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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (3,750)
  • Immunohistochemistry  (140)
  • 1990-1994  (3,890)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
  • 1992  (3,890)
Collection
Publisher
Years
  • 1990-1994  (3,890)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopamine-rich transplants ; Fos protein ; Nigrostriatal system ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of the present experiment was to characterize the effect of intrastriatal grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurones on the expression of Fos protein in the striatum when challenged with amphetamine. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway were made in adult rats and grafting was performed 3 weeks later. The numbers of Fos-positive nuclei in the ipsi- and contralateral striata were counted on coronal sections following immunohistochemical staining 5 months after grafting. Administration of d-amphetamine induced an increase in the density of Fospositive nuclei in the intact striatum. This stimulatory effect of amphetamine on c-fos expression was blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide lesions and was restored in the striata bearing transplants. However, an overshoot was observed as the density of Fos-positive cells within the grafted striatum was larger than that observed within the intact striatum. This hyperexpression of Fos-positive nuclei was correlated with the exaggerated compensation of amphetamine-induced rotation in the same animals.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hemiparkinsonism ; MPTP ; Dopaminergic neurons ; Mechanographic electromyographic studies ; Immunohistochemistry ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A single infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP) into the right internal carotid artery of Macaca mulatta, monkeys resulted in akinesia and rigidity of the contralateral limb. The immunohistochemical study revealed a dramatic reduction in the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the substantia nigra of the infused side (70–81%). After unilateral MPTP-treatment movement parameters and EMG activity were altered; the agonist muscle developed increased EMG activity associated with a shift of antagonist muscle activity. These results confirm that hemiparkinsonian monkeys are a valuable model of parkinsonism which can be useful in studies of movement disorder physiology and therapy of Parkinson's disease.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphoadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies performed in only a few cases of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphoadenopathy (SHML) indicated that SHML cells belong to themacrophage — histiocyte system, though their exact origin is still uncertain. We analyzed the morphological, antigenic and enzymatic characteristics of the histiocyte-like cells in one paediatric case of SHML (also named Rosai-Dorfman disease). The SHML cells expressed the S-100 protein, lectins concanavalin A, peanut agglutinin andmonocyte-macrophage related antigens CD 11c, CD 14, CD 33, CD 68 and LN 5. Reactivity with other anti-macrophage antibodies (MAC 387, lysozyme, alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin) was variable. The CD1a antigen was present only in scattered cells, whereas HLA-DR and the HLA-DR associated invariant chain were absent. Cytochemistry demonstrated an intense activity of acid phosphatase and non specific esterase of SHML cells. A large amount of medium sized mononuclear cells were located in the sinuses and intersinusoidal tissue. Our findings suggest that SHML cells have intermediate features between phagocytes and Langerhans cells/interdigitating reticulum cells. The heterogeneity of marker expression on SHML cells might be related to the local content of factors (e.g., cytokines), capable of modulating the phenotype of monocyted and derived cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebral cortex of man ; Morphology of white matter neurons ; Subplate cells ; Golgi method ; Immunohistochemistry ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurons in the human cerebral cortical white matter below motor, visual, auditory and prefrontal orbital areas have been studied with the Golgi method, immunohistochemistry and diaphorase histochemistry. The majority of white matter neurons are pyramidal cells displaying the typical polarized, spiny dendritic system. The morphological variety includes stellate forms as well as bipolar pyramidal cells, and the expression of a certain morphological phenotype seems to depend on the position of the neuron. Spineless nonpyramidal neurons with multipolar to bitufted dendritic fields constitute less than 10% of the nuerons stained for microtubule associated protein (MAP-2). Only 3% of the MAP-2 immunoreactive neurons display nicotine adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase activity. The white matter pyramidal neurons are arranged in radial rows continuous with the columns of layer VI neurons. Neuron density is highest below layer VI, and decreases with increasing distance from the gray matter. White matter neurons are especially abundant below the primary motor cortex, and are least frequent below the visual cortex area 17. In contrast to other mammalian species, the white matter neurons in man are not only present during development, but persist throughout life.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hippocampus ; Delayed neuronal death ; Neurofilament ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gerbil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of neurofilament (NF) proteins was studied immunohistochemically in the gerbil hippocampus with antibodies against NF68 (68 Kd molecular weight) and NF200 proteins, and changes in the distribution of NF proteins after transient ischemia were observed in order to investigate the temporal correlation between NF and delayed neuronal death. In the normal hippocampus, NF68-like immunoreactivity (NF68-LI) was densely distributed in nerve processes in CA2, CA3 and the hilus of the dentate gyrus but was less intense in CA1. In contrast, processes with NF200-LI appeared to be evenly distributed in CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. Mongolian gerbils were subjected to transient ischemia for 5 min by bilateral carotid occlusion and subjected to immunohistochemistry 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after ischemia. Following transient ischemia, prior to neuronal cell death, the intensity of both NF68-LI and NF200-LI decreased in the whole hippocampal formation. This decrease was more obvious in the case of NF68-LI than NF200-LI. Four days after ischemia, when neuronal death of CA1 pyramidal cells had occurred, processes in CA1, particularly 68 Kd components, showed marked decreases in number and staining intensity, although processes in most layers of CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus appeared to be stained similarly to normal brain. Since NF68 protein is considered to be the major component of NF proteins and NF200 is an associated accessory protein, the current observations suggest that the poor distribution of NF68 in CA1 and the early loss of NF proteins may be closely related to selective vulnerability of CA1 pyramidal cells and delayed neuronal death.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibule ; Calretinin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Vestibular primary neuron ; Mammalian
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunohistochemical investigations with calretinin, a neuronal calcium binding protein, were made in the vestibular end organs of five guinea pigs and one chinchilla. A specific pattern of immunoreactivity of afferent nerve fibers was found. Immunostaining was restricted to thick fibers innervating the apex of the cristae or the striola of the utricular macula. A study of serial sections revealed that the stained afferents gave rise to calyx endings, but not to collaterals containing bouton endings. The results are consistent with the conclusion that, of the three classes of fibers defined by Fernendez et al. (1988, 1990), only calyx units are calretinin immunoreactive. A count of the number of labelled fibers in the chinchilla crista suggests that the entire population of calyx units is immunoreactive. The conclusion is surprising since the physiology of calyx units does not differ qualitatively from that of other afferents (Baird et al. 1988; Goldberg et al. 1990). The presence of this protein in the calyx neurons may be related to specific postsynaptic functions of this type of afferents.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Contraction bands ; Smooth muscle ; Intestinal infarction ; Ischaemic damage ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied microscopic sections of 24 cases of intestinal infarction looking for contraction bands (CB) in the muscularis propria of the bowel wall. Controls were 11 surgical and 11 autopsy cases from patients who did not suffer any form of ischaemic disease. The difference of CB frequency was significant (P〈0.001) in infarction versus the surgical control group. Moreover, within the study group the CB frequency was also related to the severity of the ischaemic lesion (P〈0.01). With immunostaining, CB were not reactive with antibodies against vimentin, desmin, actin or myosin. We propose that CB genesis in intestinal smooth muscle is related to hypoxia, possibly through altered homeostasis of calcium and catecholamine metabolism.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Leiomyoma ; Myometrium ; Cytoskeleton ; Ultrastructure ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The filamentous components of the cytoskeleton in smooth muscle cells of leiomyomata and normal myometrium were studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Fourteen patients hysterectomised for non-malignant disease provided leiomyomata of conventional histological type and histologically normal myometrium: four samples of fetal myometrium were studied by immunohistochemistry alone. All samples of leiomyoma and myometrium were strongly positive for α-smooth muscle actin and desmin, the latter often as paranuclear columns or granules. Vimentin was also stained in most samples but less intensely, while cytokeratin stained in about half the samples with an intensity comparable to that of vimentin. By electron microscopy, myofilaments with focal densities were abundant in both normal myometrium and leiomyomata. Intermediate filaments corresponding to the desmin and vimentin demonstrated by immunohistochemistry were also recognised in a variety of architectural arrangements. At one extreme, comparatively small numbers of filaments were loosely distributed around membranous organelles; at the other, filaments formed conspicuous aggregates, largely excluding other organelles and corresponding to the paranuclear granules seen by immunohistochemistry. A comparison of these findings with those of the literature and comments on the possible significance and origin of these aggregates are provided.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry ; Proliferating cell nuclear antigen ; Cancer ; Oral pre-cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and immunohistochemical detection of the protein represents a useful marker for the proliferating fraction of cells in tissue specimens. A series of malignant and pre-malignant lesions of the oral cavity and skin were evaluated by the streptavidin biotin immunoperoxidase method for detection of this protein. Monoclonal anti-PCNA antibody (PC 10) labelled proliferating cells in all cases with varying intensity of nuclear staining. In squamous cell carcinoma (n=48), PCNA positivity correlated with the differentiation and atypia of the tumour cells; however, in poorly differentiated tumours, the relationship between PCNA expression and proliferation was lost. Basal cell carcinoma showed an increased growth fraction in tiny epithelial nests (mean 43.8, SD 6.0,n=20) than in neoplastic basal cells (mean 30.1, SD 6.9,n=8). The growth fractions were significantly higher in the pre-malignant lesions (leukoplakia, mean 22.3, SD 7.7,n=14; Bowen's disease, mean 45.2, SD 11.7,n=12; senile keratosis, mean 41.2, SD 7.0,n=12) than in the normal mucosa (mean 9.8, SD 4.9,n=10), suggesting that cellular growth fractions correlate with the degree of dysplasia in pre-malignant lesions.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 420 (1992), S. 425-431 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Basement membrane proteins ; Type IV collagen ; Laminin ; Salivary gland tumours ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunohistochemical localization of type IV collagen and laminin in normal salivary glands and in salivary gland tumours of various types was studied using rabbit antisera. In normal salivary glands, type IV collagen and laminin were co-localized in basement membranes surrounding acini, ducts, fat cells and peripheral nerves. In salivary gland tumours, three main patterns of co-expression of these basement membrane proteins were distinguished. Linear basement membrane-like staining was detected in duct-cell-derived benign salivary gland tumours and in acinic cell carcinomas. In invasive lesions, however, these basement membrane proteins were distributed in an irregular, interrupted manner, and in many cases they were completely absent. Both benign and malignant salivary gland tumours which have a prominent myoepithelial cell component display a particular deposition of basement membrane molecules adjacent to the modified myoepithelial cells, and at the margins of extracellular matrix deposits within these tumours.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Peripheral nervous system tumours ; Vascular permeability ; Serum proteins ; Immunohistochemistry ; Neurofibromatosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Vascular permeability changes were examined in 34 tumours of the peripheral nervous system by immunohistochemical demonstration of serum proteins as endogenous tracers. The blood-tumour barrier was impaired in the reticular (Antoni type B) portions of neurinomas (Schwannomas) and in cutaneous neurofibromas but was similar to the normal blood-nerve barrier in fibrillary (Antoni type A) neurinomas, in most neurofibromas, in ganglioneuromas and in anaplastic tumours. These differences in permeability are discussed in relation to aspects of pathological tumour vascularization, the histogenesis of microcystic changes, and systemic therapeutic approaches.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Thromboxane ; Thromboxane synthase ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mononuclear phagocyte system ; Epithelia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using the monoclonal antibody Tü 300 we localized thromboxane synthase, a secondary enzyme of the arachidonic acid cascade, employing the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method and indirect double labelling immunofluorescence in frozen sections of human tissues. Aside from platelets, the source of the antigen, all cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system were positive, including epithelioid cells and associated giant cells, starry sky macrophages, dendritic cells of T-cell areas, Langerhans cells and Kupffer cells. In addition, some epithelial cells such as epithelia of tonsillar crypts, reticular epithelia of the thymic cortex and ductular epithelia in liver, pancreas, female breast and salivary glands showed occasional focal reactivity for thromboxane synthase. We suggest that the mAb Tü 300 is a key marker for the macrophage system and the thromboxane generating system in normal and pathological conditions. It may detect functional activities of as yet unknown significance in some specialized epithelial cells.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Composite lymphoma ; Hodgkin's disease ; Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Composite lymphomas have rarely been reported in Hodgkin's disease (HD), except in the lymphocyte predominance sub-type, and immunohistochemical investigations have been performed in only few cases. We describe the histological and immunophenotypical findings in a case of composite nodular sclerosing HD and high-grade, large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In our case HD and NHL cells displayed striking morphological and immunophenotypical divergence, suggesting a lack of correlation between the two neoplasms.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Small cell carcinoma ; Ovary ; Immunohistochemistry ; Ultrastructure ; Literature review
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This is an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two small cell carcinomas of the ovary with a review of the literature. These cases showed a dimorphic population of small and large cells sharply demarcated from each other. Cytokeratin 18 and vimentin were mainly expressed in the large tumour cells, some of which also stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin. Periodic-acid-Schiff-positive, alpha-1-antitrypsin-positive hyaline globules were present in one case. Ultrastructural findings included filamentous nucleolonema as well as evidence of smooth muscle differentiation. Some of these observations have not been previously reported. Certain of the above features seem to support a germ cell origin of small cell carcinoma, but they cannot be considered specific for germ cell neoplasms. Thus, small cell carcinoma of the ovary cannot be classified into one of the known categories of ovarian tumours at the present time.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Chondroblastoma ; Bone tumours ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical and morphological findings of 53 chondroblastomas in the files of the Bone Tumour Registry of Westphalia are presented. The mean age of all patients was 19.2 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5∶1. Forty-two of the tumours (79.8%) were located in the long tubular bones and short tubular bones of the hands and were closely related to the growth plate. Six cases (11.3%) were found in the flat bones, 4 cases (7.5%) in the tarsal bones and 1 case (1.9%) in the craniofacial bones. The characteristic radiological feature of 44 investigated lesions was a mostly eccentric radiolucency with a geographic pattern of bone destruction and matrix calcifications. Periosteal reaction was evident in 9% of the cases. Most tumours demonstrate the typical morphological features of chondroblastoma, but 3 cases resembled a giant cell tumour. In 2 cases a haemangio-pericytomalike growth pattern was observed. Nine of the tumours had an aneurysmal bone cyst-like component. Vascular invasion was seen in 1 case. Immunohistochemically most cells in 30 of the cases and fetal chondroblasts in 3 cases were strongly positive with vimentin and S-100 protein. Collagen type II was positive in the chondroid matrix of the tumours and in fetal cartilage tissue; collagen type VI was present focally around individual tumour cells and was always seen in the chondroid matrix of the lesions and in fetal cartilage. These findings support the cartilaginous nature of these tumours. In paraffin sections, 46.6% of the cases revealed a distinct positive reaction of some tumour cells with the monoclonal cytokeratin antibody KL1 (molecular weight 55–57 kDa). Only 4 of them demonstrated a coexpression with the other monoclonal cytokeratin anti-body CK (clone MNF 116, molecular weight 45–56.5 kDa). In paraffin sections all fetal chondroblasts were negative with both cytokeratin antibodies. Frozen sections of 3 tumours showed a strong positive reaction with both cytokeratin antibodies in many chondroblasts, indicating an “aberrant” cytokeratin expression. Osteoclast-like giant cells stained positive with leucocyte-common antigen (LCA) and with the macrophage-associated antibody KP1, but were negative with the other macrophage-associated antibody MAC 387. Recurrence rate was 10.7%. The clinical course of all tumours was benign.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 8 (1992), S. 326-331 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Medulloblastomas ; Immunohistochemistry ; Cytokeratins ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-five paraffin-embedded medulloblastomas (19 from children and 16 from adults; 24 classic medulloblastomas, 10 desmoplastic medulloblastomas, 1 tumor with neuronal differentiation) were examined for reactions with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cytokeratins KL1 and MNF116, desmin, and vimentin. Only the tumor from the youngest patient, a 152-day-old boy, showed a positive immunoreaction for cytokeratins. Because of this age-related expression of cytokeratins in medulloblastomas primarily in very young children, cytokeratin positivity was interpreted as a sign of tumor immaturity. Five medulloblastomas showed scattered GFAP-positive reactive astrocytes and/or other positive, probably neoplastic, cells. Only two tumors showed GFAP immunoreactivity in unequivocally neoplastic cells. Of six tumors that reacted with vimentin, three showed strong reactivity throughout, one being the tumor from the 152-day-old boy. The remaining three demonstrated nests of vimentin-positive cells with weak or intense somatic immunoreactivity for vimentin. None of the 35 cases showed positivity for desmin, indicating that mesenchymal differentiation is restricted to the rare so-called medullomyoblastomas.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Congenital brain tumor ; Ependymoma ; Immunohistochemistry ; Intant brain tumor ; Intracerebral hemorrhage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from an occipital ependymoma grade 2 in a 3-month-old boy is reported. The infant died 3 days after surgery. The clinical and pathomorphological characteristics are described. Despite the usually rich vascularization of these tumors, hemorrhages from inracranial ependymomas are relatively uncommon. The different forms and probable cause of bleedings are discussed.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Gastric cancer ; E-cadherin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Cancer invasion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary E-cadherin (ECD) is one of subclasses of the cadherin family which plays a major role in the maintenance of intercellular adhesion in epithelial tissues. An immunohistochemical study of ECD expression was performed on gastric adenocarcinoma from 103 patients using our monoclonal antibody for human ECD (HECD-1). ECD was strongly expressed in normal gastric epithelium without exception; however, various staining patterns were observed in cancer tissues. The frequency of tumours with preserved ECD expression (Pre-type) and reduced ECD expression (Rd-type) was 42% and 58% respectively. Tumours with a high frequency of Rd-type expression particularly included: undifferentiated tumours (85%, 46/54), Borrmann's type 4 (90%, 9/10), tumours larger than 2.6 cm in diameter (65%, 53/81), tumours invading beyond the subserosa layer (78%, 46/59), and tumours with infiltrative growth (87%, 41/47). Furthermore, the frequency of Rd-type expression in cases with peritoneal dissemination (82%, 9/11) or lymph node metastasis (73%, 43/59) was significantly higher than that in cases without dissemination or metastasis. These results suggest that ECD might play a key role in the genesis of histological differentiation, and that the reduction of ECD expression may affect the mode of invasion and metastasis of human gastric cancer cells.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Testis ; Sex cord-stromal tumors ; Immunohistochemistry ; Steroidogenesis ; Intermediate filaments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied immunolocalization of all steroidogenic enzyme involved in sex steroids biosynthesis, P-450 side chain cleavage (P-450scc), 3β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD),P-450 17α hydroxylase (P-45014α) andP-450 aromatase (P-450arom) and that of vimentin and cytokeratin in 14 cases of testicular sex cord-stromal tumours (6 Leydig cell tumours, 5 Sertoli cell tumours, 2 fibromas and 1 granulosa cell tumour) as well as 4 cases of hyperplasia (2 Leydig and 2 Sertoli). Leydig cell tumour expressed all four steroidogenic enzymes examined, indicating that this tumour can synthesize oestrogen from cholesterol. In 2 cases of Sertoli cell tumour, the tumour cells with clear cytoplasm and without Reinke's crystals expressedP-450ssc, 3β-HSD andP-45017α, suggesting the capability of androgen production in these tumour cells. Fibromas and granulosa cell tumour were negative for the enzymes examined. In immunohistochemistry of intermediate filaments, Leydig cell tumours demonstrated only vimentin. Sertoli cells in hyperplasia and non-neoplastic testis expressed only vimentin but Sertoli cell tumours expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity was correlated with morphological epithelial differentiation in Sertoli cell tumour. These findings in testicular Sertoli cell tumour are considered to represent the multiple differentiation capacity of this neoplasm. Immunohisto-chemical study of steroidogenic enzymes and intermediate filaments provided new insight into neoplastic steroidogenesis and the differentiation capacity of testicular sex cordstromal neoplasms.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 421 (1992), S. 379-385 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Multicystic mesothelial proliferation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Ultrastructure ; DNA analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We investigated the clinicopathological findings in five cases of multicystic mesothelial proliferation (MMP). All masses consisted of multiloculated cysts attached to pelvic organs and sometimes growing into the upper abdominal cavity. The cystic spaces were lined by flattened or cuboidal cells. The stroma showed fibrosis, oedema and chronic inflammation. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive staining for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen, and focal positivity for vimentin and carcinoembryonic antigen. The endothelial markers were negative. Electron microscopy showed abundant surface microvilli and well-developed basal lamina. DNA analysis identified euploid cell populations in all cases. All but one case had a previous history of abdominal surgery. Despite the worrying appearance the clinical outcome was favourable in all cases; there was one recurrence. Clinical and pathological data support the hypothesis that MMP represent a reactive mesothelial proliferation and not a neoplastic process.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Urinary bladder ; Carcinosarcoma ; Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma ; Neuroendocrine differentiation ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinicopathological features of two carcinosarcomas of the urinary bladder are reported. The tumours occurred in a 64- and a 66-year-old patient presenting with haematuria and both were polypoid. The epithelial component was consistent with small cell undifferentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, whereas the sarcomatous component did not display specific features. The carcinomatous component showed immunohistochemical reactivity for different epithelial markers as well as for chromogranin and neuron specific enolase. Conversely, the sarcomatous cells stained strongly for vimentin and in one case for muscle actin and smooth muscle actin. The differential diagnosis of biphasic tumours of the bladder is discussed and the literature reviewed.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Cystatin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Pancreas ; Gut ; Endocrine tumours ; Adenocarcinomas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The occurrence of immunoreactive cystatin C (CC) in normal and neoplastic cells of the human pancreas and gut was investigated using an indirect streptavidin-biotin method on formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Virtually all pancreatic islet cells and many neuroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract showed strong CC immunoreactivity and a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. All 14 endocrine pancreatic tumours (insulinomas, glucagonomas, gastrinomas and non-producing tumours), as well as 16 of 17 gut carcinoid tumours, were also strongly CC immunoreactive. In addition, non-endocrine epithelial cells of pancreatic ducts and the gastrointestinal mucosa and 20 of the 24 adenocarcinomas from these sites showed weak CC immunoreactivity. Thus, CC cannot be used as a reliable immunohistochemical marker for endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumours despite the fact that the protein is strongly expressed in a majority of such tumours.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Transforming growth factor-α ; Human tissues ; Immunohistochemistry ; Northern blotting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) was examined in various human tissues and the fetus, using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. TGF-α immunoreactivity was detected mainly in the epithelial cells of the digestive tract, liver, pancreas, kidney, thyroid, adrenal, skin, mammary gland and genital organs. In the digestive tract, epithelial cells with regenerative change or hyperplastic change showed strong immunoreactivity to TGF-α. Peripheral nerve, vessels, megakaryocytes and macrophages in the lung and spleen were also positive for TGF-α. By Northern blot analysis the expression of TGF-α mRNA was confirmed in the digestive tract, salivary gland, thyroid, kidney and mammary gland. In the human fetus, the nerve tissues, liver, adrenal and kidney were positive for TGF-α. Strong immunoreactivity to TGF-α was observed in the hepatocytes of the fetus. These findings indicate that TGF-α is produced by a variety of nonneoplastic cells in both adult and fetal tissues.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Breast ; Granular cell tumour ; Mammography ; Ultrastructure ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight cases of benign granular cell tumour of the breast are reported. Seven patients were women and one was male. The age at the time of the excision ranged from 17 to 73 (average 40.1) years. All tumours were positive for S-100 protein and negative for keratin, myoglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein. In two cases ultrastructural studies revealed findings identical to those in the previously reported cases of granular cell tumours. None of these cases were diagnosed preoperatively. In six cases the clinical and mammographic findings, and in one case the frozen section, led to an erroneous diagnosis of malignancy. The clinico-pathological features of the cases are delineated in order to draw attention to a benign condition which closely simulates malignancy.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Astrocytoma ; Glioblastoma multiforme ; Oncogenes ; Epidermal growth factor receptor ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGFR) constitute an important and well-characterized mitogenic system in various ectodermal tissues including glial cells. Over-expression of the EGFR due to gene amplification has been reported in primary brain tumours of glial origin. Using a monoclonal antibody to the EGFR and immunohistochemical analysis, we examined the expression and distribution of EGFR in 103 astrocytic tumours. In addition, selected tumours were studied by Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody to EGFR and by Southern blot analysis. Glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) showed EGFR expression in 37% of cases, whereas pilocytic (WHO grade I), low-grade (WHO grade II) or anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) were invariably EGFR negative. Generally, there was a close correlation between the presence of EGFR gene amplification and over-expression of receptor protein. Different patterns of immunoreactive cells and significant intratumour heterogeneity of EGFR expression were observed in glioblastomas. The specific association of EGFR over-expression with glioblastoma may provide a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV).
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma ; Intestinal tract ; Dedifferentiated element ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six cases of dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma of the small and large bowel are presented with histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination. One case arose in the jejunum, two in the ileum, and the other three in the large intestine. The tumours were submucosal in four cases with large areas of ulceration; two were polypoid. Four tumours showed typical leiomyosarcomatous appearance with dedifferentiated components and two were typical leiomyosarcomas at the primary site with differentiated components only in metastatic foci. By immunohistochemistry, typical leiomyosarcomatous areas showed a positive reaction for muscle-specific actin (MSA), MB1, MB2 and myosin. In contrast, desmin-positive cells were scattered throughout the tumour or were not present. Tumour cells in dedifferentiated components were positive for alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in all cases but one; neuron specific enolase, MB1, MB2 and myosin were positive with variety. MSA was faintly positive in only a few tumour cells of two cases and desmin was not detected in any of the cases studied. Ultrastructurally, tumour cells in typical leiomyosarcomatous areas demonstrated evident smooth muscle features, although in dedifferentiated areas they lacked such features except in one case. Our results indicate that dedifferentiated elements may derive from ordinary leiomyosarcoma and loose muscle features due to dedifferentiation.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Megalomastia ; Lobular destruction ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Megalomastia is a rare entity characterized by an uncommon enlargement of both breasts. Unilateral megalomastia is extremely rare. The purpose of this study was to collect information concerning the history of patients with this condition and to investigate its histology in order to outline the profile of this peculiar entity. Fifty cases of megalomastia were studied. In 41 data concerning the history of the patients was complete; there were 32 juvenile, 7 gravid and 2 adult type cases. All three unilateral megalomastias were in the juvenile group. A family history of megalomastia was frequently present; gravid megalomastia was more closely connected with a maternal familial history. A case of simultaneous megalomastia in monozygotic twins is included. The final size achieved by the breasts was independent of the type of megalomastia, the rapidity of breast development and the body weight of the patients. It was greater in breasts containing abundant adipose tissue and less in fibrous breasts. In all cases of megalomastia associated with pregnancy the breasts had lost the ability to produce milk. The main histological feature in all cases was severe damage and destruction of the lobular units associated with extensive fibrosis. In some breasts of all three types of megalomastia ramified new ducts named “juvenile units” had developed and had proceeded to atrophy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the epithelium of these units was negative for oestrogen and positive to progesterone receptors. A biphasic pathological appearance, consisting of atrophic lobular units and “juvenile units”, is diagnostic of megalomastia.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Malignant rhabdoid tumour ; Uterus ; Immunohistochemistry ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms which most frequently occur in the kidney of young children. Several cases of primary MRT occurring in extra-renal sites have been reported, particularly in the soft tissues. We report a case of primary MRT of the uterus, a very rare site for this neoplasm, with morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features corresponding to restrictive morphological criteria for MRT. The possible differential diagnoses were considered.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Human osteocalcin ; Monoclonal antibody ; Immunoblotting ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A novel monoclonal antibody against human osteocalcin, recently established in our laboratory, was shown by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to react specifically with human osteoblasts. In the present study, the antibody was applied to the immunohistochemical diagnosis of human bone tumours, especially osteoblastic tumours. The antibody reacted with all 27 osteosarcomas. No positive reaction was found either in chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumours of bone, soft tissue tumours or epithelial tumours. A positive reaction was found preferentially in the cytoplasm of most of the osteosarcoma cells, but not in the extracellular matrix. Since the antibody reacted with formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues, it will be a useful tool for routine immunohistochemical diagnosis of osteoblastic lesions.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Tenascin ; Breast carcinoma ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eighty-two cases of primary invasive breast carcinoma and adjacent “normal” mammary glands were examined immunohistochemically for tenascin expression and distribution. Formalin-fixed tissues pretreated with actinase were processed by the avidin-biotin complex method using anti-human tenascin monoclonal antibody (RBC1). In normal mammary glands, tenascin was distributed around the ducts and ductules but not around the acini. In carcinomas, a high incidence of tenascin-positive cases (〉67%) was seen with various histological appearances, with the exception of lobular carcinoma where a low incidence was found (25%). Although intense staining was seen around cancerous foci when compared with normal mammary glands, tenascin was often expressed at cancer-mesenchymal junctions with dense fibrotic stroma, but not at junctions with active inflammatory change and a loose fibrotic stroma. Tenascin expression is not an all-or-none marker for mammary malignancy and the staining pattern suggests either a role in stimulating cancer cells or a host defence mechanism accompanied by a desmoplastic response to them.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 421 (1992), S. 217-222 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Tenascin ; Salivary gland tumours ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of tenascin immunoreactivity was analysed in salivary gland tissue and in various benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. In the non-neoplastic tissue, tenascin was seen in the areas of basement membranes of the ductal epithelium. No immunoreactivity could be observed in the serous or mucous glands. In pleomorphic adenomas, tenascin immunoreactivity could be seen in the stromal compartment. It was more pronounced in the dense stromal areas and chondroid elements than in the myxoid area. In Warthin's tumours, strong tenascin immunoreactivity could be observed in the basement membrane zone of the epithelial component. In the lymphatic component, faint reticular staining could be seen. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, acinic cell tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, tenascin showed a linear stromal distribution. No intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity could be seen in any of the cases. The widespread tenascin positivity in salivary gland tumours suggests that tenascin may play a role in the induction and progression of salivary gland tumours, presumably by interfering with the normal parenchymal-mesenchymal interaction.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Human cutaneous leishmaniasis ; Skin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To characterize the in situ cellular immune response in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), the authors studied frozen skin biopsies from 50 patients with LCL due toLeishmania braziliensis guyanensis. A panel of 31 monoclonal antibodies was used, which defined the number and distribution of inflammatory cell subsets. Skin inflammatory infiltrates were composed of T cells (with a local CD4/CD8 ratio of 1.05±0.7 vs 1.48±0.3 in peripheral blood), macrophages and a smaller number of B cells, natural killer cells and granulocytes. Most of the T cells expressed activation markers (interleukin-2 and transferrin receptors, HLA-DR+) and an increase in T-cell-receptorγδ expression was noted. Analysis of the CD4+ subpopulations with newly available reagents showed that helper T cells (CD4+CD45RO+) exceeded the suppressor/inducer subset (CD4+CD45RA+) by 1.4∶1. There were no differences between local immune variables from patients with primary infection (45 patients) and those with recurrence (5). In 7 patients, biopsies were analysed before and 1 month after specific treatment, and did not show significant differences except for a small increase of dermal CD1a+ (Langerhans) cells/mm2. The observed pattern of cellular skin infiltration suggests an immune-mediated tissue injury including T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and delayed hypersensitivity reactions in addition to direct parasitic action.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Islet amyloid ; Islet amyloid polypeptide ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunoreactivity for islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the islets of Langerhans of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients of a non-selected post-mortem series was studied with a new polyclonal IAPP antibody. Out of 133 patients examined, 124 exhibited immunoreactivity for IAPP. Immunoreactivity was localized intra- and extracellularly and was limited to the islets of Langerhans. No extracellular immunoreactivity was observed in amyloid-negative cases. Co-localization of insulin and IAPP in the same islet-cells was verified by double staining with monoclonal insulin and polyclonal IAPP antibodies. Of 100 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and islet amyloid, 98 exhibited IAPP-positive deposits and 71 exhibited intracellular immunoreactivity. Evaluation of intracellular immunoreactivity and degree of islet amyloid deposition in cases of overt NIDDM revealed an inverse relationship, in that intracellular IAPP immunoreactivity were reduced in patients with developing islet amyloid deposition. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis of primaryβ-cell dysfunction leading to amyloid formation, with subsequent disturbance ofβ-cell homeostasis.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Epithelioid sarcoma ; Immunohistochemistry ; Cytokeratin ; DNA flow cytometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eight epithelioid sarcomas (ES) were studied by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and DNA flow cytometry. Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells showed desmosome-like intercellular junctions and numerous microvilli, in addition to whorled arrangements of intermediate filaments. Tumour cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, and vimentin, and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen and desmin. All seven cases examined by flow cytometry showed diploid or hyperploid (near diploid) DNA content. This seems to correspond to the relatively long clinical course and low-grade malignant nature of ES. Although the histogenesis of ES is still uncertain, the results of this study suggest that it is a tumour of primitive mesenchymal cells with the capacity to show epithelial differentiation.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Calcium ; Adenosine triphosphatase ; Novel monoclonal antibody ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Novel monoclonal antibodies were raised against sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase of human skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that these antibodies, designated 6F5 and 7F10, bind Ca2+-ATPase of non-muscle tissue of the adult including parathyroid, islets of Langerhans, anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and photoreceptor cells of the retina as well as skeletal muscle. A positive reaction was also found for fetal tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, chondrocytes and peripheral nerves. Our results for distribution suggest that Ca2+-ATPase is strongly expressed in the tissues and cells in which signal transduction is actively carried out by Ca2+ release from the cytoplasmic Ca2+ pool.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Thymic carcinoid ; Cushing's syndrome ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a 52-year-old Caucasian man osteopoikilosis had been misdiagnosed roentgenologically 2 years before his death. Gradually he developed Cushing's syndrome and ultimately superior vena caval obstruction. At autopsy a primary thymic carcinoid with extensive osteoblastic bone metastasis was found. Immunohistochemically the tumor was shown to be positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cytokeratin (KL1), neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, chromogranin and glucagon. Remarkably the tumour was negative for serotonin despite high urinary hydroxyindolacetic acid levels. Bilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex was found. The adenohypophysis showed a considerable reduction of ACTH-producing cells and numerous Crooke's cells with a characteristic immunohistochemical pattern.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Adult T-cell leukaemia-derived factor ; Thioredoxin ; Human ovary ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunohistochemical study of the expression of adult T-cell leukaemia-derived factor (ADF), a human thioredoxin homologue, was performed in the normal human ovary throughout the menstrual cycle. Primordial follicles were negative for ADF. Both granulosa cells and theca interna cells at the stages of preantral and antral follicles contained ADF. The staining intensity of these cells was very strong in the preovulatory dominant follicle. After ovulation, both granulo-lutein and theca-lutein cells were positive for ADF. During pregnancy, the theca-lutein cells revealed very intense ADF staining. The theca interna cells of the atretic follicles showed ADF staining, while the granulosa cells of such follicles did not. These results suggest that ADF localizes in the ovarian steroidogenic cells which have the binding sites of either luteinizing hormone or folliclestimulating hormone, and that ADF expression is closely associated with the activity of the ovarian steroidogenic cells.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Tumours of the nervous system ; Non-melanotic tumours ; HMB-45 ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the commercially available, monoclonal anti-melanoma antibody HMB-45 in brain tumours and peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Hence, a series of 155 different non-melanotic tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system were examined immunohistochemically. The brain lesions consisted of primary tumours and metastases from various carcinomas. Twenty melanotic tumours (cerebral metastases of malignant melanomas, meningeal melanomatosis, meningeal melanocytomas) and dermal blue cell naevi served as controls. All melanotic tumours stained positive. Furthermore, a positive immunohistochemical reaction was observed in the following non-melanotic tumours: gliosarcomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumours, ependymoma, malignant schwannomas and different intracranial hamartomas. Two plasmocytomas and 4 metastatic carcinomas also revealed positive staining for HMB-45. Our results confirm the necessity for cautious interpretation of HMB-45 immunoreactivity as a tool in the immunohistochemical characterization of nervous system tumours.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Oncogene ; Breast neoplasm ; Image analysis ; DNA content ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The expression of the c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene product was investigated immunohistochemically in 474 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human breast tissue samples. The series included 32 benign and 26 hyperplastic lesions, 32 carcinomas in situ and 384 invasive breast carcinomas, 107 of which were less than 1 cm in diameter. Cytometric DNA assessments were performed on histopathologically or cytodiagnostically identified cell nuclei, using image analysis. C-erbB-2 immunoreactivity was not seen in normal parenchyma or in benign and hyperplastic lesions. Mammary carcinomas in situ were more frequently immunoreactive (59%) than invasive neoplasms (23%). Invasive tumours more than 1 cm in diameter immunoreacted more often (26%) than small invasive carcinomas (16%). C-erbB-2 expression in regional lymph node metastases was the same as in the corresponding primary tumours. Significant differences were observed between the c-erbB-2 expression in DNA diploid and aneuploid lesions; for carcinomas in situ the figures were 40% and 72%, respectively. Invasive carcinomas of DNA diploid type rarely showed c-erb-B-2 expression, irrespective of tumour size and nodal status (7–11%). DNA aneuploid tumours were more frequently immunoreactive with increasing levels during progression (32–41%). Our data indicate that genetically stable invasive mammary tumours seem rarely to express the c-erbB-2 protein, even during progression, whereas genetically unstable invasive neoplasms frequently show c-erbB-2 immunoreactivity which increases during tumour progression.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Uterus ; Paraganglioma ; Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report a malignant uterine paraganglioma in a 40-year-old female, who died 7 months after the initial diagnosis. On light microscopy the tumour showed a typicalzellballen pattern as well as a pronounced cellular pleomorphism. In many tumour cells hyaline globules were demonstrated within the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically the lesion was characterized by the presence of neuron-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5 and synaptophysin, and electron microscopically by the occurrence of neurosecretory granules.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Hodgkin's disease ; Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ; Immunohistochemistry ; In situ immunophenotyping ; Monoclonal antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Morphological and immunohistological studies were carried out on a series of 137 lymphomas including CD30+ anaplastic large cell (ALC) lymphomas (48 cases) and non-lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease (HD) (89 cases), with the aim of assessing in situ expression of a combination of antibodies including anti-CD30/BerH2, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CD15 and CD45, in addition to other monoclonal antibodies suitable for paraffin tissues. A greater proportion of cases of ALC lymphomas than of HD exhibited positivity for CD45 (91.7% vs 17.6%), EMA (56.2% vs 4.5%), CD43 (53.6% vs 13.1%) and CD45RO (39.5% vs 3.5%), whereas Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells in HD most frequently expressed CD15 (93.2% vs 20.8%) antigen. Moreover, in 35 of 48 (72.9%) ALC lymphomas tumour cells expressed the CD30+, CD45+, CD15−, EMA− or+ phenotypic profile, while in the same percentage (62/ 85) of HD cases RS cells were found to express the CD30+, CD45−, CD15+, EMA− profile. This study suggests that the differential expression of CD45, EMA, and CD15 may be used in the separation of ALC lymphomas and HD. However, co-expression of CD30, CD45 and CD15 antigens by RS cells in HD (14/85 cases, 16.5% in this series) and by tumour cells in ALC lymphomas (9/48 cases, 18.7% in this series) may be encountered in a non-negligible fraction of cases.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Gliofibroma ; Immunohistochemistry ; Astrocytes ; Desmoplasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case of gliofibroma occurring in an adult patient as a large circumscribed supratentorial tumor is reported. The bimorphic pattern was substantiated and further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Some evidence in favor of collagen production by mesenchymal and/or inflammatory cells leading to a progressive fibrous replacement of the glial cells in this particular tumor type is presented.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Peripheral neuropathy ; Cryoglobulinemia ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural sural nerve and skin biopsy findings in a case of cryoglobulinemia secondary to an IgM-kappa-producing non-Hodgkin lymphoma are described. The main finding was an occlusive microangiopathy present in both the sural nerve and the skin. Widespread cryoglobulin deposits of the proliferated vasa nervorum were associated with pronounced changes probably evoked by ischemia. Moderate perivascular inflammation, but no florid vasculitis was additionally present. Our observations indicate that occlusive microangiopathy by precipitated cryoglobulins may be a relevant pathogenetic factor in cryoglobulinemic peripheral neuropathy.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Fibronectin ; Albumin ; Spinal cord trauma ; Vasogenic edema ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Spinal cord of the rat was investigated immunohistochemically to detect signs of extravasation of fibronectin in animals in which the cord was subjected to different degrees of compression trauma. Immuno-histochemistry was performed after survival periods of 4 and 24h and parallel sections were incubated for albumin immunoreactivity to detect signs of breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Extravascular reaction products indicating the presence of fibronectin were found within and in the vicinity of the compression provided that bleeding had occurred in the spinal cord, i.e., in rats with severe trauma. Immunoreactive material indicating extravascular albumin was present in the traumatized region and in many segments of the cord located away from the compressed part. Such material was seen both proximal and distal to the primary injury and even in rats with a low magnitude of compression. Generally, with more severe trauma and longer survival periods extravascular albumin was more extensively distributed along the cord. No signs of fibronectin antigen were detected in spinal cord segments away from the compression even though such regions showed albumin immunoreactivity outside the vessels. The results indicate that within and close to the primary injury of compressed spinal cord exudation of fibronectin may occur from the plasma of microvessles provided that the impact is severe enough to cause intramedullary hemorrhages.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Raphe ; Immunohistochemistry ; Neuritic plaques ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Alzheimer's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The location and number of brain stem serotonin-synthesizing neurons were analyzed in 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 5 agematched controls using immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, the number of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the cortex and brain stem raphe was evaluated, as was the number of Nissl-stained raphe neurons. AD patients could be classified into two groups based on their raphe pathology; patients with such pathology (AD+) and those without (AD−). The number of large raphe neurons correlated significantly with the number of serotonin-synthesizing neurons in control material, indicating that all large neurons were serotonergic. This relationship was not apparent in AD+ patients, in whom the number of serotonin-synthesizing neurons correlated with the number of neurofibrillary tangles in the raphe of these patients. This indicates that in AD+ patients the serotonin-synthesizing neurons were selectively affected. There was no correlation between raphe and cortical pathology or raphe pathology and patient sex, age, mini-mental score or depression score, even when such scores were weighted for the interval between testing and death. There was a trend for the raphe pathology to correlate with the age of onset and duration of dementia and the Blessed dementia score in AD+ patients. Most AD+ patients with severe raphe lesions had clinical dementia only, while AD− patients had additional clinical features. The raphe lesions were more dramatic in AD+ patients with a rapid progression of symptoms.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Ferritin ; Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ; Microglia ; Immunohistochemistry ; In situ hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using ferritin as a marker of reactive microglia, we demonstrated a close association between proliferation of reactive microglia and expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in brain tissue from autopsied cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An increased number of ferritin-positive reactive microglia was observed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain sections from all 13 AIDS cases examined. Similar findings were observed in brain tissue from other neurological diseases (subacute sclerosing penencephalitis, herpes simplex encephalitis and multiple sclerosis). Multinucleated giant cells were found in 7 of the AIDS cases which were also intensely labeled for ferritin. Dual-label immunohistochemistry using anti-ferritin and cell-specific markers showed that ferritin-positive cells were distinct from astrocytes, neurons and endothelia using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP), anti-neurofilament protein and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, respectively. In 5 AIDS brains, only ferritin-positive cells were shown to contain HIV-1 gp41 antigen using dual-label immunohistochemistry. In addition, HIV-1 RNA was localized in territin-positive reactive microglia but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes using immunohistochemistry combined with in situ hybridization. Ferritin-positive reactive microglia and multinucleated giant cells were colabeled with the microglial marker, Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA-1). Howerver, RCA-1 also extensively stained resting microglia only a few of which were colabeled for ferritin. The density of ferritin-positive cells was correlated with the presence of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells in AIDS brain. Thus, ferritin immunoreactivity can be used as an activation marker of microglia in archival paraffin sections and reflects the extent of inflammation in HIV-1-infected brain.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry ; Vimentin ; Desmin ; Muscle ; Regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Localization and distribution of desmin and vimentin have been studied in different neuromuscular disorders using monoclonal antibodies. We have demonstrated that vimentin, although virtually absent in normal human muscle fibers, is expressed in regenerating fibers in different neuromuscular disorders. Moreover, these fibers showed a strong positivity with desmin antibodies. In normal muscle fibers desmin is only localized at Z-line level. These results suggest that desmin and vimentin may be over-expressed during muscle regeneration processes, probably because of their importance in the structural organization of the sarcomere.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Smooth muscle cell ; Fetal human intestine ; Collagen ; Contraction ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The extracellular matrix influences organogenesis by modulating cell behavior. In humans, collagen is the major matrix constituent of the adult intestinal wall and is synthesized by smooth muscle cells. The objective of the current study was to examine collagen production by fetal human intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated during intestinal morphogenesis. Techniques were developed for the isolation and culture of human fetal intestinal smooth muscle cells. The cultured cells were confirmed as muscle by immunohistochemical stains for cytoskeletal filaments and documentation of contractile behavior. In culture, these cells stained for mesenchymal and muscle cytoskeletal proteins: vimentin, actin, and desmin, and did not stain for neural or epithelial markers. The muscle cells contracted in response to acetylcholine, in contrast to human fetal dermal fibroblasts which did not contract appreciably. Collagen production was assayed by the uptake of [3H]-proline into collagenase-digestible protein. Collagen production was greatest at 11 weeks gestation, the youngest age studied. By 20 weeks gestation, collagen production had decreased to adult levels. However, when compared to another matrix-producing fetal mesenchymal cell, the dermal fibroblast, intestinal smooth muscle cells produced twice as much collagen. Collagen types were determined by polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Smooth muscle cells predominantly produced types I and III collagen α chains. Therefore, collagen production is a significant function of human fetal intestinal smooth muscle cells, and probably plays a major role in the development of intestinal structure. The in vitro model presented here provides a means of studying the regulation of this collagen production throughout intestinal organogenesis.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: αB-Crystallin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Reactive astrocytes ; Creutzteldt-Jakob disease ; Prion disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary α-Crystallin is a major eye lens protein, composed of two types of subunits, αA and αB. The αA subunit is restricted to the lens, but αB-crystallin has recently also been detected in non-lenticular tissues, including the nervous system. With the use of a polyclonal antiserum directed against a synthetic C-terminal peptide of human αB-crystallin, the presence of αB-crystallin could be demonstrated immunohistochemically in astrocytes in the brains of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Most intensive localization was observed in the spongiotic tissue representing abundant progressively changed astrocytes in CJD. In agematched control brains weak positive reaction was located in individual oligodendroglia cells and subpial astrocytes. Prominent increase of αB-crystallin in pathological glia in CJD may represent a response to stress.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Progressiye supranuclear palsy ; Neurofibrilary tangles ; Microglia ; Immunohistochemistry ; Modified tau protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome; PSP) with parkinsonism and absence of gaze palsy or mental changes is reported. Neuropathological examination, apart from typical changes, showed, lack of midbrain tegmentum demyelination, marked loss of Purkinje cells and presence of hyalin-line bodies in individual neurons of the substantia nigra. Immunostaining against tau-1 protein revealed the prevalence of a diffuse reaction in locus coeruleus neurons; reflecting either different ability of these cells to accumulate straight filaments, or a various time sequence of neurofibrillary tanglesformation. Ferritin immunohistochemistry demonstrated widespread microglial cell proliferation, confirming further the generalized character of CNS pathology in PSP.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: HLA-DR ; Meningioma ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The expression of HLA-DR was examined in 38 cases of meningiomas with the streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method using two monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR (LN-3 and TAL-IB5) on formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. Similar immunoreactivity was obtained with these two monoclonal antibodies. In addition to infiltrated lymphoid cells and perivascular macrophages, tumor cells themselves showed HLA-DR expression in 16 cases (42%) of meningiomas. The rate of HLA-DR-positive cases in the transitional and fibrous subtypes (64% and 67%, respectively) was higher than that in the meningotheliomatous subtype (8%). Spindle-shaped tumor cells were frequently positive for HLA-DR, whereas few of meningotheliomatous cells with plump cytoplasm were positive. Most of HLA-DR-positive cases showed no or scanty lymphoid cell infiltration, and a few cases with marked infiltration of lymphoid cells were variable for HLA-DR expression. These findings suggest little correlation between HLA-DR expression of tumor cells and the degree of lymphoid cell infiltration, but indicate an aberrant HLA-DR expression of tumor cells themselves.
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  • 52
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 84 (1992), S. 234-237 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Cerebral contusions ; Plasma proteins ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty-five cases of cerebral contusions of varions age were examined immunohistochemically for neuronal uptake of albumin and fibrinogen. The neurons in the damaged areas were heavily stained in all cases, even in those of only a few minutes' survival, and they remained positive for serum proteins until they disappeared from the lesions. In hematoxylin and eosinstained sections, neuronal changes were observed from the first minutes after the lesion but they were indistinguishable from the shrunken “dark” neurons that occur as artifacts in poorly fixed material. However, in contrast to the artificially changed cells, the truely damaged ones took up serum proteins. It is concluded that staining with antisera against serum proteins may serve as early markers for neuronal injury before reliable histological changes have developed.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Prion protein ; Amyloid ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We examined 7 patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a methionine-to-valine change at prion protein (PrP) codon 129 (CJD129 patients). These CJD129 patients did not have either a condon 117 or 198 point mutation. For comparison, we also examined 7 patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome (GSS) with a proline-to-leucine change at PrP codon 102 (GSS102 patients) and 13 patients without any known mutations at codons 102, 117, 129, 178, or 200 (CJDwild patients). CJD129 patients had a long clinical duration and ataxia at onset, but rarely had any periodic synchronous discharge in their electroencephalogram. Unlike CJDwild patients, all CJD129 patients have typical congophilic PrP plaques in their brain. These clinicopathological findings were similar to those of GSS102. However, the distribution and morphology of PrP deposits revealed by immunohistochemistry were different between CJD129 and GSS102. In GSS102 more numerous and various types of PrP plaques are seen throughout the brain, while in CJD129 patients a unicentric core was the major feature of PrP plaques. The change in codon 129 influences the clinical course and pathological findings in CJD.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Medulloblastoma ; Primitive neuroectodermal tumor ; Cell differentiation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Surgical specimens from 36 medulloblastomas (25 classic and 11 desmoplastic) were studied by peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemistry with antibodies against the class III β-tubulin isotype (β-tubulin), synaptophysin, retinal S-antigen (S−Ag), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). We found that neoplastic cells expressed β-tubulin in 91% of the tumors (23 classic and 10 desmoplastic), synaptophysin in 75% (19 classic and 8 desmoplastic), S−Ag in 44% (11 classic and 5 desmoplastic), and GFAP in 11% of medulloblastomas (2 classic and 2 desmoplastic). Synaptophysin and β-tubulin positivities were observed in undifferentiated neoplastic cells, in cells forming neuroplastic rosettes, and in pale islands, while S−Ag immunopositivity was noted in undifferentiated cells, occasionally in β-tubulin-negative neuroblastic rosettes, and exceptionally in pale islands. Large pale islands, in two desmoplastic medulloblastomas, exhibited distinct patterns of immunoreactivity to the above markers, suggesting neuronal and glial differentiation in the central area, and intense neuritic development in the peripheral zone. Our findings confirm the predominant capacity of medulloblastoma cells to differentiate along neuronal cell lines and indicate that large pale islands, in desmoplastic medulloblastomas, represent well-organized areas for neuronal and, to a lesser degree, astroglial differentiation. Furthermore, it appears, in our cases, that immunohistochemical features do not represent clear-cut prognostic indicators in patients with medulloblastomas.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Noradrenergic system ; Hippocampus ; Cerebral ischemia ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gerbil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We examined changes in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive fibers following 5 min of cerebral ischemia in gerbils using an immunohistochemical method 1, 3 and 30 days after ischemia. Almost all CA-1 pyramidal neurons were lost 3 days after ischemia, whereas noradrenergic fibers were maintained 30 days after ischemia. The present study demonstrated that TH-immunoreactive fibers and cells were resistant to transient ischemia, and that there was no sprouting or hyperactivity in noradrenergic systems after ischemia.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Focal ischemia ; Immediate early genes ; Immunohistochemistry ; Spreading depression ; N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary FOS and JUN proteins are transcription factors thought to be involved in coupling neuronal excitation to target gene expression. Cortical infarction of consistent size and location was produced by irradiating the rat brain with Xenon light through the intact skull for 20 min following systemic injection of the photo-sensitizing dye, rose bengal. To investigate the time course and distribution pattern of five cellular ummediate early gene (IEG)-encoded proteins after focal ischemia, the expression of c-FOS, FOS B, c-JUN, JUN B and JUN D was studied immunocytochemically in sham-operated control animals and at different postischemic time intervals up to 24 h. A separate group of animals was pretreated with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. Photochemically induced focal ischemia caused a rapid induction of FOS and JUN proteins in the entire ipsilateral cortex apart from the ischemic focus. Immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral subcortical gray and white matter and in the entire contralateral hemisphere was indistinguishable from control animals. Individual IEG-encoded proteins were sequentially induced with increased levels of immunoreactivity persisting for different time periods up to 24 h. c-FOS, FOS B, c-JUN and JUN B exhibited a characteristic distribution pattern as reflected by different staining intensities in individual cortical layers. The rapid IEG induction in the entire ipsilateral sensorimotor and limbic structure-associated cortices after photochemically induced infarction most likely reflects spreading depression caused by ischemia and mediated by NMDA receptors. This conclusion is supported by the finding that MK-801 pretreatment completely prevented the postischemic induction of FOS proteins and markedly attenuated the levels of JUN immunoreactivity in all cortical regions except in the peri-infarct area.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Ki-1 lymphoma ; Lymphoma ; Brain tumor ; Central nervous system ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 45-year old immunocompetent man presented with multiple lesions in the brain. A histological examination of the tumors showed a diffuse infiltrate of lymphoid cells with cellular polymorphism and of multinucleated giant cells. These cells were immunolabeled with antibodies against B cell lineage and with a monoclonal antibody, Ber-H2 (CD30), which showed the presence of Ki-1 antigen. Recently, among systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, attention has been given to Ki-1-positive lymphomas, which have been incorporated in the up-dated Kiel classification. We report here a case of Ki-1-positive lymphoma arising in the CNS and review previously reported cases.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Auditory brainstem ; Neurotransmitters ; Immunohistochemistry ; Densitometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution and colocalization of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cochlear nuclear complex of the guinea pig have been studied to produce a light microscopic atlas. The method used was based on post-embedding immunocytochemistry in pairs of 0.5-μm-thick plastic sections treated with polyclonal antibodies against conjugated GABA and glycine respectively. Immunoreactive cells, presumably short axon neurones, predominated in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, with mostly single-GABA-labelled cells in the superficial layer, double-labelled in the middle, and single-glycine-labelled in the deep layers. A few large single-glycine-labelled cells, interpreted as commissural neurons, occurred in the ventral nucleus. Scattered double-labelled cells, probably Golgi cells, were seen in the granule cell domain. Immunolabelled puncta of all three staining categories occurred in large numbers throughout the complex, apposed to somata and in the neuropil, showing a differential distribution onto different types of neuron. Three immunolabelled tracts were noted: the tuberculoventral tract, the commissural acoustic stria, and the trapezoidal descending fibres. Most of the fibres in these tracts were single-labelled for glycine, although in the last mentioned tract single-GABA- and double-labelled fibres were also found. Some of the immunolabelled cell types described here are proposed as the origins of the similarly labelled puncta and fibres on the basis of known intrinsic connections.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 185 (1992), S. 207-215 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Chromogranin A ; Grimelius' argyrophilia ; Endocrine cells ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Various endocrine cells can be stained by the argyrophil reaction of Grimelius. This silver stain has recently been attributed to chromogranin A, an acidic glycoprotein, that is present in many endocrine cells. Using serial sections of plastic-embedded tissues (adrenal medulla, pancreas, gastric mucosa) various endocrine cells were investigated for their content of chromogranin A immunoreactivity and for their argyrophilia. The findings in four species (man, cattle, pig, guinea pig) showed that chromogranin A immunoreactivity and argyrophil stain partly overlap in identical endocrine cells, but do not necessarily coincide in the majority of endocrine cells. We found that endocrine cells could be positive for chromogranin A and argyrophilia (e.g., aminergic endocrine cells); or positive for chromogranin A but negative for argyrophilia (e.g., insulin cells of all species; somatostatin cells of cattle and pig); or negative for chromogranin A but positive for argyrophilia (e.g., glucagon cells of pig and guinea pig); or negative for chromogranin A and argyrophilia (e.g., somatostatin cells of man and guinea pig). Such heterogeneities of the staining pattern for chromogranin A and argyrophil silver reaction were also observed in individual endocrine cells of a given population (e.g., gastrin cells). Hence, although recent dot-blot tests have shown that chromogranin A is an argyrophilic substance, in tissue sections chromogranin A immunostaining and Grimelius' silver staining did not coincide in various endocrine cells, for unknown reasons. Therefore, it is recommended to use both chromogranin A immunohistochemistry and the classical Grimelius' silver stain to “mark” the vast majority of endocrine cells in tissue sections.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Cherry haemangioma ; Type IV collagen ; Type VI collagen ; Immunohistochemistry ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The capillaries in cherry haemangiomas show perivascular hyalinized sheaths. In order to clarify the nature of this sheath material, the extracellular matrix of cherry haemangiomas from 20 normal volunteers (age range 30–64 years) was investigated using immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopical methods. Antibodies against collagen types III, IV and VI and laminin were used. Hyaluronic acid was visualized using the hyaluronic acid binding region of the cartilage proteoglycan as ligand. Electronmicroscopically, the sheaths contained multilaminated basement membrane-like material, collagen fibres 20–25 nm thick with a periodicity of 67 nm and broad-banded aggregates with a periodicity of 100 nm (zebra bodies or fibrous long-spacing fibres). Immunohistochemically, type IV collagen was stained throughout the whole sheath material. Staining for laminin was more confined to the endothelial side of the sheath. Intense staining for type III collagen and hyaluronic acid was found in the connective tissue of the subpapillary layer and between the cherry haemangioma capillaries. Much weaker staining for type III collagen and no staining for hyaluronic acid were found invariably in an area 4–10 Μm thick directly around the capillaries. Both sheath material and intercapillary connective tissue of the haemangiomas showed pronounced staining for collagen type VI. Immunogold staining revealed that type VI collagen was localized to microfibrils 5–6 nm thick and to the broad-banded aggregates with 100 nm periodicity. These findings further underline the assumption that the broad-banded aggregates consist of type VI collagen.
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  • 61