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  • Immunohistochemistry  (1,985)
  • Angiologie
  • Kardiologie
  • Springer  (1,994)
  • Sage Publications  (16)
  • Lippincott Williams & Wilkins  (12)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • 1
    Call number: QR183:72(2)
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry / methods ; Immunohistochemistry
    Pages: xv, 764 pages : illustrations (some color)
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9781493915774
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  • 2
    Call number: QP624.5.D73:7
    Keywords: DNA microarrays ; Protein microarrays ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Protein Array Analysis ; Immunohistochemistry
    ISBN: 3-540-22931-0
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Keywords: Endothelin-A receptor ; Endothelin-B receptor ; Rat ; Pulmonary fibrosis ; Immunohistochemistry ; Quantitative PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: AbstractPulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix deposition with concomitant loss of gas exchange units, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Increased levels of ET-1 from tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage have been reported in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and in animal models after intratracheal bleomycin. We characterized the cellular distribution of alveolar ET receptors by immunohistochemistry in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat and determined the regulation by bleomycin of ET receptor mRNA expression in isolated alveolar macrophages and rat lung fibroblasts. We found significant increases in the numbers of fibroblasts and macrophages at day 7 compared to day 28 and control animals. ETB receptor immunoreactivity was observed on fibroblasts and invading monocytes. Isolated fibroblasts expressed both ETA and ETB receptor mRNA, and ETA receptor mRNA was upregulated by bleomycin. Isolated resident alveolar macrophages expressed neither ETA nor ETB receptor mRNA which were also not induced by bleomycin. We conclude that, while ETB receptor stimulation of fibroblasts and monocytes recruited during bleomycin-induced lung injury exerts antagonistic effects on fibroblast collagen synthesis, the observed increase in the number of fibroblasts in vivo and upregulation of fibroblast ETA receptor mRNA by bleomycin in vitro point to a predominance of the profibrotic effects of ET receptor engagement.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Keywords: Endometrium ; Normal ; Immunohistochemistry ; Immunofluorescence ; Inhibin/activin subunits ; Inhibin-alpha ; Inhibin-beta A ; Inhibin-beta B
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: AbstractInhibins are dimeric glycoproteins composed of an alpha (α) subunit and one of two possible beta (β-) subunits (βA or βB). The aims of this study were to assess the frequency and tissue distribution patterns of the inhibin subunits in normal human endometrium. Samples from human endometrium from proliferative phase (PP; n=32), early secretory phase (ES; n=10) and late secretory phase (LS; n=12) were obtained. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and a statistical analysis were performed. All three inhibin subunits were expressed by normal endometrium by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Inhibin-α was primarily detected in glandular epithelial cells, while inhibin-β subunits were additionally localised in stromal tissue. Inhibin-α staining reaction increased significantly between PP and ES (P〈0.05), PP and LS (P〈0.01), and ES and LS (P〈0.02). Inhibin-βA and -βB were significant higher in LS than PP (P〈0.05) and LS than ES (P〈0.05). All three inhibin subunits were expressed by human endometrium varying across the menstrual cycle. This suggests substantial functions in human implantation of inhibin-α subunit, while stromal expression of the β subunits could be important in the paracrine signalling for adequate endometrial maturation. The distinct expression in human endometrial tissue suggests a synthesis of inhibins into the lumen and a predominant secretion of activins into the stroma.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Collagen ; Meniscal ¶insertions ; Knee joint ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The medial meniscus of the rabbit knee joint attaches to the tibial plateau via anterior and posterior insertions. Intact meniscal tibial insertions are essential for meniscal function. In the present study the distributions of types I, II, and X collagen in meniscal tibial insertions were investigated by indirect immunohistochemistry in a rabbit model. Four tissue zones were histologically identified in the anterior insertion site, including the ligamentous zone, uncalcified and calcified fibrocartilaginous zones and bone; the ligamentous zone was not observed in the posterior insertion site. Labeling for type I collagen was found to be strong in the ligament tissue and bone, and weak in the fibrocartilages which were also labeled for type II collagen. Tissues positive for different types of collagen overlapped and formed an irregular interface with various angles and depths, especially at the interface between the calcified fibrocartilage and bone. Positive labeling for type X collagen was identified only in the calcified fibrocartilage zone. The coexistence of types I and II collagen in the meniscal tibial insertions may indicate that this structural unit is subjected to both compressive and tensile loads. Type X collagen may play a role in maintaining the calcifying status of this tissue zone, so that its mechanical stiffness is kept between that of uncalcified fibrocartilage and hard bone. Restoration of the insertional structure including the distinct collagen distribution should be considered for a functional meniscal substitution.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Breast development ; Human breast ; Fetal breast ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Bio-morphological understanding of the developing human mammary glands may clarify some aspects of breast pathology, including cancer. In particular, some epidemiological data suggests that during fetal growth an altered intrauterine hormonal status, especially a change in estrogen status, could predispose to carcinogenesis. In an attempt to achieve new information on early breast growth, a series of developing human breasts have been analyzed, namely: 4 fetal breasts (28–32 weeks of gestational age), 7 infant breasts (7 h to 2 years) and 1 puberal breast (12 years). In addition to the morphological features, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of some markers involved in morphogenesis, such as MIB-1 for cell proliferation, bcl-2 for apoptosis control, CD34 for vasculogenesis, estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors for hormonal profile, and smooth-muscle actin for myoepithelial differentiation. The results were as follows: (a) lobules, absent between 28 weeks and 2 days, were well evident at 2 years of age and at puberty; (b) myoepithelial cells appeared from 28 weeks onward and persisted later with no modification in quantity and distribution; (c) epithelial cell proliferation was constantly low; (d) in all breasts inner epithelial cells showed diffuse bcl-2 positivity, while basal myoepithelial-like cells were generally negative; (e) all breasts were well vascularized with two different patterns: periductal vascularization (PDV) and interductal vascularization (IDV), IDV being always present, whereas PDV was found only in infant breasts; (f) ER and PR were almost absent in fetal and infant breasts, while their expression was high in the epithelial cells of the puberal breast; (g) stromal cells had no hormonal receptors and were heterogeneous for proliferation and bcl-2 expression. Interestingly, two fetal breasts showed high proliferation and high ER expression, respectively, in their epithelial compartment. This could be the expression of an altered hormonal environment in utero, representing a basis for possible subsequent cancer initiation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Amyloid ; Classification ; Congo red fluorescence ; Early diagnosis ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In order to find how best to diagnose amyloid deposits as early as possible, the sensitivity of three different methods that can be applied to the diagnosis of amyloid in tissue sections have been compared: the Congo red staining method (CR), the combination of CR and immunocytochemistry (CRIC) and Congo red fluorescence (CRF). Tissue blocks were available from 25 patients, including 11 with immunohistochemically distinct and 3 with chemically undefined amyloid diseases. The results revealed (a) that CRF is more sensitive than either CR or CRIC, as shown qualitatively and quantitatively, (b) that CRF can therefore be utilized to track down even minute amyloid deposits, which can be missed by the other two methods; (c) that the specificity of CRF and CRIC is secured on double-stained sections by the demonstration of green birefringence (GB) of the CRF-marked and IC-marked areas; (d) that CRF can be performed on the spot by just changing the light source; and (e) that CRF is not hampered by the congruent IC chromogen overlay, which ensures the specific classification of the amyloid deposits as applied to different amyloid classes. In conclusion, CRF was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method for direct diagnosis of amyloid in tissue sections. This method can, therefore, allow the earliest diagnosis and classification of amyloid, which is a good basis for an amyloid class-specific therapy while organ damage is still minimal.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Ameloblastoma ; Transforming growth factor-beta ; Desmoplasia ; Type-IV collagen ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is an unusual subtype of ameloblastoma histologically characterized by the pronounced collagenized stroma. In the present study, the immunolocalization of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), one of the most potent local factors for modulating extracellular matrix formation, was observed in DA in order to study its participation in the stromal desmoplasia. Seven cases of DA, including a ”hybrid” lesion, were studied together with ten cases of ordinary follicular and plexiform ameloblastomas as the control. In contrast to ordinary ameloblastomas, marked immunoexpression was observed in all DAs but one. In the ”hybrid” lesion, TGF-β was not expressed in the area of follicular ameloblastoma but in that of DA. These results show that TGF-β produced by tumor cells of DA plays a part in the desmoplastic matrix formation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Keywords Angiogenesis ; Glioblastoma multiforme ; Immunohistochemistry ; Tenascin-C
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Tenascin-C (TN-C) plays an important part in the growth of neoplastic tissue, leading to new vessel development. TN-C has been assessed in adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and has been evaluated as anti-neoplastic therapy. No studies have focused on this tissue in paediatric GBM. Tissues were obtained from six paediatric supratentorial GBMs. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a mouse antibody directed against human TN-C, and expression in tumour vasculature was described on the basis of TN-C immunoreactivity. The expression was minimal in three, moderate in two, and intense in one specimen. TN-C was not correlated with clinical history, neurological findings, or with tumour site. Although based on a limited number of patients, this study provides additional insights into tumour growth modulation and cytogenetic profile of paediatric GBM. The detailed understanding of events responsible for GBM growth is a prerequisite for the development of therapeutic modalities leading to improved prognosis and cure.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-0458
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Nasenrachenkarzinom ; Epstein-Barr-Virus ; Immunhistologie ; Polymerasekettenreaktion ; Keywords ; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma ; Epstein-Barr virus ; Immunohistochemistry ; Polymerase chain reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract We report the case of a 36-year-old women who was found to have a malignant tumor extending from the side of her right nasal cavity to the nasopharynx. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were not able to define the primary site of the tumor. Histologic evaluation demonstrated an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the different treatment concepts for carcinomas of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, we tried to identify the primary site by diagnosing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with carcinoma of the nasopharynx. By using immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction EBV could be identified in the cells of the carcinoma. This showed that the primary site of the tumor was located in the nasopharynx and resulted in the patient being treated with simultaneous radiochemotherapy.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Eine 36 Jahre alte Patientin stellte sich mit einem ausgedehnten Tumor der rechten Nasenhöhle und des rechten Nasenrachens vor. Die histologische Untersuchung ergab ein undifferenziertes Plattenepithelkarzinom. Sowohl mit Hilfe der computertomographischen, als auch der kernspintomographischen Befunde, war keine eindeutige Bestimmung der Primärtumorregion möglich. Anhand der bekannten Assoziation zwischen Karzinomen des Nasenrachens und Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) wurde versucht, die Primärlokalisation des Tumors zu klären. Immunhistologisch und durch „polymerase chain reaction” war es möglich, eine EBV-Infektion im Tumor nachzuweisen. Die Primärlokalisation des Tumors wurde damit dem Nasenrachen zugeordnet und die entsprechende Therapie für diese Lokalisation in Form einer simultanen Radiochemotherapie eingeleitet.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Key words Liver transplantation ; Rejection ; ICAM-1 ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Acute rejection (AR) is a frequent complication following liver transplantation (LT). ICAM-1 may be involved in its pathogenesis. High doses of glucocorticoids are the standard treatment in these patients. The aim of this study was to describe corticoid effects on ICAM-1 tissue expression in liver biopsies of patients with LT and AR. The study included liver biopsies performed before and after treatment in 12 patients with LT and proven AR. In 10 patients AR was reversible and in 2, was steroid resistant. For immunohistochemistry, an indirect immunoperoxidase technique was used. Each histology section was semiquantitatively evaluated as follows: 0: 〈 10 % staining, 1: 10–25 %, 2: 25–50 %, 3: 〉 50 %. The control group comprised nine patients with LT and normal liver biopsies. In pre-treatment liver biopsy samples, ICAM-1 was markedly expressed on sinusoidal cells (2.41 ± 0.66), and there was also expression on periportal (0.66 ± 0.65) and perivenular hepatocytes (0.83 ± 0.57). By contrast, in the liver tissue from the control group, sinusoidal ICAM-1 reactivity was significantly lower (0.88 ± 0.33; P 〈 0.05), and hepatocytes showed no reliable ICAM-1 expression. After steroid treatment the intensity of ICAM-1 decreased significantly in sinusoids (1.5 ± 0.67; P 〈 0.05) and in perivenular hepatocytes (0.25 ± 0.86; P 〈 0.05). Additionally, we also observed a decreased ICAM-1 reactivity in portal hepatocytes (0.25 ± 0.62), but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Remarkably, after treatment, hepatocytes did not show ICAM-1 reactivity in resolved AR, but in corticoid-resistant patients AR did not change or increase. In conclusion, in patients with LT and AR, ICAM-1 was expressed in hepatocytes and with more intensity in sinusoid cells. Additionally, a down-regulation of the ICAM-1 tissue expression after corticoid treatment may exist, although in corticoid-resistant AR no modulation on ICAM-1 tissue expression was observed.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; bax ; bcl-2 ; Colon carcinoma ; CyclinD1 ; Immunohistochemistry ; p21 ; p53 ; pRb
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Tumour growth is regulated by a balance between proliferation, growth arrest and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Until recently, the majority of the studies dealing with oncogenesis has been focused on the regulation of cell proliferation. There is now growing understanding that control of growth arrest and apoptosis play key roles in the development of human cancer and in cancer treatment. Some of the more heavily studied proteins of importance for the control of growth arrest and apoptosis are p53, p21, bcl-2 and bax. Alterations in the p53 protein may lead to malignant transformation and defect therapy response, most likely as a result of defective p53-dependent apoptosis. In addition, p21 (WAF1/CIP1) is involved in cell-cycle arrest and probably in induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. Proteins belonging to the bcl-2 family are also important for normal apoptosis. Overexpression of bcl-2 protein is thought to reduce the apoptotic capacity, while bax protein seems to be necessary for induction of apoptosis. In this study, we have immunostained tissues from 93 primary colon carcinomas and have examined the expression of p53, p21 (WAF1/CIP1), bcl-2 bax, pRb and cyclin D1 for evaluation of their roles in colon-cancer progression. A highly significant association between p53 accumulation and downregulation of p21 (WAF1/CIP1) was seen. We also found a strong association between reduced/absent p21 and the development of metastases and death due to cancer disease. Cyclin D1, bcl-2 and bax protein failed to have independent prognostic impacts. Bcl-2 and bax protein levels showed an inverse relationship. The results of the present study indicate that reduced p21 protein levels play an important role in progression of colon cancer. We concluded that evaluation of p21 expression in primary colon carcinomas at the time of surgery might be a valuable tool in defining patients with a high risk of developing metastases.
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  • 13
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    Virchows Archiv 436 (2000), S. 602-607 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Thyroid ; Hashimoto thyroiditis ; Oxyphil cell ; Immunohistochemistry ; bcl-2 ; Bax ; Fas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Immunoreactivity for bcl-2, Bax and Fas was analysed in 16 cases with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Bcl-2-expression was constantly seen in regular thyrocytes and in the mantle-zone of lymphofollicular infiltrates. However, thyrocytes in the vicinity of lymphoid infiltrates and, especially, mitochondria-rich oxyphil cells exhibited reduced staining or none at all for bcl-2. Bax was found to be weakly reactive or negative in normal thyrocytes and was not up-regulated in bcl-2-deficient epithelial cells. In contrast, expression of Fas was markedly increased both in typical thyrocytes and in oxyphil cells within areas of lymphocytic infiltration. In conclusion, focal lack of bcl-2 expression together with up-regulation of Fas is a constant feature of Hashimoto thyroiditis. The reaction pattern of oxyphil cells is identical to that of affected typical thyrocytes without proliferation of mitochondria. Loss of bcl-2 with up-regulation of Fas is therefore likely to precede oncocytic change. Whether these alterations are involved in the process of oncocytic transformation remains to be clarified, however.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Prostate adenocarcinoma ; Endocrine cells ; Immunohistochemistry ; FSH ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report an unusual variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma with marked endocrine differentiation (mixed endocrine-exocrine adenocarcinoma). Endocrine cells accounted for 60% of the tumour cells, were positive with silver impregnation and for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase, and coexpressed the exocrine antigens prostatic acid phosphatase and prostatic-specific antigen. Most of the endocrine cells were basophilic with haematoxylin-eosin and proved immunoreactive for alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone. The remaining endocrine cells were represented by eosinophilic cells positive for serotonin, and by calcitonin and serotonin-immunoreactive cells not identifiable in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. On ultrastructural analysis, two types of endocrine cells were identified. The most frequent cell type showed abundant cytoplasmic round, electron-dense neurosecretory granules, either small (212±44 nm) or large (471±114 nm), resembling those of gonadotropic pituitary cells. The second type of endocrine cells contained irregular electron-dense granules similar to those of serotonin-storing enterochromaffin cells.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Keywords Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma ; Immunohistochemistry ; ALK1 ; T-cell lymphoma ; Splenic rupture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In a 22-year-old male with a 10-day history of fever, painful swelling in the left groin, and abdominal complaints, emergency surgery was performed because of spontaneous splenic rupture. At histology, a cellular infiltrate of intermediate-sized atypical lymphocytes was seen in the splenic white pulp, staining for T-cell markers. In addition, CD30 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 (ALK) were diffusely positive, thus, representing a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), T-cell, ALK-positive, small cell monomorphic variant. ALK-positive ALCL patients generally bear a much better prognosis than patients with T-cell lymphomas, unspecified, or ALK-negative ALCL. Therefore, besides the very unusual clinical presentation, this case highlights the importance of immunostaining for CD30 and ALK in all T-cell lymphomas. This report is the first extensive description of ALK-positive ALCL involvement of the spleen.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words PE-35 ; CD1a ; Immunohistochemistry ; Catalyzed signal amplification (CSA) ; Thymoma ; Thymic carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  PE-35 monoclonal antibody, detecting a cell-surface antigen of various types of carcinoma and normal epithelium, reacts exclusively with the medullary epithelium in the thymus; therefore, the antigen has been considered as a marker of medullary differentiation in thymomas. Using the catalyzed signal amplification method, which made it possible to apply PE-35 to routinely processed, archival tissues, we examined expression of this antigen, together with CD1a reactivity of lymphocytes, in 40 thymic epithelial tumors subclassified using the Mü1ler-Hermelink system. Medullary thymomas infiltrated with a small number of CD1a-negative lymphocytes were PE-35 positive, although many of the long spindle tumor cells were PE-35 negative. Mixed thymomas and predominantly cortical thymomas, both with prominent CD1a-positive lymphocytes, were also PE-35 positive, although some areas of the latter type were PE-35 negative. Cortical thymomas with decreased numbers of CD1a-positive lymphocytes were largely PE-35 negative. In well-differentiated thymic carcinomas with a few CD1a-positive lymphocytes, two cases were negative, but four cases were at least focally positive with PE-35. All high-grade thymic carcinomas infiltrated with some CD1a-negative lymphocytes were PE-35 positive. These results suggested that medullary thymoma generally possesses the medullary nature, although the latter tends to be lost in the long spindle tumor cells. Mixed and predominantly cortical thymomas may have mixed medullary phenotype and cortical function. Cortical thymoma and many well-differentiated thymic carcinomas may possess the cortical nature, while the large polygonal tumor cells tend to lose immature T-lymphocyte-retaining function.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Keywords Solitary fibrous tumour ; Adrenal gland ; Pregnancy ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT), first described as a pleural lesion, has been reported in several extrathoracic sites over the past 10 years. We describe a SFT of the left adrenal gland incidentally discovered in a 23-year-old, 22-week pregnant woman and characterised by a rapid growth during the third trimester of pregnancy. Elevated serum and urinary levels of cortisol and elevated blood levels of delta 4 androstendione and 17-OH progesterone were observed. After spontaneous delivery, the patient underwent laparoscopic resectioning of the mass and of the left adrenal gland from which the tumour was apparently originating. The kidney was not involved, and no other abdominal tumours were found. Histological and immunohistochemical features were typical of SFT of pleura and other locations. Only one case of adrenal SFT is on record, and the adrenal gland is to be added to the long list of extrathoracic locations of SFT. The association with pregnancy was a previously unrecognised event in SFT. The focal expression of progesterone receptors in the tumour cells may be related to pregnancy. This observation prompted an analysis of steroid hormone receptors in SFT of classical sites (pleura). Two of five cases had focal progesterone receptors too, a finding which deserves further investigations in a much larger series of SFTs.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Oral cancer ; pN upgrading ; Immunohistochemistry ; Micrometastasis ; Semiserial sectioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The International Union Against Cancer (UICC) does not define the number of sections required from each regional lymph node to record pTNM classification. This study was designed to clarify the incidence of occult metastasis and to assess the pN upgrading of patients with oral cancer. Ultimately, this study led to a proposal for appropriate semiserial sectioning guidelines. Five hundred fifty-four nonmetastatic cervical lymph nodes taken from 73 patients with oral cancer were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and keratin immunohistochemistry. Micrometastases, defined as foci ≤3 mm, were detected in 29 sites of 23 lymph nodes (4.2%) of 16 patients (21.9%). In 9 patients (12.3%) pN upgrading was needed: in 6 from pN0 to pN1, in 1 from pN0 to pN2b, and in 2 from pN1 to pN2b. The remaining 13 lymph nodes with occult metastasis were found in 5 pN2b and 2 pN2c patients, resulting in no pN upgrading. Occult metastasis was also detected in 6 small lymph nodes ≤5 mm in diameter. The average minor axis of the micrometastasis was 1.36±0.85 mm. We propose that the lymph nodes should be cut and examined at 1-mm intervals to detect micrometastatic foci and to evaluate the pN classification accurately.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Keywords Small round cell tumors ; Ewing’s sarcoma ; Translocation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Differential diagnosis ; RT-PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  It is now widely accepted that the EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcript is associated with tumors of the Ewing family. To test whether it is possible to detect the fusion transcript by means of combining polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology and immunohistochemistry, we investigated tumors of the Ewing family using in situ reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. We were able to demonstrate the t(11;22) fusion transcript in five of six cases of Ewing’s sarcoma and four of four peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. These results were confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization in seven tumor samples. In situ RT-PCR-labeled fusion transcripts were found in virtually all tumor cells within a given sample, indicating that each cell possessed the t(11;22) transcript. We conclude from these results that in situ RT-PCR can be used for the rapid detection of EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcripts in biopsy material. The findings also suggest that all cells of the tumors of the Ewing family carry the EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcript.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words VMAT2 ; Stomach ; ECL cell ; Tumors ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) facilitates the ATP-dependent accumulation of biogenic amine inside the secretory granules of endocrine cells and neurons and was demonstrated in the histamine-producing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the stomach. In the present investigation, VMAT2 immunohistochemistry was tested in 85 endocrine tumors, of which 60 were well differentiated gastrointestinal and pancreatic growths, 5 poorly differentiated (neuro)endocrine carcinomas (PDEC) and 1 mixed PDEC/ECL cell carcinoma of the stomach, 12 pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, 3 adrenocortical lesions, 2 parathyroid and 2 lung neuroendocrine tumors. Extensive and intense VMAT2 immunoreactivity was observed in 16 of 16 gastric ECL cell tumors, 6 of 6 adrenal pheochromocytomas, 2 of 2 chromaffin paragangliomas and in 3 of the 4 carotid body paragangliomas investigated. Rare VMAT2-positive cells were observed in 12 of 21 intestinal enterochromaffin (EC) cell tumors, in 9 of 11 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and in the mixed PDEC/ ECL cell carcinoma of the stomach (differentiated cells only). No VMAT2 immunoreactivity was observed in five gastrin, four somatostatin and three enteroglucagon/peptideYY tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, in six gastric PDECs, in three adrenocortical growths, and two parathyroid and two lung neuroendocrine tumors. These data support VMAT2 immunohistochemistry as being a useful tool for the diagnosis of gastric ECL cell tumors, separating them from all other endocrine tumors arising in the gastroduodenal area i.e., gastrin, somatostatin, EC cell and PDEC tumors, all of which proved essentially negative.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Unusual lung tumors ; Papillary adenoma ; Surfactant proteins ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Peripheral papillary adenomas of the lung are uncommon neoplasms (only ten cases have been described so far in the English literature) composed predominantly of type-II pneumocytes and generally considered benign. We describe here two additional cases of this lung tumor. In both cases histological examination revealed an encapsulated papillary neoplasm with invasion of the capsule and, in one case, invasion of the adjacent alveoli and visceral pleura too. The proliferative index (Ki67) was less than 2% and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, surfactant apoproteins (SP), and nuclear thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells showed the characteristic surface microvilli and cytoplasmic lamellar inclusions of type-II cells. Review of the literature has revealed two other cases of peripheral papillary adenoma of type-II pneumocytes with infiltrative features. Thus, we propose replacing the term peripheral papillary adenoma with peripheral papillary tumor of undetermined malignant potential.
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  • 22
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    Virchows Archiv 436 (2000), S. 305-311 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Rhabdomyosarcoma ; Soft tissue tumours ; Adults ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm which is seen most frequently in its pleomorphic subtype in this age group. Very rarely, clear cell and spindle-cell variants have been reported. In this study we describe three cases of rhabdomyosarcoma in adult patients, characterised by prominent hyaline sclerosis and a pseudovascular growth pattern. All cases were identified in the consultation files of one of the authors and routinely processed. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections with the alkaline phosphatase–antialkaline phophatase method. The patients, two women and one man, were 40, 41, and 56 years old. One developed a deep-seated soft tissue mass in the left lower leg, and one, a tumour of the left upper jaw. In one patient a bone tumour in the proximal body of the sacrum without extension into soft tissues was seen. The patients were treated by wide excision, piecemeal excision and incomplete excision in one case each; additional radiotherapy was performed in all three cases, and chemotherapy in two patients. In one patient multiple pulmonary metastases were noted, which showed progression despite systemic chemotherapy. Histologically, the neoplasms were composed of round/polygonal and spindle-shaped tumour cells including typical rhabdomyoblasts. In all cases a pseudovascular pattern and prominent hyaline sclerosis of the intercellular matrix was seen. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells stained positively for desmin and muscle actin (HHF35) and also for markers of striated muscle differentiation (myogenin, MyoD1, fast myosin). In this paper an unusual morphological variant of rhabdomyosarcoma arising in adult patients is described, which should be added to the morphological spectrum of these neoplasms.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Adenocarcinoma cell ; Mesothelial cells ; Effusions ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The detection of malignant cells in serous effusions obtained from patients diagnosed with cancer marks the presence of metastatic disease and is associated with a poor outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CD44s and CD44v isoforms in the distinction between mesothelial cells and malignant epithelial cells in effusions. Fifty-nine fresh pleural and peritoneal effusions were studied. These consisted of 41 specimens from patients with known gynecological neoplasms, 9 from patients diagnosed with breast adenocarcinoma, and 9 effusions from patients with various nongynecological malignancies or tumors of unknown origin. Forty-three effusions contained malignant/atypical epithelial cells, and 16 effusions were diagnosed as reactive. Three effusions contained exclusively malignant cells. Specimens were stained with anti-CD44s, v3, v5, v6, v7 and v3-10. The presence of staining in cancer cells, benign mesothelial cells and lymphocytes was evaluated. CD44s immunoreactivity was seen in 10 of 43 (23%) cases in malignant/atypical epithelial cells and in 53 of 56 (94%) cases in benign cells. In contrast, CD44v3-10 was seen in 23 of 43 (55%) cases in malignant/atypical epithelial cells and in 3 of 56 (6%) cases in benign cells. We advocate the use of CD44s and CD44v3-10 immunostaining in diagnostic evaluation of difficult serous effusions.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Clinical course ; Immunohistochemistry ; Morphology ; Primary gastric T-cell lymphoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In contrast to primary gastric lymphomas of B-cell type, little is known about primary gastric T-cell lymphomas. We describe three cases with remarkably similar features: diffuse growth, epitheliotropism, medium too large cell size, high apoptotic rates, and a CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ immunophenotype. Clonal TCRγ gene rearrangement was shown in two cases. Epstein-Barr virus infection was excluded in two cases. Taking advantage of fresh-frozen material, we analyzed two cases further, revealing CD5–, CD16+, CD56–, CD57–, CD25+, CD30+, CD103 (αEβ7)+, bcl-2 protein+, CD95+, CD95 ligand(L)–. CD95L, however, was detected in histiocytic and fibroblastoid by stander cells. The lymphomas expressed granzyme B, perforin, and the TIA-1 antigen in various combinations. All three cases had a very unfavorable clinical course characterized by local recurrence and/or dissemination to other epithelial sites, leading to death within 6–12 months after the initial diagnosis despite surgery and aggressive antineoplastic treatment. These data suggest a novel variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma operationally characterized as primary gastric, apoptosis-rich, CD103+, EBV-, T-cell lymphoma co-expressing CD4, CD8, CD16 and cytotoxic molecules.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) ; Tuberous sclerosis ; Postmenopausal woman ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report a peculiar case of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) without association of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) in a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with tuberous sclerosis. This case is surmised to be a forme fruste of tuberous sclerosis. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple micronodules, measuring up to 5 mm in size, present in the bilateral lung fields, but no cystic changes. A proliferation of pleomorphic type-II pneumocytes lining the thickened alveolar septa in an adenomatoid pattern, with an associated increase in alveolar macrophages, was observed without typical nuclear atypia. In fully developed lesions, the ingrowth of more proliferating type-II pneumocytes into the thickened alveolar septa and macrophages filling the alveolar lumens were characteristic findings. Proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells suggesting LAM was not observed. Positive immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and surfactant apoproteins A and B, and negative staining for HMB45, alpha-1 smooth muscle actin, desmin, and carcinoembryonic antigen confirmed the characteristics of alveolar lining cells in each MMPH lesion. MMPH associated with tuberous sclerosis in the postmenopausal woman appears to be similar to that described in premenopausal women. The present case is familial rather than sporadic and suggests no relationship between the development of MMPH and the underlying hormonal state.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Keywords CD99 antigen ; Neuroendocrine tumours ; Immunohistochemistry ; Cell-to-cell adhesion ; Proliferative activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Although considered a specific marker for Ewing’s sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumour, the MIC2 gene product (CD99) has been immunolocalised in a variety of human tumours. The present study evaluated immunohistochemically the prevalence of CD99 expression in a series of 68 neuroendocrine tumours of different gastrointestinal and pulmonary sites. We now report on membrane and/or granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in 25% of these tumours, independent of their anatomical sites. In lung neuroendocrine tumours, CD99 was preferentially confined to typical carcinoids (P=0.009). A statistically significant relationship was observed between the number of CD99 positive cells but not the immunostaining patterns and the presence of local invasion and/or distant metastases (P〈0.001). Moreover, there was a tendency for CD99-reactive tumours to show a reduced proliferative activity expressed by a Ki67 index of 2% (P=0.119). The number of CD99 immunoreactive cells or patterns of immunoreactivity did not correlate with the presence of associated clinical syndrome or particular hormonal immunostaining. Although the molecular basis underlying CD99 expression in neuroendocrine tumours is still poorly understood, our data suggest that CD99 may be involved in cell-to-cell adhesion of neuroendocrine tumour cells and in downregulation of their proliferative activity.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Keywords Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor ; Pituitary gland ; Immunohistochemistry ; Colocalization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is a well-known regulator of gonadotroph function, has recently been considered to be a paracrine factor involved in the control of somatotroph, lactotroph, and corticotroph cells. GnRH action is initiated by binding to a specific cell surface receptor, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), which is expressed by follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone (FSH/LH) cells. Using in situ hybridization techniques, GnRHR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) has recently been detected in normal human anterior pituitary gland and in various pituitary adenomas, including FSH/LH-cell, growth hormone (GH)-cell, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-cell, and null-cell adenomas. However, immunohistochemical studies indicating the specific cell distribution of GnRHR in normal pituitary cells have never been reported. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of GnRHR in different types of normal pituitary cells and related tumors. Using double-label immunohistochemical techniques on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and specific antibodies directed against pituitary hormones and GnRHR, we found GnRHR immunoreactivity not only in FSH/LH cells, but also in GH- and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cells. GnRHR was detected in FSH/LH-cell, GH-cell, mixed GH- and prolactin (PRL)-cell, and α-subunit (α-SU)/null-cell adenomas. The findings of this study suggest that the interaction between GnRH and GnRHR may play a role in paracrine/autocrine regulation of different types of normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Cervix ; Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour ; Ewing’s tumour pathology ; Immunohistochemistry ; Cytogenetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Peripheral primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours (PNET) of the cervix are very rare. Here, we report the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of a case of a PNET located in the cervix. Hysterectomy revealed a cervical tumour. On microscopic examination, a vaguely lobular arrangement of uniformly appearing neoplastic cells, with round to oval nuclei, distinct nuclear membranes and a clear, moderately glycogen-rich cytoplasm was seen. Cells stained positive for LEU 7, S 100, monoclonal NSE and particularly for MIC2. Neurogenic differentiation was also seen by electron microscopic examination. The genetic hallmark of PNET, a 22q12 rearrangement was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation experiments, supporting the diagnosis. Awareness of the existence of primary PNET of the cervix is important to avoid confusion with other tumours of the cervix.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Nitric oxide ; Nitric oxide synthase ; Colorectal cancer ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) has an important role in tumor growth. However, information on the expression of NO synthase (NOS) in colorectal cancers is scanty. We therefore investigated the distribution and expression of NOS in human colorectal cancers. The expression of three types of NOS, inducible (iNOS), endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS), was examined by immunohistochemistry in 25 cases of colorectal cancer. The expression of iNOS was also investigated at the mRNA level using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 6 cases. Correlations were made between iNOS expression and the histopathological findings. Immunoreactive iNOS was detected in the tumor cells in 22 cases (88%) with diffuse cytoplasmic reactions. Expression of iNOS-mRNA detected by RT-PCR in three tumor tissues was over five-fold that in normal mucosa. Intensified immunoreactivity of iNOS was associated with vascular invasion. iNOS expression did not correlate with pathological staging, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, p53 expression or tumor vessel density. Immunoreactive eNOS stained more strongly in the endothelial cells of microvessels within and around the tumor than in the areas remote from the tumor. There is enhanced expression of iNOS and eNOS in human colorectal cancers, which may correlate with tumor growth and vascular invasion.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Adhesion molecule ; Integrins ; Meningiomas ; Macrophages ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This study assessed the expression of leukocyte integrins and macrophage-associated antigens in meningiomas. Fourteen benign meningiomas, ten atypical/anaplastic meningiomas, two hemangiopericytomas and one solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) were included. Frozen sections were immunostained using antibodies directed against leukocyte integrins, CD68, CD14, CD2, CD1a, DRC1 and CD34. Their expression was evaluated semi-quantitatively. Ki67 positive cells were counted. Arachnoid membranes served as controls. Arachnoid cells expressed the β2-integrin subunit and KP1. Beta2 was detected in the tumour cells of 14 meningiomas. In nine cases, this was associated with an α-integrin subunit. There was no statistical difference in the expression of β2 between benign and atypical/anaplastic meningiomas. KP1 was constantly expressed by the tumour cells of meningiomas. It was not expressed by other meningeal tumours. CD34 was detected in the fibrous meningiomas, hemangiopericytomas and the SFT. In each tumour, macrophages were more numerous than T lymphocytes. There was no statistical difference in the density of macrophages and T lymphocytes between the benign and atypical/anaplastic meningiomas. There was no correlation between the Ki67 proliferation index and macrophage infiltration. Meningiomas, through the expression of leukocyte antigens, have a very particular phenotype. The expression of β2 integrins could play a role in the attraction of immunocompetent cells in the stroma of meningiomas.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Breast ; Adenomyoepithelioma ; Metastasis ; Thyroid ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We describe a patient who was admitted to our hospital with an enlarged left lobe of the thyroid gland. Since fine-needle aspiration showed atypical follicular cells, a surgical exploration followed. Owing to extensive tumor infiltration into the surrounding tissues curative surgery was not possible, and only an incisional biopsy was taken. Histological examination of this biopsy revealed a mixed tumor composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. A primary thyroid tumor, metastasis of a salivary gland, and a skin appendage tumor could be excluded based on clinical examination, conventional histology, and immunohistochemistry. A tumor of the left breast treated 12 years earlier had originally been classified as an intraductal/intracystic carcinoma with focal invasion, but was re-examined. Using immunohistochemistry, the breast tumor was reclassified as a malignant adenomyoepithelioma. The current tumor was apparently a metastasis from this primary breast tumor. An updated review of the literature is given, including current knowledge on histological and immunohistochemical features of adenomyoepithelioma of the breast, with special attention to the reported pathological characteristics of recurrent and malignant tumors. Based on the reported pathological characteristics of recurrent and metastatic tumors we offer a diagnostic tool for identifying potentially malignant and recurrent tumors.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Anterior cruciate ¶ligament ; Reconstruction ; Growth factor ; Remodeling ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract This study was designed to examine localization of the growth factors in the autogenous patellar tendon graft used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the canine model. Among the various growth factors, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and platelet-derived growth factor were selected for analysis as potential factors that regulate graft remodeling processes. In the control patellar tendon and the ACL only basic fibroblast growth factor was positively stained. In the reconstructed graft increased levels of staining for all the three factors were observed in the early postoperative period, reaching the greatest expression 3 weeks after implantation. Thereafter immunoreactivity of these growth factors decreased and returned to the preoperative levels, which were similar to that of the control ACL 12 weeks postoperatively. This rapid reduction in the level of their localization indicates that once the extrinsic cells are infiltrated to the graft and revascularization completed, these growth factors may have less significance for subsequent remodeling.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ; Human cerebellum ; Immunohistochemistry ; Multiple system atrophy ; Purkinje cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a trophic effect on various types of neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells. To investigate the role of GDNF in the human cerebellum, we examined the cerebella of eight control cases and eight patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) immunohistochemically using a polyclonal anti-GDNF antibody. The antibody recognized a single band of approximately 34 kDa on Western blot analysis of human cerebellar homogenates. In the cerebella from normal subjects, the neuronal somata and dendrites of the Purkinje cells were immunostained intensely, as were some axons, including torpedoes, immunolabeled in the granular layer. Many axons and a few oligodendrocytes were also immunopositive in the white matter, and weak immunoreactivity was detected in the granule cells and neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. In the cerebella from patients with MSA, the general immunostaining pattern was similar to that observed in the normal subjects. Most of the remaining Purkinje cells showed strong immunoreactivity, and abundant GDNF-positive granular structures or dense arborizations of GDNF-positive dendrites were found in some areas of the molecular layer. These data suggest that GDNF may be mainly produced and localized in the Purkinje cells of the human cerebellum, even in patients with MSA, and that the functional impairment of the Purkinje cells of MSA patients might cause a focal accumulation of GDNF in the dendrites of some of the surviving Purkinje cells.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Heme oxygenase-1 ; Heat shock protein-32 ; Traumatic brain injury ; Cerebral infarction ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Extracellular heme derived from hemoglobin following hemorrhage or released from dying cells induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HSP-32) which metabolizes heme to the gaseous mediator carbon monoxide (CO), iron (Fe) and biliverdin. Biliverdin and its product bilirubin are powerful antioxidants. Thus, expression of HO-1 is considered to be a protective mechanism against oxidative stress and has been described in microglia, astrocytes and neurons following distinct experimental models of pathological alterations to the brain such as subarachnoidal hemorrhage, ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in human neurodegenerative diseases. We have now analyzed the expression of HO-1 in human brains following TBI (n = 28; survival times: few minutes up to 6 months) and focal cerebral infarctions (FCI; n = 17; survival time: 〈 1 day up to months) by ¶immunohistochemistry. Follwing TBI, accumulation of ¶HO-1+ microglia/macrophages at the hemorrhagic lesion was detected as early as 6 h post trauma and was still pronounced after 6 months. In contrast, after FCI HO-1+ microglia/macrophages accumulated within focal hemorrhages only and were absent in non-hemorrhagic regions. Further, HO-1 was weakly expressed in astrocytes in the perifocal penumbra. In contrast to experimental data derived from rat focal ischemia, these results indicate a prolonged HO-1 expression in humans after brain injury.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Myotonic dystrophy ; Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase ; Immunohistochemistry ; Human brain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To investigate the pathophysiologic role of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) in the brain in myotonic dystrophy (MD), the developmental characteristics of DMPK immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and its alteration with disease were studied. Eleven patients’ brain with MD (5 congenital form, 6 adult form) were examined by immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody against synthetic DMPK peptides, anti-peptide DM1, and compared with 30 control brains, including 16 age-matched controls. In controls, DM1-immunoreactive neurons appeared in the early fetal frontal cortex and cerebellar granule cell layer, persisting through 29 weeks of gestation and then disappearing. In contrast, immunoreactive neurons continued to persist in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar granule cell layer of MD patients. When we counted DM1-immunoreactive neurons, the increase over controls was greater in the congenital form of MD than in the adult form, and was greater in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum in both forms of MD. DM1 immunostaining was predominantly nuclear, mirroring Western blotting of subcellular fractions. Differences in DM1 expression related to development and to the two forms of MD may be closely related to the pathogenesis of mental retardation in this disease.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cell culture ; Cell line ; Glioma ; Calcium-binding proteins ; Microglia enzymology ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a Ca2+-binding peptide that constitutes a potential modulator of macrophage activation and function during the immune response of the brain. Peptides termed microglia response factor-1 or ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 have been reported to be identical with AIF-1. We have investigated the expression of AIF-1 in the rat C6 glioblastoma and 9L gliosarcoma tumor models and additionally assessed AIF-1 expression in a diverse range of human astrocytomas by immunohistochemistry. AIF-1 was expressed by activated microglial cells and a subset of infiltrating macrophages in areas of infiltrative tumor growth and in compact tumor areas in both rat and human gliomas. Double-labeling experiments in rats and humans characterized the nature and the functional status of AIF-1+ cells. AIF-1 expression was detected in cells expressing major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and in a subset of activated macrophages/microglial cells. All MRP-8+ cells coexpressed AIF-1. In humans, there was a strong correlation of AIF-1-expressing activated macrophages/microglial cells with tumor malignancy (P 〈 0.0001). These results suggest that AIF-1 defines a distinct subset of tumor-associated activated macrophages/ microglial cells.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Multiple sclerosis ; Aλ amyloid ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In rare multiple sclerosis cases amyloid is deposited in demyelinated plaques. In one such case amyloid was examined immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies directed against different amyloid types. The amyloid was classified as the Aλ type produced by a local monoclonal B cell population.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Neuronal intranuclear inclusion ; Neurodegenerative diseases ; Polyglutamine ; Ubiquitin ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease (NIHID) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intranuclear inclusions in neurons (NIs). We report here clinicopathological findings of a 25-year-old female patient who died after 13 years of a clinical course characterized by progressive gait disturbance and movement disorders. Histological examination revealed widespread NIs with neuronal loss in restricted regions; neuronal loss was severe in the subthalamic nucleus, internal pallidum, substantia nigra, Edinger-Westphal nucleus and Purkinje cell layer. Quantification of the NIs combined with a graded evaluation of neuronal loss revealed an overall tendency for more severe neuronal loss to be accompanied by a lower frequency of NIs. A morphological similarity to the nuclear inclusions recently identified in several CAG repeat diseases prompted us to examine the immunolocalization of ubiquitin and expanded polyglutamine stretches, which demonstrated the presence of ubiquitin at the periphery of most NIs. An expanded polyglutamine stretch was seen in the center of limited number of NIs. These findings indicate that abnormal fragments such as expanded polyglutamine regions are incorporated into the inclusion, aggregated in its center, and thereby metabolized by a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Although it remains to be elucidated how the formation of NIs is related to neuronal degeneration, our findings suggest that NIs are formed in the process of sequestering or degrading abnormal protein fragments and formation of NIs may not be immediately toxic to neurons.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy ; Cerebellar dentate nucleus neuron ; Skein-like inclusion ; Polyglutamine ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have recently reported that, in addition to the widespread occurrence of ubiquitinated neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), the restricted occurrence of ubiquitinated intracytoplasmic filamentous inclusions in the neurons of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (CDN) is a characteristic feature of dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Interestingly, these neuronal intracytoplasmic filamentous inclusions (NIFIs) were morphologically indistinguishable from the skein-like inclusions (SLIs) described previously in the spinal anterior horn cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the present study, we examined immunohistochemically the CDN in ten patients with clinicopathologically and genetically confirmed DRPLA and the spinal anterior horns in five patients with sporadic ALS, using a monoclonal antibody (1C2) directed against long polyglutamine stretches. In all of the patients with DRPLA, both the NIFIs and the NIIs were visualized clearly with 1C2. Conversely, in the patients with ALS all structures, including the SLIs, were completely negative. These findings indicate that in DRPLA, the NIFIs in the CDN are an alteration that is directly related to the causative gene abnormality (an expanded CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine) and that, from the molecular point of view, they are distinct from the SLIs in ALS.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Intramembranous ossification ; Immunohistochemistry ; Muscle fiber type
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Previous studies using parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) null mutant mice have indicated severe abnormalities in the endochondral ossification, suggesting that PTHrP affects chondrocyte differentiation. In this study, we found in newborn PTHrP-deficient mice some deformities in the mandible that is formed via intramembranous ossification. The mandibular ramus was bent downwards and a prominent bone crest to which the deep layer of masseter muscle was tendinously attached was observed in the mandibular body. Transmission electron microscopic studies showed that active bone formation was progressing along the tendon fibers of the masseter muscle. The examination of 3-D reconstruction models indicated that the mandibular ramus was bent at the site of muscle attachment, which was shifted in the direction of the muscle fibers. Muscle fiber type analysis using myosin ATPase staining showed that the masseter muscle in the newborn PTHrP-deficient mice contained numerous type 2B fibers, demonstrating premature maturation of this muscle. Based on these findings, we speculated that premature maturation of the masseter muscle leads, probably due to increased tensile forces, to accelerated bone crest formation and subsequent bending of the mandibular ramus. These results further suggest that PTHrP is involved in the regulation of muscle development in normal animals.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Bone ; Calcification ; Type I collagen ; Noncollagenous proteins ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  It is not known how bone proteins appear in the matrix before and after calcification during embryonic osteogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate expressions of the five major bone extracellular matrix proteins – i.e. type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin – during osteogenesis in rat embryonic mandibles immunohistochemically, and their involvement in calcification demonstrated by von Kossa staining. Wistar rat embryos 14 to 18 days post coitum were used. Osteogenesis was not seen in 14-day rat embryonic mandibles. Type I collagen was localized in the uncalcifed bone matrix in 15-day mandibles, where no other bone proteins showed immunoreactivity. Osteonectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin appeared almost simultaneously in the calcified bone matrix of 16-day mandibles and accumulated continuously in 18-day mandibles. The present study suggested that type I collagen constitutes the basic framework of the bone matrix upon which the noncollagenous proteins are oriented to lead to calcification, whereas the noncollagenous proteins are deposited simultaneously by osteoblasts and are involved in calcification cooperatively.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Bergmann glia ; Cell migration ; Cerebellar ¶dysplasia ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mutant rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cerebellar vermis defect (CVD) rat is a new neurological mutant characterized by a cerebellar vermis defect and dysplasia in the cerebellum, especially at the cerebellopontine junctions. In this study, the cytokinetics of glia in terms of the development of cerebellar dysplasia in the CVD rat was investigated using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin immunohistochemistry. In the cerebellar hemispheres, dislocation of the Bergmann glia was observed from postnatal day 5 (P5) in lesions with abnormally aggregated external granule cells (EGCs). Rearranging Bergmann glia were often seen around the EGCs penetrating into the white matter. In the cerebellopontine junctional areas, Bergmann glia were induced after penetration of the Purkinje cells, identified with calbindin immunohistochemistry, and EGCs into the pons from P10. Bergmann fibers were frequently arranged perivascularly. In the clusters of Purkinje cells without EGC settlement in the pons, a small number of Bergmann fibers were observed and their alignment was completely disturbed. These findings suggest that morphological changes in the Bergmann glia depend on their contact with Purkinje cells, but that the orientation of their processes may be influenced by EGC settlement. These glial fibers in the CVD rat may play an important role in the aberrant migration of EGCs, resulting in the development of cerebellar dysplasia.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words α-Smooth muscle actin ; Chronological changes ; Smooth musculature ; Chick ; Ileum ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The genesis of intestinal smooth muscle layers was immunohistochemically investigated by use of an antibody to α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the developing chick ileum. Myoblast cells positive for α-SMA were already found in the presumptive circular muscle layer on E 8.5. On E 11.5 radially oriented muscle fibers were protruded from the outermost layer of the developing circular musculature and then formed a tuft-like aggregates. These radial muscle bundles were bent into an L-shape. The long distal extension of muscle bundles run parallel to the long axis of the ileal loop and developed into the longitudinal muscle layer. The obliquely oriented muscle fibers, locating at the intermuscular space of the muscularis propria, probably are to be considered a remnant of the short extension of radial muscle bundles. The muscularis mucosae was formed by the processes equivalent to the genesis of longitudinal muscle layer. On E 14.5 centripetally oriented muscle fibers emerged from the innermost layer of circular musculature. The long distal extension of centripetal fibers lay along the inner surface of developing circular musculature. On E 19.5 the longitudinal muscle layer of the muscularis mucosae was newly formed by separating from the circular musculature. The villous myoblast cells initially developed from the innermost layer of the muscularis mucosae on E 18.5, and were widely distributed in the lamina propria mucosae on E 20.5. Temporal and chronological pattern in expression of α-SMA was observed during the development of the chick intestinal smooth muscle. By E 14.5 the entire layer of the muscularis propria was intensely immunostained for α-SMA, but from E 15.5 onward the staining intensity gradually began to decrease from the outer half of the circular musculature. Finally, the immunoreactivity was localized in the inner layer of circular muscle and the longitudinal muscle layer. A possible functional role of this inner layer of circular muscle is discussed.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Cell differentiation ; Cell proliferation ; Collagen ; Fetal development ; Fibronectin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Keratin ; Laminin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  At gestational day 16 the epithelium of the rat stomach consists of a stratified layer of undifferentiated cells, and two days later glandular structures appear. The present study was carried out to identify extracellular matrix proteins that could be involved in the epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation processes that occur in the fetal rat stomach during this period. For comparative purposes the expression of the same components in the adult gastric mucosa was examined. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. One, 3.5, or 6 h post-injection the stomachs were excised and immediately frozen. The specimens were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or for 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine, cytokeratin no. 8, H,K-ATPase, and the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin, and collagens type I and IV. A stratified layer of proliferating cells was observed in the epithelium of the fetal stomachs, while in adult stomachs proliferating cells were detected in the isthmus/neck region of the glands. Cytokeratin, an epithelial cell marker, was sparse at gestational day 16 but abundant both at gestational day 18 and in the isthmus/neck region of gastric glands of the adult stomach. The parietal cell marker H,K-ATPase could not be detected in the fetal stomachs during this period. Fibronectin was observed in the stroma of both fetal and adult stomachs. Collagen type I could only be detected in the stroma close to the oesophagus at gestational day 16. Two days later, collagen type I was abundant in the lamina propria, the submucosa and in the serosa of the fetal stomachs. In adult tissue collagen type I was detected in the surface epithelium, the submucosa and in the serosa of the stomach. Collagen type IV and laminin were expressed in the lamina propria, the basement membranes around blood vessels, muscle cells, and nerve bundles, as well as in the serosa of both 16- and 18-day-old fetal and adult rat stomachs. In conclusion, a high cell proliferation rate was observed in the epithelium at both gestational days 16 and 18. The increased expression of cytokeratin observed during this period indicates that the epithelial character of the embryonic cells becomes more distinct, while the remarkable change in the expression of collagen type I might reflect an important role of collagen type I in the development of the gastric epithelium.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Aging ; Immunohistochemistry ; Inclusion body ; Neostriatum ; Ubiquitin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We examined the presence of ubiquitin-immunoreactive skein-like inclusions (SLI) in the neostriatum and spinal cord in normal individuals and patients with different neurodegenerative diseases. Ubiquitin-immunoreactive SLI in the neostriatum were observed both in the normal individuals and in the patients with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, SLI were frequently seen in normal aged subjects and certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy and myotonic dystrophy. In contrast, the occurrence rate of SLI in cases with Pick’s disease and multiple system atrophy tended to decrease. On the other hand, SLI in the spinal anterior horn were detected in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but not in any cases with other neurodegenerative diseases. SLI in the neostriatum were also identifiable using phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin and Gomori trichrome staining. Ubiquitin immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the SLI in the neostriatum corresponded to bundles of filaments. These features of SLI in the neostriatum were quite similar to those of intracytoplasmic rod-like inclusions (RLI) in the large neurons of caudate nucleus, which were first described by Kojima and Ogawa in 1974. Our findings indicate that SLI in the neostriatum are ubiquitin-related structures whose occurrence increases by aging, and less frequently accompany several neurodegenerative diseases, and are identical to at least some RLI.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cytosine arabinoside ; Heterotopia ; Microcephaly ; Hippocampus ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pregnant mice were injected intraperitoneally with cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) on days 13.5 and 14.5 of pregnancy. The brains of their offspring were studied histologically and histochemically. In addition to dysgenic microcephaly, nodular structures consisting of cells with a relatively homogeneous morphology were observed in the depths of the cerebral cortex. The cell clusters were first seen around postnatal day 4, and had a cellular continuity with the disarrayed pyramidal cell layer in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Golgi-Cox staining showed a number of pyramidal-shaped cells in the clusters. Morphologically, they resembled the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Immunohistochemical examination, using anti-serotonin or anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies, also indicated similarities between the cell clusters and the pyramidal cell layer. It is, therefore, proposed that the cell clusters consisted of heterotopic pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. A few synaptic structures could already be detected in the heterotopic cell clusters on postnatal day 3 by electron microscopy. This early establishment of synaptic contact with related neurons may have caused the heterotopic localization of the pyramidal cells.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words HSV ; Immunohistochemistry ; Apoptosis ; p53 ; Transcription factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To understand the mechanism of neuronal apoptosis induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in vivo, the distribution of viral antigen, the appearance of apoptotic bodies, and the expressions of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and several transcription factors such as c-fos, c-jun and NF-κB were examined immunohistochemically and histopathologically after corneal infection of mice with HSV type 2 strain 186. Five days after HSV infection, viral antigen was diffusely detected in the corneal epithelium, the trigeminal ganglion and the pars caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Neuronal apoptosis was observed in the brain stem ipsilateral to the HSV-infected side with the immunoreactivities of c-fos, c-jun, NF-κB and p53. Dual-labeling immunohistochemical studies revealed that almost all of the viral antigen-positive neurons and glia in the brain stem also showed p53 immunoreactivity. On the other hand, no neuronal apoptosis but only with the expression of c-jun was found in the trigeminal ganglion. Our results suggest that the different expression of transcription factors between the brain stem and the trigeminal ganglion may influence the neuronal apoptosis induced by HSV infection.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Posterior pituitary ; Ganglion cell ; Immunohistochemistry ; Ectopia ; Transdifferentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Histologic examination revealed large ganglion cells within the posterior pituitary of an 80-year-old woman who died of myocardial infarction. Apparently fully mature, the cells were an incidental finding scattered within hyperplastic foci of pars intermedia (PI)-derived cells (basophil invasion) on histologic examination of the pituitary obtained at autopsy. Immunocytochemistry showed staining reactivity for neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, alpha subunit of the glycoprotein hormones and beta-endorphin. The presence of these ganglion cells with features similar to those of magnocellular hypothalamic neurons could be considered the result of abnormal migration during the early phase of embryonic life, or differentiation/maturation of neuroblasts, presumed to occur in the embryonic neurohypophysis. Alternatively, transdifferentiation from proliferating PI cells may explain the emergence of neurons; a hypothesis supported by the proximity and shared alpha subunit, and beta-endorphin immunoreactivities of the two cell types.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Ependymoma ; Ganglioglioma ; Immunohistochemistry ; Intranuclear inclusions ; Tubulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have observed intranuclear inclusion bodies immunoreactive for the cytoskeletal protein class III β tubulin (C3βT) in neurons and ependymal cells of post-mortem human brain. The relationship of these inclusions, detected by light microscopy, to the intranuclear rodlets described by the classical microscopists is unknown. The present study was conducted to determine whether these proteinaceous inclusions (C3βT-NIIs) exist in the neoplastic counterparts of these cell types. Immunohistochemical staining for C3βT revealed intensely stained, predominantly rod-shaped intranuclear inclusions in a variable proportion of tumor cells in five of ten ependymomas. In addition, C3βT-NIIs were encountered in less than 1% of neuronal cells in two of five gangliogliomas. This study represents the first report of tubulin-containing intranuclear inclusions in brain tumors. The functional significance of these inclusions in normal human brain and in cerebral neuroepithelial neoplasms remains to be determined.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cerebral aneurysm ; Immunohistochemistry ; Smooth muscle cell ; Phenotypic modulation ; Myosin heavy chain isoforms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We used immunohistochemical methods to analyze the phenotypes of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in human cerebral arteries and aneurysmal walls. Thirty-two aneurysmal walls were studied; 31 aneurysmal walls were resected at operation and 1 aneurysm was obtained at autopsy. Seven control arteries were obtained at autopsy. Semiserial sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms: SM1, SM2 and SMemb. In control cerebral arteries, SMCs in the media were strongly immunostained for α-SMA, desmin, SM1 and SM2; immunoreactivity for SMemb was faint or weakly positive. SMCs in both non-ruptured and ruptured aneurysmal walls showed no staining for desmin; the expression of α-SMA was well preserved. Compared with control cerebral arteries, in 4 of 11 non-ruptured aneurysmal walls, the staining intensity of SMCs for SMemb was clearly increased. In ruptured aneurysmal walls, the expression of SM2 was lower than in control cerebral arteries and non-ruptured aneurysmal walls. Our study suggests that the phenotype of SMCs in aneurysmal walls is different from the contractile type in the media of normal cerebral arteries, at least partially changing to the synthetic type in some non-ruptured aneurysms. SMCs in ruptured aneurysmal walls may have lost both phenotypes before rupture. Phenotypic modulation of SMCs in the aneurysmal walls appears to be related to a remodeling of the aneurysmal wall and to a rupture mechanism.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Telencephalin ; Holoprosencephaly ; Cerebral cortex ; Glomerular structure ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Telencephalin (TLN), a telencephalon-specific glycoprotein, is exclusively expressed in neurons of the mammalian telencephalon. In the normally developing human brain, TLN immunoreactivity appeared and increased from 35 gestational weeks (GW) in the temporal cortex, and reached adult level at 5 months of postnatal age, being strong in the molecular layer, and weak in the external and internal granular layers. TLN expression corresponded with the development of neuronal dendrites and synapses. In brains with holoprosencephaly TLN immunoreactivity was already strong from as early as 28 GW. Staining was weak in the molecular layer, but strong in the external sparse and middle cellular layers in most cases. Notably, TLN was abundant in the glomerular structures in the internal pyramidal and multiform layers of fetal brains with alobar holoprosencephaly, which disappeared with increasing age. These results indicate premature and ectopic development of the dendrites and synaptic network in holoprosencephaly.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Hypothermia ; Immunohistochemistry ; Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) ; Rat ; Spinal cord injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Systemic hypothermia has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental ischemic CNS models caused by vascular occlusions. The present study addresses the question as to whether systemic hypothermia has similar neuroprotective qualities following severe spinal cord compression trauma using microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunohistochemistry combined with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method as marker to identify neuronal and dendritic lesions. Fifteen rats were randomized into three equally sized groups. One group sustained thoracic laminectomy, the others severe spinal cord compression trauma of the T8-9 segment. The control group contained laminectomized animals submitted to a hypothermic procedure in which the esophageal temperature was reduced from 38 °C to 30 °C. The two trauma groups were either submitted to the same hypothermic procedure or kept normothermic during the corresponding time. All animals were sacrificed 24 h following the surgical procedure. The MAP2 immunostaining in the normothermic trauma group indicated marked reductions in MAP2 antigen in the cranial and caudal peri-injury zones (T7 and T10, respectively). This reduction was much less pronounced in the hypothermic trauma group. In fact, the MAP2 antigen was present in almost equally sized areas in both the hypothermic groups independent of previous laminectomy alone or the addition of trauma. Our study thus indicates that hypothermia has a neuroprotective effect on dendrites of rat spinal cords subjected to compression trauma.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Ganglioglioma ; Ependymoma (tanycytic variant) ; Neurofibrillary tangle ; Immunohistochemistry ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied a cystic ganglioglioma (GG) located in the right frontal lobe of the brain. Interestingly, the fibrillary spindle glial cells were often arranged in a fascicular pattern, and the generally uniform, round-to-oval delicate nuclei appeared to resemble those of ependymoma; and the neoplastic neurons often contained neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The glial component was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and occasionally contained granular or microvesicular structures positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Ultrastructural investigation revealed that the glial cells were ependymal in nature; intracytoplasmic lumina and intercellular microrosettes lined with cilia and microvilli, as well as long zonulae adherentes, were evident. In addition, chromogranin A-positive granular staining, neurosecretory-granule-like structures, and parallel arrays of microtubules were sometimes associated with the blood vessels. We considered the present case to be an unusual example of GG with an ependymoma, more precisely a tanycytic ependymoma, as the glial component; to our knowledge, the existence of ependymoma as the main glial component of this particular tumor has not been described before. The occurrence of NFTs, which has been reported in several cases of GG, was an additional, unusual feature.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Hamartin ; Immunohistochemistry ; Tuberin ; Tuberous sclerosis ; Western blotting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is caused by a mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. The clinical manifestations of mutations of the two genes are hardly distinguishable, for reasons as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of the products of these genes, hamartin and tuberin, in control and TSC tissues. Western blotting disclosed that hamartin and tuberin are both abundant in the cerebral gray matter and that they have similar subcellular distributions and developmental patterns of expression. Immunohistochemical localizations of hamartin and tuberin were also similar, with high levels of expression being localized to the cerebral neurons and glial cells, renal uriniferous and collecting tubules, and cardiac muscles. In the cerebrum with TSC, both hamartin and tuberin were simultaneously reduced in the cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, and from the normal-appearing cortex. The renal angiomyolipomas and cardiac rhabdomyomas also showed a loss of both the proteins. These results provide evidence for the co-localization and interaction of hamartin and tuberin in vivo, and suggest that a mutation in one TSC gene may secondarily affect the expression of the other in some TSC lesions.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key wordsα-Synuclein ; Brain tumors ; Neuronal ¶differentiation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Neuronal marker
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract α-Synuclein is presynaptic nerve terminal protein and its immunoreactivity has been observed in such neurodegenerative structures as senile plaques of Alzheimer’s disease or Lewy bodies of Parkinson’s disease. The physiological role of α-synuclein is still unknown. It is speculated that α-synuclein may be expressed in brain tumors, especially in those showing neuronal differentiation. We examined the immunohistochemical localization of α-synuclein in 77 human brain tumors. α-Synuclein was widely distributed in the brain tumors showing neuronal differentiation. As a result, positive immunostaining for α-synuclein was observed in ganglioglioma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pineocytoma/pineoblastoma, and central neurocytoma. Compared with other neuronal markers, the positive ratio of α-synuclein was not as high as synaptophysin, microtubule-associacted protein 2, neuron-specific enolase and tau, but it was higher than neurofilament and chromogranin A. The expression of synaptophysin was diffusely observed in the cytoplasm, cellular processes and nucleus in tumors showing neuronal differentiation; however, the expression of α-synuclein was predominantly observed in the cytoplasm of the tumors as well as in the cellular processes. On the other hand, non-neuronal brain tumors such as astrocytic tumors or meningiomas were totally negative for α-synuclein. In conclusion, the appearance of an α-synuclein-positive structure was not limited to neurodegenerative diseases, but could also be detected in neoplastic cells showing neuronal differentiation.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Splenic rupture ; T-cell lymphoma ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Pathological or spontaneous rupture of the spleen has been described in a variety of diseases affecting the spleen, with infections being cited as the cause in most cases. In hematological malignancies it is a rare event, despite the frequent involvement of the spleen in these diseases. It has, however, been described in patients with acute and chronic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin, mycosis fungoides, and so-called histiocytic lymphoma. Here, we present a fatal case of splenic rupture caused by infiltration of a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified according to the REAL classification. The importance of a correct diagnosis and fast surgery is emphasized.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Monoclonal antibody ; A33 ; Gastric cancer ; Immunohistochemistry ; Tumor targeting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Murine monoclonal antibody A33 (mA33) was developed by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and by the New York Branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. It is an immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a antibody that detects a protease- and neuraminidase-resistant, periodate-sensitive epitope. Serological analysis of the antigen showed that it is expressed in a few colorectal cancer cell lines and a pancreatic cancer cell line, but is basically not reactive with other types of cell line. Normal fibroblasts and normal kidney cell lines reacted negatively to mA33. Immunohistochemical study of normal tissues identified the large and small intestinal mucosa as the principal site of A33 expression. Tests in tumor samples demonstrated that only tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are consistently A33 positive. A33 is found in 95% of primary and metastatic colorectal cancers, with uniform expression throughout the tumors in most cases. A33 is also detected in 63% of gastric cancers, with uniform expression in 45% of cases. Eighty-three percent of intestinal-type gastric cancers were positive for A33, and about 50% of the diffuse-type and mucinous cancers were mA33 positive. A33 was expressed in 50% of the pancreatic cancers but with marked heterogeneity. Other epithelial cancers, sarcomas, neuroectodermal tumors, and lymphoid neoplasms were generally A33 negative. A33 is the first example of a constitutively expressed, organ-specific epithelial membrane antigen permitting highly specific tumor targeting in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Encouraged by the success of the biodistribution and imaging characteristic studies performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center by the New York Branch of the Ludwig Institute in colorectal cancers, a new clinical study of humanized monoclonal antibody huA33 against A33 antigen-positive gastric cancers has been initiated in Japan.
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  • 58