psychology ; Neuroimaging
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cyranoski, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):136-7. doi: 10.1038/529136a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762435" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Diffusion of Innovation ; *Federal Government ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis/*epidemiology/prevention & control ; Taiwan/epidemiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉El-Awady, Nadia -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):S19-21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135102" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cooperative Behavior ; Humans ; *International Cooperation ; Middle East ; Research/manpower/*organization & administration ; Saudi Arabia
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: HKU1 is a human betacoronavirus that causes mild yet prevalent respiratory disease, and is related to the zoonotic SARS and MERS betacoronaviruses, which have high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Cell tropism and host range is determined in part by the coronavirus spike (S) protein, which binds cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion. As the largest known class I fusion protein, its size and extensive glycosylation have hindered structural studies of the full ectodomain, thus preventing a molecular understanding of its function and limiting development of effective interventions. Here we present the 4.0 A resolution structure of the trimeric HKU1 S protein determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. In the pre-fusion conformation, the receptor-binding subunits, S1, rest above the fusion-mediating subunits, S2, preventing their conformational rearrangement. Surprisingly, the S1 C-terminal domains are interdigitated and form extensive quaternary interactions that occlude surfaces known in other coronaviruses to bind protein receptors. These features, along with the location of the two protease sites known to be important for coronavirus entry, provide a structural basis to support a model of membrane fusion mediated by progressive S protein destabilization through receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage. These studies should also serve as a foundation for the structure-based design of betacoronavirus vaccine immunogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860016/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860016/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kirchdoerfer, Robert N -- Cottrell, Christopher A -- Wang, Nianshuang -- Pallesen, Jesper -- Yassine, Hadi M -- Turner, Hannah L -- Corbett, Kizzmekia S -- Graham, Barney S -- McLellan, Jason S -- Ward, Andrew B -- R56 AI118016/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17200.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA. ; Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 40, Room 2502, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935699" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Coronavirus/*chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Humans ; Membrane Fusion ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/*chemistry/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Viral Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Virus Internalization
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  • 22
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kirk, Edwin P -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):173. doi: 10.1038/531173b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sydney Children's Hospital; University of New South Wales; and SEALS Laboratories, Randwick, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961646" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/*virology ; Animals ; Female ; Humans ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; Pregnancy ; Virology/*trends ; Zika Virus/*pathogenicity ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology
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  • 23
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):127. doi: 10.1038/529127a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762420" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology/*legislation & jurisprudence/psychology ; Evidence-Based Practice ; Female ; Great Britain/epidemiology ; Guidelines as Topic ; Health Behavior ; Health Policy/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Humans ; Male ; *Policy Making
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  • 24
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):275. doi: 10.1038/531275a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983503" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Artificial Intelligence ; *Congresses as Topic ; Humans ; *Research Personnel/standards/supply & distribution/trends ; Senegal ; Tuberculosis/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Neoplastic pancreatic epithelial cells are believed to die through caspase 8-dependent apoptotic cell death, and chemotherapy is thought to promote tumour apoptosis. Conversely, cancer cells often disrupt apoptosis to survive. Another type of programmed cell death is necroptosis (programmed necrosis), but its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is unclear. There are many potential inducers of necroptosis in PDA, including ligation of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), CD95, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, Toll-like receptors, reactive oxygen species, and chemotherapeutic drugs. Here we report that the principal components of the necrosome, receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1 and RIP3, are highly expressed in PDA and are further upregulated by the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine. Blockade of the necrosome in vitro promoted cancer cell proliferation and induced an aggressive oncogenic phenotype. By contrast, in vivo deletion of RIP3 or inhibition of RIP1 protected against oncogenic progression in mice and was associated with the development of a highly immunogenic myeloid and T cell infiltrate. The immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment associated with intact RIP1/RIP3 signalling depended in part on necroptosis-induced expression of the chemokine attractant CXCL1, and CXCL1 blockade protected against PDA. Moreover, cytoplasmic SAP130 (a subunit of the histone deacetylase complex) was expressed in PDA in a RIP1/RIP3-dependent manner, and Mincle--its cognate receptor--was upregulated in tumour-infiltrating myeloid cells. Ligation of Mincle by SAP130 promoted oncogenesis, whereas deletion of Mincle protected against oncogenesis and phenocopied the immunogenic reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment that was induced by RIP3 deletion. Cellular depletion suggested that whereas inhibitory macrophages promote tumorigenesis in PDA, they lose their immune-suppressive effects when RIP3 or Mincle is deleted. Accordingly, T cells, which are not protective against PDA progression in mice with intact RIP3 or Mincle signalling, are reprogrammed into indispensable mediators of anti-tumour immunity in the absence of RIP3 or Mincle. Our work describes parallel networks of necroptosis-induced CXCL1 and Mincle signalling that promote macrophage-induced adaptive immune suppression and thereby enable PDA progression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833566/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833566/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seifert, Lena -- Werba, Gregor -- Tiwari, Shaun -- Giao Ly, Nancy Ngoc -- Alothman, Sara -- Alqunaibit, Dalia -- Avanzi, Antonina -- Barilla, Rocky -- Daley, Donnele -- Greco, Stephanie H -- Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro -- Pergamo, Matthew -- Ochi, Atsuo -- Zambirinis, Constantinos P -- Pansari, Mridul -- Rendon, Mauricio -- Tippens, Daniel -- Hundeyin, Mautin -- Mani, Vishnu R -- Hajdu, Cristina -- Engle, Dannielle -- Miller, George -- CA155649/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA168611/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA193111/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA168611/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA193111/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):245-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17403. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉S. Arthur Localio Laboratory, Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049944" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Animals ; Apoptosis/drug effects ; *Carcinogenesis/drug effects ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Chemokine CXCL1/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Disease Progression ; Female ; GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Humans ; *Immune Tolerance ; Lectins, C-Type/immunology/*metabolism ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/immunology/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Necrosis ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*immunology/metabolism/*pathology ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Up-Regulation
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  • 26
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):140. doi: 10.1038/531140a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961620" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Directed Molecular Evolution/methods ; Dual Use Research/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence ; Embryo Research/ethics ; *Genetic Engineering/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence/trends ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics/ethics/trends ; Germ-Line Mutation/ethics/genetics ; Government Regulation ; Humans ; Public Opinion ; Risk Assessment ; *Security Measures/legislation & jurisprudence ; United States
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Circadian clocks are fundamental to the biology of most eukaryotes, coordinating behaviour and physiology to resonate with the environmental cycle of day and night through complex networks of clock-controlled genes. A fundamental knowledge gap exists, however, between circadian gene expression cycles and the biochemical mechanisms that ultimately facilitate circadian regulation of cell biology. Here we report circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions, [Mg(2+)]i, which act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga that diverged from each other more than 1 billion years ago. Given the essential role of Mg(2+) as a cofactor for ATP, a functional consequence of [Mg(2+)]i oscillations is dynamic regulation of cellular energy expenditure over the daily cycle. Mechanistically, we find that these rhythms provide bilateral feedback linking rhythmic metabolism to clock-controlled gene expression. The global regulation of nucleotide triphosphate turnover by intracellular Mg(2+) availability has potential to impact upon many of the cell's more than 600 MgATP-dependent enzymes and every cellular system where MgNTP hydrolysis becomes rate limiting. Indeed, we find that circadian control of translation by mTOR is regulated through [Mg(2+)]i oscillations. It will now be important to identify which additional biological processes are subject to this form of regulation in tissues of multicellular organisms such as plants and humans, in the context of health and disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feeney, Kevin A -- Hansen, Louise L -- Putker, Marrit -- Olivares-Yanez, Consuelo -- Day, Jason -- Eades, Lorna J -- Larrondo, Luis F -- Hoyle, Nathaniel P -- O'Neill, John S -- van Ooijen, Gerben -- 093734/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_1201/4/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):375-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17407. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, UK. ; Millennium Nucleus for Fungal Integrative and Synthetic Biology, Departamento de Genetica Molecular y Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile. ; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. ; School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Chlorophyta/cytology/metabolism ; Circadian Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics/*physiology ; *Energy Metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Intracellular Space/metabolism ; Magnesium/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbott, Alison -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):294-7. doi: 10.1038/531294a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983522" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease/*etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Amyloid/administration & dosage/adverse effects/chemistry/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/administration & dosage/adverse ; effects/chemistry/metabolism ; Animals ; Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/epidemiology/etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Drug Contamination ; Great Britain/epidemiology ; Growth Hormone/administration & dosage ; Humans ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; Parkinson Disease/etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Prions/administration & dosage/adverse effects/chemistry/metabolism ; alpha-Synuclein/administration & dosage/adverse effects/chemistry/metabolism ; tau Proteins/metabolism
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abeliovich, Asa -- Rhinn, Herve -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):40-1. doi: 10.1038/nature17891. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology and Neurology, and the Taub Institute for Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096361" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Humans ; Parkinson Disease/*genetics ; alpha-Synuclein/*genetics
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Daniels, Julie T -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):309-10. doi: 10.1038/nature17305. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, London EC1V 9EL, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958834" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cataract/congenital/pathology/physiopathology/*therapy ; Cataract Extraction ; Cell Lineage ; Child ; Cornea/*cytology/*growth & development/physiology ; Corneal Transplantation ; Ectoderm/cytology ; Eye Proteins/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology ; Macaca ; Paired Box Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 1/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism ; Rabbits ; Recovery of Function ; Regeneration/*physiology ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology ; Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
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  • 31
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roth, Alvin E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):178. doi: 10.1038/532178a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stanford University, California, USA. He shared the 2012 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Lloyd Shapley.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075091" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Economics/*history ; Female ; *Game Theory ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; Male ; Marketing/history ; Marriage/psychology ; Mathematics/*history ; Nobel Prize ; United States
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):129-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26942239" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Awards and Prizes ; Career Mobility ; Child ; Child Care/economics/supply & distribution ; Congresses as Topic/economics ; Divorce ; Fellowships and Scholarships/economics ; Female ; Financing, Organized/economics ; Humans ; *Laboratories ; Male ; Parental Leave ; Parenting/psychology ; *Research Personnel/economics/psychology ; *Single Parent/psychology ; *Social Support ; Travel/economics ; Work Schedule Tolerance/psychology ; *Workplace
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Lymphoid tissue is a key reservoir established by HIV-1 during acute infection. It is a site associated with viral production, storage of viral particles in immune complexes, and viral persistence. Although combinations of antiretroviral drugs usually suppress viral replication and reduce viral RNA to undetectable levels in blood, it is unclear whether treatment fully suppresses viral replication in lymphoid tissue reservoirs. Here we show that virus evolution and trafficking between tissue compartments continues in patients with undetectable levels of virus in their bloodstream. We present a spatial and dynamic model of persistent viral replication and spread that indicates why the development of drug resistance is not a foregone conclusion under conditions in which drug concentrations are insufficient to completely block virus replication. These data provide new insights into the evolutionary and infection dynamics of the virus population within the host, revealing that HIV-1 can continue to replicate and replenish the viral reservoir despite potent antiretroviral therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramon -- Fryer, Helen R -- Bedford, Trevor -- Kim, Eun-Young -- Archer, John -- Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L -- Chung, Yoon-Seok -- Penugonda, Sudhir -- Chipman, Jeffrey G -- Fletcher, Courtney V -- Schacker, Timothy W -- Malim, Michael H -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Haase, Ashley T -- McLean, Angela R -- Wolinsky, Steven M -- AI1074340/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DA033773/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- G1000196/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM110749/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA033773/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):51-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16933. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60011, USA. ; Institute for Emerging Infections, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK. ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairao, Portugal. ; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; Division of AIDS, Center for Immunology and Pathology, Korea National Institutes of Health, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 28159, South Korea. ; Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Antiviral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Pharmacy, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA. ; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London SE21 7DN, UK. ; Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814962" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Carrier State/blood/*drug therapy/*virology ; Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects ; HIV Infections/blood/*drug therapy/*virology ; HIV-1/drug effects/genetics/*growth & development/isolation & purification ; Haplotypes/drug effects ; Humans ; Lymph Nodes/drug effects/virology ; Models, Biological ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Selection, Genetic/drug effects ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spatio-Temporal Analysis ; Time Factors ; *Viral Load/drug effects ; *Virus Replication/drug effects
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: Influenza pandemics occur unpredictably when zoonotic influenza viruses with novel antigenicity acquire the ability to transmit amongst humans. Host range breaches are limited by incompatibilities between avian virus components and the human host. Barriers include receptor preference, virion stability and poor activity of the avian virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in human cells. Mutants of the heterotrimeric viral polymerase components, particularly PB2 protein, are selected during mammalian adaptation, but their mode of action is unknown. We show that a species-specific difference in host protein ANP32A accounts for the suboptimal function of avian virus polymerase in mammalian cells. Avian ANP32A possesses an additional 33 amino acids between the leucine-rich repeats and carboxy-terminal low-complexity acidic region domains. In mammalian cells, avian ANP32A rescued the suboptimal function of avian virus polymerase to levels similar to mammalian-adapted polymerase. Deletion of the avian-specific sequence from chicken ANP32A abrogated this activity, whereas its insertion into human ANP32A, or closely related ANP32B, supported avian virus polymerase function. Substitutions, such as PB2(E627K), were rapidly selected upon infection of humans with avian H5N1 or H7N9 influenza viruses, adapting the viral polymerase for the shorter mammalian ANP32A. Thus ANP32A represents an essential host partner co-opted to support influenza virus replication and is a candidate host target for novel antivirals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710677/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710677/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Long, Jason S -- Giotis, Efstathios S -- Moncorge, Olivier -- Frise, Rebecca -- Mistry, Bhakti -- James, Joe -- Morisson, Mireille -- Iqbal, Munir -- Vignal, Alain -- Skinner, Michael A -- Barclay, Wendy S -- 087039/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/K002465/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BBS/E/I/00001708/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600006/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):101-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16474.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Section of Virology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Centre d'etudes d'agents Pathogenes et Biotechnologies pour la Sante (CPBS), FRE 3689, CNRS-UM, 34293 Montpellier, France. ; Avian Viral Diseases Programme, The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK. ; UMR INRA/Genetique Physiologie et Systemes d'Elevage, INRA, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738596" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Avian Proteins/*chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chickens/virology ; Cricetinae ; Cricetulus ; Dogs ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Viral ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/enzymology/genetics/physiology ; Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/enzymology/genetics/physiology ; Influenza A virus/*enzymology/genetics/physiology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; RNA Replicase/genetics/*metabolism ; Species Specificity ; Transcription, Genetic ; Viral Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Virus Replication
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fibre have a crucial involvement in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are notably reduced in the Western diet (high in fat and simple carbohydrates, low in fibre) compared with a more traditional diet. Here we show that changes in the microbiota of mice consuming a low-MAC diet and harbouring a human microbiota are largely reversible within a single generation. However, over several generations, a low-MAC diet results in a progressive loss of diversity, which is not recoverable after the reintroduction of dietary MACs. To restore the microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa in combination with dietary MAC consumption. Our data illustrate that taxa driven to low abundance when dietary MACs are scarce are inefficiently transferred to the next generation, and are at increased risk of becoming extinct within an isolated population. As more diseases are linked to the Western microbiota and the microbiota is targeted therapeutically, microbiota reprogramming may need to involve strategies that incorporate dietary MACs as well as taxa not currently present in the Western gut.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sonnenburg, Erica D -- Smits, Samuel A -- Tikhonov, Mikhail -- Higginbottom, Steven K -- Wingreen, Ned S -- Sonnenburg, Justin L -- R01-DK085025/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16504.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762459" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bacteroidetes/drug effects ; Diet/*adverse effects ; Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage ; Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fecal Microbiota Transplantation ; Female ; Fermentation/drug effects ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects ; Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects/microbiology ; Germ-Free Life ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Pedigree
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic variants associated with complex diseases, but mechanistic insights are impeded by a lack of understanding of how specific risk variants functionally contribute to the underlying pathogenesis. It has been proposed that cis-acting effects of non-coding risk variants on gene expression are a major factor for phenotypic variation of complex traits and disease susceptibility. Recent genome-scale epigenetic studies have highlighted the enrichment of GWAS-identified variants in regulatory DNA elements of disease-relevant cell types. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific changes in transcription factor binding are correlated with heritable alterations in chromatin state and considered a major mediator of sequence-dependent regulation of gene expression. Here we describe a novel strategy to functionally dissect the cis-acting effect of genetic risk variants in regulatory elements on gene expression by combining genome-wide epigenetic information with clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells. By generating a genetically precisely controlled experimental system, we identify a common Parkinson's disease associated risk variant in a non-coding distal enhancer element that regulates the expression of alpha-synuclein (SNCA), a key gene implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Our data suggest that the transcriptional deregulation of SNCA is associated with sequence-dependent binding of the brain-specific transcription factors EMX2 and NKX6-1. This work establishes an experimental paradigm to functionally connect genetic variation with disease-relevant phenotypes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soldner, Frank -- Stelzer, Yonatan -- Shivalila, Chikdu S -- Abraham, Brian J -- Latourelle, Jeanne C -- Barrasa, M Inmaculada -- Goldmann, Johanna -- Myers, Richard H -- Young, Richard A -- Jaenisch, Rudolf -- 1R01NS088538-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- 2R01MH104610-15/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS088538/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):95-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17939. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Whitehead Institute, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 31 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Masssachusetts 02118, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096366" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Brain/metabolism ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Engineering ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Parkinson Disease/*genetics ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism ; Risk ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; alpha-Synuclein/*genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world that demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the 'prevalence of rule violations' (PRV) based on country-level data from the year 2003 of corruption, tax evasion and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment. We conducted the experiments with 2,568 young participants (students) who, due to their young age in 2003, could not have influenced PRV in 2003. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty. The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values, and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences, but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817241/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817241/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gachter, Simon -- Schulz, Jonathan F -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):496-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17160. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. ; CESifo, Schackstrasse 4, 80539 Munich, Germany. ; IZA, Schaumburg-Lippe-Strasse 5-9, 53113 Bonn, Germany. ; Yale University, 1 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958830" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cultural Evolution ; *Deception ; Female ; Fraud/statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; *Internationality ; Male ; Models, Psychological ; Politics ; *Societies/economics ; Students/*psychology ; Taxes/statistics & numerical data ; *Virtues ; Young Adult
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: The general transcription factor IID (TFIID) plays a central role in the initiation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription by nucleating pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly at the core promoter. TFIID comprises the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAF1-13), which specifically interact with a variety of core promoter DNA sequences. Here we present the structure of human TFIID in complex with TFIIA and core promoter DNA, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy at sub-nanometre resolution. All core promoter elements are contacted by subunits of TFIID, with TAF1 and TAF2 mediating major interactions with the downstream promoter. TFIIA bridges the TBP-TATA complex with lobe B of TFIID. We also present the cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a fully assembled human TAF-less PIC. Superposition of common elements between the two structures provides novel insights into the general role of TFIID in promoter recognition, PIC assembly, and transcription initiation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856295/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856295/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Louder, Robert K -- He, Yuan -- Lopez-Blanco, Jose Ramon -- Fang, Jie -- Chacon, Pablo -- Nogales, Eva -- GM008295/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM63072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM063072/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):604-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17394. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; QB3 Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Molecular Biophysics and Integrative Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Biological Physical Chemistry, Rocasolano Physical Chemistry Institute, CSIC, Serrano 119, Madrid 28006, Spain. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007846" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cryoelectron Microscopy ; DNA/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; Protein Binding ; Substrate Specificity ; TATA Box/genetics ; TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; TATA-Box Binding Protein/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Transcription Factor TFIIA/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Transcription Factor TFIID/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; *Transcription Initiation, Genetic
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arnold, Carrie -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):292. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19755.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Specificity/immunology ; Antivenins/*biosynthesis/economics/genetics/immunology ; Horses/immunology ; Humans ; Immunization, Passive ; Mice ; Snake Bites/immunology/mortality/*therapy ; Snake Venoms/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/immunology ; Synthetic Biology/*methods/*trends
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Luo, Chi -- Puigserver, Pere -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):42-3. doi: 10.1038/531042a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, and in the Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935693" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/*drug effects ; Colonic Neoplasms/*pathology ; Diet, High-Fat/*adverse effects ; Female ; Humans ; Intestines/*pathology ; Male ; Stem Cells/*drug effects/*pathology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibney, Elizabeth -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):160-1. doi: 10.1038/532160a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075076" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; *Games, Experimental ; Humans ; *Intuition ; Mathematics ; Photic Stimulation ; *Problem Solving ; *Quantum Theory ; Video Games/*psychology
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beekes, Michael -- Thomzig, Achim -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):580. doi: 10.1038/531580a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Robert Koch Institute, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029268" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease/*etiology ; Animals ; Humans ; *Models, Biological
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martens, Eric C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):158-9. doi: 10.1038/529158a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762451" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Diet/*adverse effects ; *Extinction, Biological ; Female ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Humans ; Male
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology