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  • 1
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    London : Henry Stewart Talks
    Keywords: Biological Transport ; Mitochondria ; Mitochondrial pathology ; Proteins / Conformation ; Adenosine Diphosphate / metabolism ; Adenosine triphosphate / Metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Biological Transport, Active ; Calcium / metabolism ; Carrier Proteins ; Humans ; Mitochondria / metabolism ; Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases ; Mitochondrial Diseases ; Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins ; Mitochondrial Proteins ; Protein Conformation
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: The involvement of salt bridge networks in the transport mechanism -- Conformational changes in transport -- Involvement of mitochondrial carriers in human diseases -- Calcium regulation of transport
    Notes: Animated audio-visual presentation with synchronized narration.
    Pages: 1 online resource (1 streaming video file (46 min.) : color, sound).
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bender, Eric -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S62-4. doi: 10.1038/533S62a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis ; *Awards and Prizes ; Biomedical Research/economics/*manpower/*methods ; Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis/pathology ; *Competitive Behavior ; Cooperative Behavior ; Crowdsourcing/economics/*methods ; Datasets as Topic ; Drug Industry/economics/methods ; Humans ; Information Dissemination ; *Interdisciplinary Communication ; Internet/utilization ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation ; Prognosis ; Reproducibility of Results ; Smartphone/utilization ; Statistics as Topic ; Systems Biology/manpower/methods ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-26
    Description: Intracellular aggregation of the human amyloid protein alpha-synuclein is causally linked to Parkinson's disease. While the isolated protein is intrinsically disordered, its native structure in mammalian cells is not known. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to derive atomic-resolution insights into the structure and dynamics of alpha-synuclein in different mammalian cell types. We show that the disordered nature of monomeric alpha-synuclein is stably preserved in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. Under physiological cell conditions, alpha-synuclein is amino-terminally acetylated and adopts conformations that are more compact than when in buffer, with residues of the aggregation-prone non-amyloid-beta component (NAC) region shielded from exposure to the cytoplasm, which presumably counteracts spontaneous aggregation. These results establish that different types of crowded intracellular environments do not inherently promote alpha-synuclein oligomerization and, more generally, that intrinsic structural disorder is sustainable in mammalian cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Theillet, Francois-Xavier -- Binolfi, Andres -- Bekei, Beata -- Martorana, Andrea -- Rose, Honor May -- Stuiver, Marchel -- Verzini, Silvia -- Lorenz, Dorothea -- van Rossum, Marleen -- Goldfarb, Daniella -- Selenko, Philipp -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):45-50. doi: 10.1038/nature16531. Epub 2016 Jan 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉In-Cell NMR Laboratory, Department of NMR-supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin), Robert-Rossle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Department of Molecular Physiology and Cell Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin), Robert-Rossle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Cell Line ; Cytoplasm/chemistry/metabolism ; Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Intracellular Space/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Protein Conformation ; alpha-Synuclein/*chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):160-1. doi: 10.1038/nature16866. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology at Uppsala University, and the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endothelium, Vascular/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gilbert, Natasha -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S56-7. doi: 10.1038/531S56a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Affect ; Health Behavior ; Humans ; Mental Health/*statistics & numerical data ; *Nature ; Parks, Recreational/*statistics & numerical data ; Urban Population
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871315/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871315/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beura, Lalit K -- Hamilton, Sara E -- Bi, Kevin -- Schenkel, Jason M -- Odumade, Oludare A -- Casey, Kerry A -- Thompson, Emily A -- Fraser, Kathryn A -- Rosato, Pamela C -- Filali-Mouhim, Ali -- Sekaly, Rafick P -- Jenkins, Marc K -- Vezys, Vaiva -- Haining, W Nicholas -- Jameson, Stephen C -- Masopust, David -- 1R01AI111671/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI075168/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084913/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI111671/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI116678/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI075168/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI084913/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI116678/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):512-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17655. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA. ; Center for Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096360" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/*immunology ; Animals, Wild/*immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; *Environment ; Environmental Exposure ; Female ; Humans ; Immune System/*immunology ; Immunity/*immunology ; Immunity, Innate/immunology ; Immunologic Memory ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Mice ; *Models, Animal ; Phenotype ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Virus Diseases/immunology/virology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butler, Declan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):155-6. doi: 10.1038/532155a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075072" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Angola/epidemiology ; Animals ; Asia/epidemiology ; Child ; Cities/epidemiology ; Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data ; *Fear ; Haplorhini/virology ; Humans ; South America/epidemiology ; Strategic Stockpile/statistics & numerical data ; Vaccination/statistics & numerical data ; World Health Organization ; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/*transmission/virology ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage/supply & distribution
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butler, Declan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):153. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19502.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961637" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brazil/epidemiology ; Colombia/epidemiology ; Epidemiological Monitoring ; Female ; Humans ; Infant, Newborn ; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/*diagnosis/*epidemiology/virology ; Microcephaly/diagnosis/*epidemiology/*virology ; Pregnancy ; Zika Virus/*pathogenicity ; Zika Virus Infection/*complications/diagnosis/*epidemiology/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heuckeroth, Robert O -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):44-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16877. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute and the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Enteric Nervous System/*pathology ; Female ; Hirschsprung Disease/*drug therapy/*pathology ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*pathology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Chunxin -- Youle, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):288-9. doi: 10.1038/530288a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; *Energy Metabolism ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*physiology ; *Mitochondrial Dynamics ; *Stress, Physiological
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):138-9. doi: 10.1038/529138a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Animals ; Cats ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data/veterinary ; Dogs ; Ebolavirus/*isolation & purification ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/prevention & control/*veterinary/virology ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Livestock/virology ; Pets/virology ; Rodentia/virology ; Zoonoses/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):10-1. doi: 10.1038/529010a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chad/epidemiology ; Disease Eradication ; Dog Diseases/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission ; Dogs ; Dracunculiasis/*epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/*veterinary ; Dracunculus Nematode/*isolation & purification ; Drinking Water/parasitology/standards ; Humans ; Rivers/parasitology ; Zoonoses/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S53. doi: 10.1038/533S53a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167389" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Azepines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Industry ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Neglected Diseases ; *Open Access Publishing ; Triazoles ; Tropical Medicine
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S49. doi: 10.1038/531S49a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981725" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cities ; Climate Change ; Communicable Diseases ; Floods ; Humans ; Mental Health ; Stress, Psychological ; *Urban Health ; Urban Population
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):18. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Developmental Biology/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence/methods ; Embryo Research/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Embryo, Mammalian/embryology/metabolism ; Genetic Engineering/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*legislation & jurisprudence
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The eye is a complex organ with highly specialized constituent tissues derived from different primordial cell lineages. The retina, for example, develops from neuroectoderm via the optic vesicle, the corneal epithelium is descended from surface ectoderm, while the iris and collagen-rich stroma of the cornea have a neural crest origin. Recent work with pluripotent stem cells in culture has revealed a previously under-appreciated level of intrinsic cellular self-organization, with a focus on the retina and retinal cells. Moreover, we and others have demonstrated the in vitro induction of a corneal epithelial cell phenotype from pluripotent stem cells. These studies, however, have a single, tissue-specific focus and fail to reflect the complexity of whole eye development. Here we demonstrate the generation from human induced pluripotent stem cells of a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multi-zone (SEAM) of ocular cells. In some respects the concentric SEAM mimics whole-eye development because cell location within different zones is indicative of lineage, spanning the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium. It thus represents a promising resource for new and ongoing studies of ocular morphogenesis. The approach also has translational potential and to illustrate this we show that cells isolated from the ocular surface ectodermal zone of the SEAM can be sorted and expanded ex vivo to form a corneal epithelium that recovers function in an experimentally induced animal model of corneal blindness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hayashi, Ryuhei -- Ishikawa, Yuki -- Sasamoto, Yuzuru -- Katori, Ryosuke -- Nomura, Naoki -- Ichikawa, Tatsuya -- Araki, Saori -- Soma, Takeshi -- Kawasaki, Satoshi -- Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi -- Quantock, Andrew J -- Tsujikawa, Motokazu -- Nishida, Kohji -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):376-80. doi: 10.1038/nature17000. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Stem Cells and Applied Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Structural Biophysics Group, School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958835" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cornea/*cytology/*growth & development/physiology ; Corneal Transplantation ; Ectoderm/cytology ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Epithelium, Corneal/cytology ; Female ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Lens, Crystalline/cytology ; Mice ; Morphogenesis ; Phenotype ; Rabbits ; *Recovery of Function ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):141. doi: 10.1038/531141a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961621" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biomedical Research/ethics ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Family Planning Services ; Genetic Counseling ; Genetic Testing ; Health Services Accessibility/*ethics ; *Healthy Volunteers ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; *Huntington Disease/drug therapy/epidemiology/genetics ; Lobbying ; Quality of Life ; *Research Personnel ; *Residence Characteristics ; Venezuela/epidemiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bruggeman, Jeroen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075089" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cooperative Behavior ; Female ; Humans ; *Interpersonal Relations ; Male ; *Morals ; Punishment/*psychology ; *Religion and Psychology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wald, Chelsea -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S47. doi: 10.1038/533S47a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Austria ; Entrepreneurship/economics/organization & administration ; Humans ; Inventions/economics ; Inventors/economics/education/psychology ; Research/*economics/*organization & administration ; Research Personnel/economics/education/psychology ; *Technology Transfer ; Uncertainty
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yamada, Tadataka -- Ogawa, V Ayano -- Freire, Maria -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):29-31. doi: 10.1038/533029a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Global Health Risk Framework Commission, and venture partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners, Seattle, Washington, USA. ; Global Health Risk Framework Commission at the US National Academy of Medicine, Washington DC, USA. ; Global Health Risk Framework Commission, and president and executive director of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147017" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases, Emerging/economics/epidemiology/mortality/prevention & ; control ; Disaster Planning/*economics/trends ; Disease Outbreaks/*economics/prevention & control ; Global Health/economics/trends ; *Health Expenditures ; Humans ; Infection/*economics/*epidemiology/mortality ; International Cooperation ; Pandemics/economics/prevention & control ; Public Policy ; Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics ; Security Measures/*economics/trends ; Zika Virus
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 21
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cherp, Aleh -- Jewell, Jessica -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):36. doi: 10.1038/533036b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Central European University, Budapest, Hungary. ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Fukushima Nuclear Accident ; Humans ; Research/*trends
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  • 22
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pollock, Kevin -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S64-6. doi: 10.1038/531S64a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cities ; *City Planning ; Feedback ; Humans ; *Physics ; Plague/epidemiology ; Rats ; *Urbanization ; Vietnam/epidemiology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response, which involves activation of three transmembrane receptors, ATF6, PERK and IRE1alpha. Once activated, IRE1alpha recruits TRAF2 to the ER membrane to initiate inflammatory responses via the NF-kappaB pathway. Inflammation is commonly triggered when pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, detect tissue damage or microbial infection. However, it is not clear which PRRs have a major role in inducing inflammation during ER stress. Here we show that NOD1 and NOD2, two members of the NOD-like receptor family of PRRs, are important mediators of ER-stress-induced inflammation in mouse and human cells. The ER stress inducers thapsigargin and dithiothreitol trigger production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in a NOD1/2-dependent fashion. Inflammation and IL-6 production triggered by infection with Brucella abortus, which induces ER stress by injecting the type IV secretion system effector protein VceC into host cells, is TRAF2, NOD1/2 and RIP2-dependent and can be reduced by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholate or an IRE1alpha kinase inhibitor. The association of NOD1 and NOD2 with pro-inflammatory responses induced by the IRE1alpha/TRAF2 signalling pathway provides a novel link between innate immunity and ER-stress-induced inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869892/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869892/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Keestra-Gounder, A Marijke -- Byndloss, Mariana X -- Seyffert, Nubia -- Young, Briana M -- Chavez-Arroyo, Alfredo -- Tsai, April Y -- Cevallos, Stephanie A -- Winter, Maria G -- Pham, Oanh H -- Tiffany, Connor R -- de Jong, Maarten F -- Kerrinnes, Tobias -- Ravindran, Resmi -- Luciw, Paul A -- McSorley, Stephen J -- Baumler, Andreas J -- Tsolis, Renee M -- AI044170/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI076246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI076278/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI096528/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI109799/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI112258/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI117303/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM056765/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044170/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076278/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI096528/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI109799/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI112258/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI117303/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R25 GM056765/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):394-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17631. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, California 95616, USA. ; Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, California 95616, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007849" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Brucella abortus/immunology/pathogenicity ; Cell Line ; Dithiothreitol/pharmacology ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects/pathology ; *Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects ; Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Female ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation/chemically induced/*metabolism ; Interleukin-6/biosynthesis ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein/immunology/*metabolism ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/immunology/*metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects ; TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2/metabolism ; Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology ; Thapsigargin/pharmacology ; Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and subsequent loss of broader cognitive functions. Memory decline in the early stages of AD is mostly limited to episodic memory, for which the hippocampus has a crucial role. However, it has been uncertain whether the observed amnesia in the early stages of AD is due to disrupted encoding and consolidation of episodic information, or an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory information. Here we show that in transgenic mouse models of early AD, direct optogenetic activation of hippocampal memory engram cells results in memory retrieval despite the fact that these mice are amnesic in long-term memory tests when natural recall cues are used, revealing a retrieval, rather than a storage impairment. Before amyloid plaque deposition, the amnesia in these mice is age-dependent, which correlates with a progressive reduction in spine density of hippocampal dentate gyrus engram cells. We show that optogenetic induction of long-term potentiation at perforant path synapses of dentate gyrus engram cells restores both spine density and long-term memory. We also demonstrate that an ablation of dentate gyrus engram cells containing restored spine density prevents the rescue of long-term memory. Thus, selective rescue of spine density in engram cells may lead to an effective strategy for treating memory loss in the early stages of AD.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4847731/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4847731/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roy, Dheeraj S -- Arons, Autumn -- Mitchell, Teryn I -- Pignatelli, Michele -- Ryan, Tomas J -- Tonegawa, Susumu -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):508-12. doi: 10.1038/nature17172. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982728" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Alzheimer Disease/*pathology/*physiopathology ; Amnesia/pathology/physiopathology ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics ; Animals ; Dendritic Spines/pathology/physiology ; Dentate Gyrus/*cytology/pathology/*physiology/physiopathology ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Early Medical Intervention ; Humans ; Long-Term Potentiation ; Male ; Memory, Episodic ; Memory, Long-Term/*physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Optogenetics ; Plaque, Amyloid ; Presenilin-1/genetics ; Synapses/metabolism ; Transgenes/genetics ; tau Proteins/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roy, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):281. doi: 10.1038/530281d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Diseases/epidemiology/*microbiology ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/*microbiology ; Biodiversity ; Biological Evolution ; Endangered Species/statistics & numerical data ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Introduced Species/*statistics & numerical data
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Colonic epithelial cells are covered by thick inner and outer mucus layers. The inner mucus layer is free of commensal microbiota, which contributes to the maintenance of gut homeostasis. In the small intestine, molecules critical for prevention of bacterial invasion into epithelia such as Paneth-cell-derived anti-microbial peptides and regenerating islet-derived 3 (RegIII) family proteins have been identified. Although there are mucus layers providing physical barriers against the large number of microbiota present in the large intestine, the mechanisms that separate bacteria and colonic epithelia are not fully elucidated. Here we show that Ly6/PLAUR domain containing 8 (Lypd8) protein prevents flagellated microbiota invading the colonic epithelia in mice. Lypd8, selectively expressed in epithelial cells at the uppermost layer of the large intestinal gland, was secreted into the lumen and bound flagellated bacteria including Proteus mirabilis. In the absence of Lypd8, bacteria were present in the inner mucus layer and many flagellated bacteria invaded epithelia. Lypd8(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to intestinal inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Antibiotic elimination of Gram-negative flagellated bacteria restored the bacterial-free state of the inner mucus layer and ameliorated DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Lypd8(-/-) mice. Lypd8 bound to flagella and suppressed motility of flagellated bacteria. Thus, Lypd8 mediates segregation of intestinal bacteria and epithelial cells in the colon to preserve intestinal homeostasis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okumura, Ryu -- Kurakawa, Takashi -- Nakano, Takashi -- Kayama, Hisako -- Kinoshita, Makoto -- Motooka, Daisuke -- Gotoh, Kazuyoshi -- Kimura, Taishi -- Kamiyama, Naganori -- Kusu, Takashi -- Ueda, Yoshiyasu -- Wu, Hong -- Iijima, Hideki -- Barman, Soumik -- Osawa, Hideki -- Matsuno, Hiroshi -- Nishimura, Junichi -- Ohba, Yusuke -- Nakamura, Shota -- Iida, Tetsuya -- Yamamoto, Masahiro -- Umemoto, Eiji -- Sano, Koichi -- Takeda, Kiyoshi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):117-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17406. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. ; Department of Infection Metagenomics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Cell Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. ; Department of Bacterial Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027293" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Caco-2 Cells ; Cell Line ; Colitis/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Colon/*microbiology ; Dextran Sulfate ; Epithelium/*microbiology ; Female ; *Flagella ; GPI-Linked Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity/*physiology ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Inflammation/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/metabolism/*microbiology/secretion ; Male ; Mice ; Proteus mirabilis/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chu, Derrick M -- Aagaard, Kjersti M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):316-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17887. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics, Molecular and Cell Biology, and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Child, Preschool ; Chronic Disease ; Clostridium symbiosum/isolation & purification/physiology ; Diet/adverse effects/methods ; Feces/microbiology ; Female ; Germ-Free Life ; Growth Disorders/*diet therapy/etiology/*microbiology ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Infant ; Intestines/drug effects/*microbiology ; Liver/metabolism ; Malawi ; Malnutrition/complications/*diet therapy/*microbiology ; Mice ; Microbiota/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Milk, Human/chemistry/microbiology ; Mothers ; Oligosaccharides/analysis/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Ruminococcus/isolation & purification/physiology ; Somatomedins/biosynthesis ; Weight Gain/drug effects
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Purzycki, Benjamin Grant -- Apicella, Coren -- Atkinson, Quentin D -- Cohen, Emma -- McNamara, Rita Anne -- Willard, Aiyana K -- Xygalatas, Dimitris -- Norenzayan, Ara -- Henrich, Joseph -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):327-30. doi: 10.1038/nature16980. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Human Evolution, Cognition, and Culture, University of British Columbia, 1871 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. ; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Solomon Laboratories, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6241, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Human Sciences Building, 10 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. ; Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany. ; Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, 64 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PN, UK. ; Wadham College, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PN, UK. ; Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. ; Culture, and Development Laboratory, Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station #A8000, Austin, Texas 78712-0187, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, 354 Mansfield Road, Unit 1176, Storrs, Connecticut 06029, USA. ; Interacting Minds Centre, Aarhus University, Jens Chr. Skous Vej 4, building 1483, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark. ; LEVYNA, Masaryk University, Brno 60200, Czech Republic. ; Department of Economics, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. ; Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863190" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Altruism ; *Cooperative Behavior ; Ethnic Groups/psychology ; Female ; Games, Experimental ; Humans ; Internationality ; *Interpersonal Relations ; Interviews as Topic ; Logistic Models ; Male ; *Morals ; Odds Ratio ; Punishment/*psychology ; Random Allocation ; *Religion and Psychology ; Trust
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qiu, Jane -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):428-31. doi: 10.1038/532428a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Altitude ; Disasters/*prevention & control/*statistics & numerical data ; Earthquakes/mortality/*statistics & numerical data ; *Forecasting ; Humans ; Landslides/mortality/*statistics & numerical data ; Nepal ; Rain
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signalling through the sodium- and chloride-dependent reuptake of neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons. SERT is a target for antidepressant and psychostimulant drugs, which block reuptake and prolong neurotransmitter signalling. Here we report X-ray crystallographic structures of human SERT at 3.15 A resolution bound to the antidepressants (S)-citalopram or paroxetine. Antidepressants lock SERT in an outward-open conformation by lodging in the central binding site, located between transmembrane helices 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10, directly blocking serotonin binding. We further identify the location of an allosteric site in the complex as residing at the periphery of the extracellular vestibule, interposed between extracellular loops 4 and 6 and transmembrane helices 1, 6, 10 and 11. Occupancy of the allosteric site sterically hinders ligand unbinding from the central site, providing an explanation for the action of (S)-citalopram as an allosteric ligand. These structures define the mechanism of antidepressant action in SERT, and provide blueprints for future drug design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Coleman, Jonathan A -- Green, Evan M -- Gouaux, Eric -- 5R37MH070039/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH070039/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):334-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17629. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vollum Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049939" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation/drug effects ; Allosteric Site/drug effects ; Antidepressive Agents/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Citalopram/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry ; Drug Design ; Extracellular Space/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology ; Intracellular Space/metabolism ; Ions/chemistry/metabolism ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Paroxetine/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Binding/drug effects ; Protein Conformation/drug effects ; Protein Stability ; Serotonin/metabolism ; Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/immunology/*metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: HKU1 is a human betacoronavirus that causes mild yet prevalent respiratory disease, and is related to the zoonotic SARS and MERS betacoronaviruses, which have high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Cell tropism and host range is determined in part by the coronavirus spike (S) protein, which binds cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion. As the largest known class I fusion protein, its size and extensive glycosylation have hindered structural studies of the full ectodomain, thus preventing a molecular understanding of its function and limiting development of effective interventions. Here we present the 4.0 A resolution structure of the trimeric HKU1 S protein determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. In the pre-fusion conformation, the receptor-binding subunits, S1, rest above the fusion-mediating subunits, S2, preventing their conformational rearrangement. Surprisingly, the S1 C-terminal domains are interdigitated and form extensive quaternary interactions that occlude surfaces known in other coronaviruses to bind protein receptors. These features, along with the location of the two protease sites known to be important for coronavirus entry, provide a structural basis to support a model of membrane fusion mediated by progressive S protein destabilization through receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage. These studies should also serve as a foundation for the structure-based design of betacoronavirus vaccine immunogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860016/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860016/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kirchdoerfer, Robert N -- Cottrell, Christopher A -- Wang, Nianshuang -- Pallesen, Jesper -- Yassine, Hadi M -- Turner, Hannah L -- Corbett, Kizzmekia S -- Graham, Barney S -- McLellan, Jason S -- Ward, Andrew B -- R56 AI118016/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17200.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA. ; Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 40, Room 2502, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935699" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Coronavirus/*chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Humans ; Membrane Fusion ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/*chemistry/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Viral Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Virus Internalization
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kirk, Edwin P -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):173. doi: 10.1038/531173b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sydney Children's Hospital; University of New South Wales; and SEALS Laboratories, Randwick, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961646" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/*virology ; Animals ; Female ; Humans ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; Pregnancy ; Virology/*trends ; Zika Virus/*pathogenicity ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/beta-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Zinan -- Tang, Alan T -- Wong, Weng-Yew -- Bamezai, Sharika -- Goddard, Lauren M -- Shenkar, Robert -- Zhou, Su -- Yang, Jisheng -- Wright, Alexander C -- Foley, Matthew -- Arthur, J Simon C -- Whitehead, Kevin J -- Awad, Issam A -- Li, Dean Y -- Zheng, Xiangjian -- Kahn, Mark L -- P01 HL075215/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL120846/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL-084516/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS075168/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32HL07439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):122-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17178. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Laboratory of Cardiovascular Signaling, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Neurovascular Surgery Program, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Sydney Microscopy &Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Division of Cell Signaling and Immunology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. ; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. ; The Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study of Sichuan Province, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences &Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, China. ; Faculty of Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027284" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Endothelial Cells/enzymology/*metabolism ; Female ; Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System/etiology/*metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3/deficiency/*metabolism ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; rho GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 34
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):127. doi: 10.1038/529127a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762420" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology/*legislation & jurisprudence/psychology ; Evidence-Based Practice ; Female ; Great Britain/epidemiology ; Guidelines as Topic ; Health Behavior ; Health Policy/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Humans ; Male ; *Policy Making
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  • 35
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):5. doi: 10.1038/529005a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738571" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bibliometrics ; *Cooperative Behavior ; Developed Countries ; Developing Countries ; *Group Processes ; Humans ; *International Cooperation ; Research/manpower/*organization & administration
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
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  • 37
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):264. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19335.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887470" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Feed/*analysis/standards ; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory/genetics/microbiology ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; Diet/standards/veterinary ; *Environment ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; *Housing, Animal ; Humans ; Lighting ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Models, Animal ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Research Design/standards
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zink, Katherine D -- Lieberman, Daniel E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature16990. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bite Force ; Carnivory ; Diet/*history ; Female ; Food Handling/*history ; Goats ; History, Ancient ; Hominidae ; Humans ; Male ; Mastication/*physiology ; Meat/*history ; Particle Size ; Plants ; Tool Use Behavior ; Tooth/physiology
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  • 39
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dance, Amber -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S2-3. doi: 10.1038/531S2a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Amphetamines/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Animals ; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology ; Biomedical Enhancement/ethics/*methods ; Caffeine/pharmacology ; Child ; Cognition/drug effects ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Intelligence/*drug effects ; Intelligence Tests ; Methylphenidate/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Nicotine/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Norepinephrine/metabolism ; Off-Label Use ; Performance-Enhancing Substances/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects/physiology ; Rats ; Substance-Related Disorders/etiology ; Video Games/psychology
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roth, Alvin E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):178. doi: 10.1038/532178a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stanford University, California, USA. He shared the 2012 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Lloyd Shapley.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075091" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Economics/*history ; Female ; *Game Theory ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; Male ; Marketing/history ; Marriage/psychology ; Mathematics/*history ; Nobel Prize ; United States
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Promoters are DNA sequences that have an essential role in controlling gene expression. While recent whole cancer genome analyses have identified numerous hotspots of somatic point mutations within promoters, many have not yet been shown to perturb gene expression or drive cancer development. As such, positive selection alone may not adequately explain the frequency of promoter point mutations in cancer genomes. Here we show that increased mutation density at gene promoters can be linked to promoter activity and differential nucleotide excision repair (NER). By analysing 1,161 human cancer genomes across 14 cancer types, we find evidence for increased local density of somatic point mutations within the centres of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in gene promoters. Mutated DHSs were strongly associated with transcription initiation activity, in which active promoters but not enhancers of equal DNase I hypersensitivity were most mutated relative to their flanking regions. Notably, analysis of genome-wide maps of NER shows that NER is impaired within the DHS centre of active gene promoters, while XPC-deficient skin cancers do not show increased promoter mutation density, pinpointing differential NER as the underlying cause of these mutation hotspots. Consistent with this finding, we observe that melanomas with an ultraviolet-induced DNA damage mutation signature show greatest enrichment of promoter mutations, whereas cancers that are not highly dependent on NER, such as colon cancer, show no sign of such enrichment. Taken together, our analysis has uncovered the presence of a previously unknown mechanism linking transcription initiation and NER as a major contributor of somatic point mutation hotspots at active gene promoters in cancer genomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Perera, Dilmi -- Poulos, Rebecca C -- Shah, Anushi -- Beck, Dominik -- Pimanda, John E -- Wong, Jason W H -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):259-63. doi: 10.1038/nature17437.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Prince of Wales Clinical School and Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052, Australia. ; Department of Haematology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney 2031, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075100" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Colonic Neoplasms/genetics ; DNA Damage/genetics ; DNA Repair/*genetics/radiation effects ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics ; Melanoma/genetics ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; *Mutation Rate ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; *Transcription Initiation, Genetic ; Ultraviolet Rays
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  • 42
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉DeWeerdt, Sarah -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S52-3. doi: 10.1038/531S52a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981727" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data ; Automobiles/statistics & numerical data ; Cities/statistics & numerical data ; City Planning/*trends ; Health Behavior ; Humans ; Public Policy ; Sedentary Lifestyle ; Transportation/methods/statistics & numerical data ; Urban Health/trends ; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data/*trends ; Walking/*statistics & numerical data/*trends
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Santarem, Frederico -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources (CIBIO/InBIO), Porto, Portugal.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075086" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Beekeeping/economics ; Bees/physiology ; Ecosystem ; Europe ; Humans ; *Introduced Species/economics ; *Pollination ; Predatory Behavior/physiology ; Wasps/pathogenicity/*physiology
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  • 44
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ledford, Heidi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):425. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19801.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121818" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉