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  • Inheritance  (92)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oryza sativa L. ; Spontaneous dwarfs ; Induced dwarfs ; Inheritance ; Allelic relationship
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Genetic study of spontaneous and induced dwarfs included the mode of inheritance of dwarf stature and the allelic relationships among various dwarfs. Qualitative genetic analysis involving crosses of fourteen dwarfs with a common tall variety ‘IARI 11124’ showed that the degree of dominance in the F1 hybrids varied with the cross. With the exception of the crosses of IARI 6579 and IARI 10560 with the tall variety, all crosses exhibited incomplete dominance. The segregation pattern in F2 populations of height classes showed dwarfness to be a monogenic recessive trait functioning, however, in association with modifier complexes of varied strength. From F2 behaviour of all possible crosses involving the fourteen different dwarfs, the allelic relationships were deduced. Three major groups of dwarfs could be recognised. Group I, comprised of FF 36, IARI 5842, IARI 5906-2B, IARI 5923, IARI 10061, IARI 10560 and IARI 11445, was allelic to I-geo-tse and Dee-Gee-Woo-Gen with modifiers of predominantly negative effects, while group-2, comprised of dwarfs IARI 5901-2, IARI 5924, IARI 6579 and IARI 7312B, was also allelic to Dee-Gee-Woo-Gen and I-geo-tse but with large and equal number of modifiers of positive and negative effects. The induced mutant, Central Africa Mutant (CAM) which constituted the third group seemed to possess a dwarfing gene that was non-allelic to those of the above mentioned two groups of dwarfs, with equal strength of modifiers of plus and minus effects. Unlike the dwarfs of spontaneous origin, which are invariably allelic to ‘Dee-Gee-Woo-Gen’, the induced dwarf was nonallelic. Thus, induced mutagenesis appears to give rise to dwarfing genes different from those found in the naturally occurring dwarfs.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Oat prolamins ; Inheritance ; Electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The inheritance of avenin components, the prolamins (or alcohol soluble proteins) of Avena, is studied by means of gel electrophoresis. Avenin is composed of rather similar proteins which appear as a polymorphic group from a biochemical point of view. After a first preliminary investigation it showed a surprisingly high interspecific variability. The average number of its constituents increases with the ploidy level but it still is much lower than that of wheat gliadin. The avenin electrophoretic patterns of 47 samples (F4, F5 or F6 seeds) resulting from 3 hexaploid crosses are compared with the parental patterns. Four kinds of inheritance are observed. Roughly 50% of progeny profiles are identical to those of one of the parents. They are composed occasionally of partial sections of parental patterns. Complete additiveness occurs rather seldom. However, in one of the crosses a significant number of progeny samples show a band, one of the very slow moving constituents, which was not present in either of the parents. The study of avenin in F1 seeds, arising from reciprocal crosses between two homozygous parent plants, shows a significant effect of maternal gene dose in the triploid endosperm. Because of both the variability and the relatively small number of avenin constituents, these results show that typical endosperm proteins such as oat prolamin constitute a useful tool for phylogenetic studies of the genus Avena.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; Wheat ; Puccinia graminis ; Stem rust resistance ; Inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Two bread wheat accessions, E5008 and E6160, have been genetically analysed for resistance genes effective against Indian cultures of stem rust races, 15C and 122. The inheritance of resistance to each race has been determined from the F1 and F2 of the crosses (resistant parents with the susceptible variety, ‘Agra Local’) and F2 progenies from the backcross to ‘Agra Local’. Tests have been performed to see if the two varieties carry common genes/s for resistance. The identity of the genes for resistance has been established from relevant crosses with single gene lines carrying known genes for resistance. A single dominant gene effective to race 15C in E5008 has been demonstrated to be Sr9b. Of the two recessive genes, each producing distinct infection types (0; and 1–3) against race 122, one gene has been inferred to be Sr12 and the second to be a hitherto undesignated gene. The resistance of E6160 against race 15C is controlled by two genes, one dominant and one recessive. The dominant gene has been identified as Sr9b. The recessive gene has been inferred to be a new gene. Similarly, a dominant gene effective against race 122 in E6160 has been observed to be different from those so far designated. In addition, the presence of modifier gene/s in the variety, E6160 has been suggested.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Self-incompatibility ; Pseudo-self-compatibility ; Gamete competition ; Inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Nemesia strumosa plants were discovered which had styles capable of discriminating among incompatible pollen tubes from different pollinators, allowing growth of some but not others. All but 3 of 26 families tested had at least some members with discriminating styles (DS). Presence and level of DS was independent of S genotype. Plants with pseudo-self-compatiblity (PSC) levels greater than 10% had the trait, though many plants with strong DS had PSC levels less than 10%. Self pollination of highly DS plants produced mostly DS offspring, but of differing sensitivities. Some progenies from crosses between a family of highly DS plants and unrelated, probably low DS plants segregated half DS and half non-DS, while others consisted of mostly DS or mostly non-DS. The DS phenomenon is probably caused by PSC genes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Electrophoresis ; Potato ; Isozymes ; Genetic markers ; Inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Genetic bases of isozyme phenotypes of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and glucosephosphate isomerase (GpI) from tuber extracts of potato species of the genus Solanum were investigated by starch gel electrophoresis. Data were obtained from reciprocal F1 matings of S. tuberosum X ssp. andigena (Juz. & Buk.) Hawkes and ssp. tuberosum X (S. phureja X S. chacoense) and BC1 matings where ssp. tuberosum was the recurrent parent. AKP and GPI are dimeric enzymes and the variation observed for each was found to be coded by single tetrasomic loci (Akp and Gpi) with three (A, A′, A″) and five (G, G′, G″, G‴, G⁗) alleles, respectively. Although the G‴ and G⁗ encoded homodimers have similar electrophoretic mobilities, the specific enzymatic activity of the G⁗ encoded homodimer is approximately 25% that of the G‴. The predictable genetic bases for these two enzymatic polymorphisms make them suitable for use as genetic markers in the potato. Chromosome mapping of the loci which encode these enzymes is now possible.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Condensed tannins ; Polymorphism ; Inheritance ; Cyanide ; Lotus corniculatus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A study of 172 unnamed populations and 22 cultivars of Lotus corniculatus showed: (1) that all plants of most strains of both categories contained leaf tannins (total 172 strains); (2) that 6 strains were tannin-negative; and (3) that 16 strains were polymorphic. Because of the small number of tested plants per strain, the above frequency of polymorphism is probably underestimated. Tannin-negative or polymorphic strains are frequent in Iran and Turkey. Leaftannin production is inherited as a monogenic dominant with tetrasomic inheritance. Repeated scores suggest that some individuals always, others sometimes and yet others never produce leaf tannins. Mean tannin content of 6 cultivars was strongly negatively associated with mean cyanide content.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Inheritance ; Culm-length ; GA insensitivity ; Grain weight ; Wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The study was carried out in the first year on samples of random F5 lines, uniform in height and in heading date, of three crosses between semi dwarf spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), differing in grain weight and in their Rht gene. In the second year only the progenies of the early heading F5 lines were studied. All the material was grown in the absence of lodging. The culm-length genotypes of the different lines were identified by test crosses and by a seedling GA response test. No differences in grain weight were found between the two semi dwarf genotypes (Rht 1Rht1 rht 2rht2 and rht 1rht1 Rht 2Rht2). The tall genotype (rht 1rht1 rht 2rht2) was significantly higher in grain weight than the two semi dwarf genotyes and the grain weight of these genotypes exceeded markedly the grain weight of the dwarf genotype (Rht 1Rht1 Rht 2Rht2). These genotypic effects were independent of differences in plant height, heading date or number of grains per spike.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Dormancy ; Hazelnut ; Corylus ; Inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Nondormant mutants in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) are described. In contrast to normal trees in which physiological rest, or dormancy, is induced by short days, mutants fail to respond to this stimulus. Shoot tips continue to grow, old leaves are retained until midwinter when they are frozen and/or pushed off by developing axillary buds, axillary buds begin to grow in December, 2–3 months before normal spring bud break, and cold hardiness does not develop. Nondormancy is controlled by a single recessive gene (dd). The mutation is not uncommon since eight cultivars, including the world's most important commercial cultivars, are heterozygous for this trait. The implications of nondormancy in a temperate tree species are discussed in relation to evolution, extension of the range of cultivation, breeding, and value for basic studies of fundamental mechanisms of dormancy.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 71 (1986), S. 847-855 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; Seed protein ; Arcelin ; Inheritance ; Linkage ; Bruchidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Crude proteins from seeds of wild bean accessions of Mexican origin were analyzed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE). Several accessions had electrophoretic patterns showing unique protein bands. When analyzed by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF)-SDS/PAGE, four protein variants which had electrophoretic mobilities similar to each other but different from the other major seed proteins, phaseolin and lectin, were observed. All four variants, which have not been described in cultivated beans, were tentatively named arcelin proteins and designated as arcelin 1, 2, 3 and 4. Arcelins 3 and 4 had polypeptides that comigrated on two-dimensional gels and these variants occurred in accessions that were collected in the same location. Analysis of single F2 seeds from crosses among arcelin-containing lines and from crosses between cultivated beans lines without arcelin and arcelin-containing lines revealed that differences in arcelin polypeptide expression were inherited monogenically. The alleles for different arcelin variants were codominant to each other and dominant to the absence of arcelin. The gene(s) controlling arcelin proteins were unlinked to those controlling phaseolin expression and tightly linked to genes controlling the presence of lectin proteins (〈 0.30% recombination). The possible origins of arcelin genes and their potential role in bruchid resistance are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Forage rape ; Thiocyanate ; SMCO ; Inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Inheritance of thiocyanate and (+)S-methyl-L-cysteine sulphoxide (SMCO) contents were studied in a diallel cross involving five varieties of forage rape. Although both additive and dominance components were significant for the two characters, the greater mean squares of the additive gene effect indicated its greater importance. Non-allelic gene interaction was detected for thiocyanate only. Narrow sense heritability was relatively high for both characters. The general and specific combining ability effects and heterosis of the individual crosses, identified the potential of the cross ‘Nevin’ × ‘Akela’ for production of varieties with low thiocyanate content. Thiocyanate and SMCO contents were positively correlated, and they were not correlated with dry matter yield and its components.
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