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  • Life Sciences  (2,756)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (2,756)
  • Sage Publications
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (2,756)
  • Sage Publications
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The dynamic behaviour of biofilters intended to remove toluene and xylene from air was studied during transient states. Laboratory scale biofilters were filled with a mixture of peat, bark and wood and inoculated with a mixed microbial population. Toluene and xylene were applied both as single pollutants and as mixtures. Attention was focused on the evaluation of the following transients: the response of biofilters to step changes and peaks in pollutant concentrations, the effect of changes between single and multiple pollutant loadings and the response to shutdown periods.The biofilters demonstrated a good dynamic stability during transient states induced by change in inlet pollutant concentrations. Their time periods did not exceed three hours. No interaction between xylene and toluene degradation was observed during changes in loading with single pollutants or their mixture. The performance interruptions lasting less than 24 hours were found to have no significant influence on the removal efficiency of biofilters. When the biofilters were reacclimated after longer starvation periods, a short temporary decrease in efficiency whose minimum and duration were proportional to the length of a preceding shutdown period was observed. The longest starvation period (7 days) resulted in a reacclimation lasting 7 hours only. Adaptations of a microbial population to new operating conditions as well as sorption/desorption processes were suggested as the main factors influencing the dynamic reponse characteristics.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An advanced primary treatment process for a municipal waste water was systematically studied, using a bio-flocculation-adsorption, sedimentation and stabilzation process (BSS). It was shown that the organic removal efficiency was higher than that of the traditional primary treatment processes but lower than that of the traditional secondary treatment processes. Both adsorption and bio-flocculation played an important role in the removal of pollutants. The activated sludge within the bio-flocculation-adsorption tank could be considered a bio-flocculent which improved the quality of the effluent from the primary treatment process. As the effluent of the BSS process did not meet the requirements for a typical secondary effluent, the process may be regarded as an advanced (or enhanced) primary treatment process, suitable for waste water containing a high concentration of suspended solids and colloidal particles.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000) 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The increasing requirements in wastewater treatment have led to the development of new wastewater treatment processes based on the know-how and experience in reaction and process engineering of the chemical industry. Due to their compactness, closed operation and high flexibility, these new processes show a large potential for process integration and significant cost reduction in particular for highly polluted industrial wastewaters.This paper discusses the HCR (high-performance compact reactor) - process, developed at the Mass Transfer Laboratory of the Technical University of Clausthal within the last decade. This process has been realized in more than 30 technical applications with a volume loading of up to 70 kg COD/m3 d and an energy consumption of about 0.4 kWh per kg CODelim.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Autochthonous bacteriocenoses in semiarid soils in Patagonia were found to be capable of rapidly adapting to high contamination with crude oil. This adaptation at community level is due to the selective enrichment of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria always present in these soils. Immediately after a heavy contamination with crude oil, the authochthonous bacteriocenosis contained about 28% hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria which could be classified into eight ecotypes with characteristic metabolic profiles. Mainly n-alkanes were used as growth substrates of representative strains. After seven months' exposure to crude oil, the bacteriocenosis consisted almost entirely of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. At least fourteen ecotypes were distinguishable, and the majority of representative strains were able to metabolize a broad spectrum of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Corresponding to the significant alteration of the physiological diversity, drastic changes to the taxonomic diversity were also found. Whereas at the beginning of the study the autochthonous bacteriocenoses were dominated by GRAM-positive genera of the Actinomycetales (Dietzia, Gordona, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces) with high ecological potency, after just two months' exposure to crude oil, GRAM- negative bacteria (especially Pseudomonas stutzeri) became predominant within the hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteriocenoses accompanied by some GRAM-positive genera of the Actinomycetales with a significantly lower abundance. These findings underline the importance of Pseudomonas and some genera of Actinomycetales for processes of natural attenuation and the technically supported in situ bioremediation of soil polluted by crude oil in Patagonia.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Five different chemical reagents and γ-rays were tested for the sanitization of immobilized biocatalysts with high penicillin G acylase (PGA) activity. The most effective chemical reagents were N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol). The optimum concentration of CTAB for the treatment of the immobilized enzyme was 0.25% [w/v] and 1 h, for immobilized cells 0. [w/v] and 3 h. The optimum concentration of thymol for the immobilized enzyme was found to be 0.1% [w/v] and 1 h, for immobilized cells 0.27% [w/v] and 2 h. The optimum dose of γ-rays for the sanitization of the immobilized enzyme was established as 3.2 kGy, for immobilized cells as 4.5 kGy.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000) 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 203-218 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The recent upsurge in information technology has provided the international community with an easy access to professional journals (e.g. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology at http://www.ejb.org; etc.), discussion groups (e.g. bioenergy@cret.org; digestion@crest.org; etc.) and recently to electronic international conferences (e.g. ICIBS; http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidbiotech, etc.) as well as a series of biotechnological information material (e.g. http://www.psrast.org, etc.) to stay in contact and receive up-to-date information in biotechnology. There is no doubt that this new technology will be more cost effective in future and reach more people in communities around the globe.This review reports on one such an electronic conference aiming at bridging the communication gap between developed and developing countries. This conference dealt with integrated biosystems and has provided an excellent forum for more than 100 active participants from all regions of the world. As has been demonstrated in this review, the conference was able to show the very different approaches towards the use of biotechnology in developed and developing countries, cold and tropical climate regions owing to their different ecological, economical and societal problems. It also demonstrated very clearly that the field of molecular genetics and/or genetic engineering is not a priority issue in developing countries, but rather the need for clean technologies, multiproduct formation through socio-economic integrated biosystems, e.g. incorporating microbial waste management into agro-industries, in human activities and their roles in creating better health conditions, a better environment and sustain development.It is hoped that this review will lead to a greater use of the electronic facilities available to inform and educate both the northern and the southern communities more readily of their needs and requirements to improve understanding and efforts for a sustainable future.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A fermentation process for manufacturing 1,4-piperazinium-(L,L)-dilactate from renewable raw materials and a method for processing this product into L,L-dilactide are described. Lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus paracasei was modified in such a way that pH control occurred by using an aqueous solution of piperazine as a correcting agent instead of sodium hydroxide solution. The production of a stoichiometrically composed piperazinium lactate was possible when the pH was 5.0. From 5.0 kg of glucose and 2.15 kg of piperazine, 6.65 kg of 1,4-piperazinium-(L,L)-dilactate were formed in the fermentation process. Separation from fermentation broth, purification and concentration of the product in aqueous solutions were carried out by means of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and electrodialysis. Total product retention by the membranes used was about 33%. The crystalline salt was obtained by vacuum evaporation. Processing of the 1,4-piperazinium-(L,L)-dilactate into L,L-dilactide was performed in a special glass reactor. A product yield of 70% was achieved. The purified product was characterized by elementary analysis, as well as solubility behaviour, polarity and spectroscopic data. An overall process consisting of the stages fermentation, purification and concentration of piperazinium dilactate as well as cyclization of the latter to dilactide is described.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this paper, the in vivo decolourization of the polymeric dye Poly R-478 by semi-solid-state cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725) was investigated, employing corncob as a support. In order to stimulate the ligninolytic system of the fungus, the cultures were supplemented with veratryl alcohol (2 mM) or manganese (IV) oxide (1 g/l).Maximum manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of around 2,000 U/l and 400 U/l were attained by the former, whereas the activities reached by the latter were of about 1,500 U/l and 200 U/l, respectively. Furthermore, laccase activity (around 150 U/l) was only detected in manganese (IV) oxide supplemented cultures.The polymeric dye Poly R-478 (0.02 w/v) was added to three-day-old cultures. A percentage of biological decolourization of about 85% was achieved using cultures supplemented with veratryl alcohol, whereas MnO2 cultures showed a rather lower percentage of around 58% after nine days of dye incubation. Moreover, a correlation between MnP activity and Poly R-478 decolourization could be observed, indicating that this enzyme is mainly responsible for dye degradation.In the present work, the in vivo decolourizing capability of the ligninolytic complex secreted by P. chrysosporium was investigated under the above-mentioned cultivation conditions, employing a model compound, such as the polymeric dye Poly R-478.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The concentration of airborne fungal spores and bacteria as related to room temperature, humidity and occupancy levels within a library building in Singapore was determined. Measurement of indoor air quality with respect to microorganisms is of particular importance in tropical environments due to the extensive use of air-conditioning systems and the potential implications for human health. This study has revealed a number of interesting relationships between the concentrations of fungal spores and bacteria in relation to both environmental and human factors. The levels of fungal spores measured in the indoor environment were approximately fifty times lower than those measured outside, probably because of the lowered humidity caused by air-conditioning in the indoor environment. The variation in fungal spore concentration in the outdoor environment is likely to be due to the diurnal periodicity of spore release and the response to environmental factors such as light temperature and humidity. The indoor concentration of fungal spores in air was not clearly correlated to concentrations measured in air outside of the library building and remained relatively constant, unaffected by the difference in the numbers of occupants in the library. In contrast, the indoor concentrations of bacteria in air were approximately ten times higher than those measured outdoors, indicating a signficant internal source of bacteria. The elevated levels of indoor bacteria were primarily attributed to the number of library occupants. Increased human shedding of skin cells, ejection of microorganisms and particulates from the respiratory tract, and the transport of bacteria on suspended dust particles from floor surfaces probably accounts for the strong positive correlation between occupancy levels and the concentration of bacteria in internal air.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Serratia marcescens biovar A2/A6 is able to produce a red pigment as a secondary metabolite which has antimicrobial activity. This paper describes its growth and biopigment formation in batch cultures, in media containing different concentrations of lactic acid and beef extract as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. An unstructured model has also been developed to describe its growth, lactic acid uptake and biopigment formation. The comparison of simulated and experimental data shows that the proposed model predicts reasonably well the system behaviour over a range of conditions.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Preliminary results on the novel use of the bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (ATCCJ 3598 and ATCC33020) for the micro-machining (or biomachinig) of metals are reported. Biomachning is a controlled microbiological process to selectively form microstrucutures on a metal work-piece by metal removal (or dissolution) using microorganisms. Applying copper and mild steel as work-pieces, it was shown that the mass removed increased proportionately with machining time. In another experiment, the work-pieces were coated with organic photo-resistive materials to mask (i.e. protect) certain regions of the metlas, thereby defining the microstructure to be formed. The unmasked regions were successfully biomachined; the final machined profile was shown to be similar to the coating image on the original metal. Although biomachining proceeded at a slower rate than chemical machining, the undesired leaching of the metal in the region under the masked area (termed undercutting) was not as severely encountered when compared with the latter. This work demonstrates the potential use of microorganisms for the biomachining of metals. As a “green process”, the innovative use of T. ferrooxidans for the micro-machining of metals opens up the possibility of biomachining as an alternative to conventional metal processing.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Some parameters of the production of an alkaline protease by Rhizopus oryzae in the solid state fermentation of wheat bran were optimized. Using the optimum parameters of an inoculum age of 7 days, an incubation time of 9 days, an amount of CZAPEK-DOX (liquid medium) of 6 ml/g bran and an incubation temperature of 33°C, an activity of 50 U/g bran was achieved. The initial pH of the CZAPEK-DOX medium had little effect. Re-incubation of mouldy bran with only fresh CZAPEK-DOX yielded 3 times total activity compared to single-cycle fermentation. As for the effect of the amount CZAPEK-DOX medium, the water constituent contributed more to activity increase than did the salt component. The ARRHENIUS activation energies were 23 and 7.9 kcal/mole below and above the optimum of 33°C, respectively. In all the studies, along with protease production, variation of protein content and specific activity were also observed. Attempts were made to explain the effects and also gauge their implications for large-scale production.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 187-187 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The GRAM-positive bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis K2-3 and the GRAM-negative Ochrobactrum anthropi K2-14 are capable of synergistically degrading 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB). The two strais execute this task in a symbiotic manner, but the nature of the interaction involved in the degradation is only partially understood as yet. An essential first step in elucidating the interaction is to be able to monitor the two strans separately, at the cellular level, within mixed populations. Therefore a method exploiting fluorescently labelled lectin probes was developed. Since Concanavalin A (Con A) binds specifically to R. erythropolis K2-3, it was selected and linked to the fluoresent dye Bodipy 630/650, which has an excitation maximum in the red part of the visible light spectrum. Forward light scatter (FSC) and DNA fluorescence from both strains were also measured to obtain simultaneous information about their physiological states. The three parameters were conveniently monitored by dual and triple excitation flow cytometry in conjunction with double fluorescent staining techniques. In addition, the strains were identified using an epifluorescence microscope. These techniques were found powerful tools for the population analysis of this mixed bacterial system.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The purpose and scope of this article is to introduce capable zeolites into downstream processing of natural compounds, especially flavour compounds like 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furan-3-one (Furaneol®Furaeol is a registered trademark of FIRMENICH, Ch). The synthesis and the recovery of Furaneol from L-rhamnose are presented. Therefore adsorption isotherms of the zeolites ZSM5 and DAY with varying modules have been determined and adsorption experiments using model and reaction mixtures of Furaneol synthesis were performed and will be discussed.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 334-334 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 335-350 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: During the 20th century, important relationships developed between the oil industry and both microbiological and biotechnological research. Basic microbiological research has played an important role in both the exploration and production sectors of the oil industry, but as the maturity of the industry has progressed, such contributions have been relegated with respect to their importance. With respect to refining and petrochemicals manufacture, process routes have been extensively researched, but only rarely have the biotechnological solutions developed satisfied the economic criteria that resulted in major investment. In fact, situations exist where investment has occurred, but project life was unrealistically short, suggesting a need for extreme caution when evaluating biotechnological processes for the oil industry. However, as far as engineered processes for both biotreatment and bioremediation are concerned, the fundamental research that has underpinned other areas of hydrocarbon microbiology will finally prove to be of both technical and economic value, in ensuring that the essential needs of treatment, rather than disposal, and restoration, rather than environmental destruction, can be satisfied by the oil and other industries involved in both geochemical manipulation and natural resource exploitation.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The impact of hydrocarbon remediation on several enzyme activities (catalase, dehydrogenase, lipase, protease, urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) and microbial properties (biomass-C, respiration, N-mineralization, qCO2, microbial counts) was evaluated in a laboratory study over a period of 10 weeks. A pristine soil was contaminated with diesel oil (10 mg/g soil) or with a mixture of phenanthrene and naphthalene (total amount 1 mg/g soil) and supplemented with inorganic nutrients to give a C:N ratio of 20:1. The corresponding controls consisted of uncontaminated nutrient-supplemented soil. Oil contamination caused a significant initial increase of all biological parameters measured. In the presence of PAHs, biomass-C, respiration, protease activity and heterotrophic counts were significantly enhanced, while urease activity was depressed. N-mineralization was initially, however, reversibly inhibited in the presence of oil and PAHs.The measured parameters behaved differently over time: Biomass-C, respiration and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity reached a maximum activity after about 2-5 weeks, corresponding to the period during which the majority of hydrocarbons disappeared, and declined thereafter to the background level. Activities of catalase and dehydrogenase also followed this pattern, however, were characterized by fluctuations. Activities of lipase, protease, urease and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis increased and remained almost constant throughout the incubation period.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of different growth-limiting factors - namely the sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and the dilution (growth) rate - on the ice-nucleation activity of Pseudomonas syringe CCM 4073 was studied. A higher ice-nucleation activity was observed at a lower dilution (growth) rate (D = 0.1 h-1) than at a higher dilution (growth) rate (D = 0.3 h-1). Remarkable differences in ice-nucleation activity were found in its dependence on the growth-limiting factor. The highest ice-nucleation activity was observed under carbon limitation (T90 = -2.7°C), a medium activity under nitrogen limitation (T90 = -5°C) and lowest activity under phosphorus limitation (T90 = -12.3°C). After the addition of excess nitrogen or phosphorus to steady-state cultures, the ice-nucleation activity was restored.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000) 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Continuous counter-current chromatographic processes have been successfully used in the petrochemical and sugar industry over the last 30 years. Only recently has simulated moving bed (SMB)-technology attracted widespread interest in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly as a very efficient system for chromatographic enantioseparation. The application of this technique to the downstream processing of biotechnological products requires some specific changes to meet the special demands of bioproduct isolation. Production processes are set up on an multi-ton scale, for example, for the purification of fructose with both yield and purity higher than 90%. Examples for other mono- and oligosaccharides are reported. In the purification of fatty acids or fat soluble vitamins, SMB technology under supercritical fluid conditions gives additional benefits and increases the productivity by a factor of four when a pressure gradient is applied. Another field of operation is the isolation of drug compounds from natural sources where different batch- and SMB-chromatographic steps could be successfully combined. First examples are reported for cyclosporine A and paclitaxel isolation. Finally, step-gradient elution modes can be used continuously, as demonstrated for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee industry residues, viz. coffee husk, coffee leaves and spent coffee ground as substrates in solid state fermentation (SSF) to cultivate edible mushrooms Pleurotus. Eight strains of Pleurotus ostreatus and two strains of Pleurotus sajor-caju were screened on a medium prepared from aqueous extract of coffee husk and agar. Based on best mycelial growth (9.68 mm/day) and biomass production (43.4 mg/plate in 9 days at 24°C), the strain P. ostreatus LPB 09 was selected for detailed studies. SSF was carried out using these substrates under different moisture conditions (45-75%) and spawn rates (2.5-25%). In general, although a 25% spawn rate appeared superior, the 10% spawn rate was recommended for all the three substrates in view of the process economics, as there was not any significant difference in the increase with 10 to 15%. The ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60-65% for coffee husk and spent coffee ground, and 60-70% for coffee leaves. The biological efficiency (BE), which is defined as the ratio of the weight of fresh fruiting bodies to the weight of dry substrate, multiplied by 100, and which indicates the fructification ability of the fungus for utilizing the substrate, was best with coffee husk. With coffee husk as the substrate, the first fructification occurred after 20 days of inoculation, and the biological efficiency reached about 97% after 60 days. When coffee leaves were used as the substrate, no fructification was observed even upon prolonged cultivation. With spent ground as the substrate, the first fructification occurred 23 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 90% in 50 days. There was a significant decrease in the caffeine and tannin contents (61 and 79%, respectively) of coffee husk after 60 days. It was remarkable to observe that caffeine was adsorbed onto the fruiting body (0.157%), indicating that it was not completely degraded by the fungal culture. However, no tannins were found in the fruiting body, indicating that the fungal strain was capable of degrading them. The results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent coffee ground as substrates without any pre-treatment for the cultivation of edible fungi in SSF, and provided one of the first steps towards an economical utilization of these otherwise unutilized or poorly utilized residues.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 96-96 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: During the microbial treatment of a sandy model soil artificially contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a large residual pollution was found. The remainig PAHs were sorbed into the micropores of the soil and were therefore not bioavailable. Using a lab-scale precolator, the microbially pretreated soil was subjected to aftertreatment with surfactants with the aim of further degradation of its pollution. Two commercial nonionic surfatants of the polyethoxylate type, Präwozell F1214/5 N and Sapogenat T-300, were used. The surfactants differ both in their physicochemical properties (CMC value, PAH solubilization capacity, adsorption onto soil) and in their microbial degradability. During aftertreatment under permanently aerobic conditions, only a weak PAH accumulation in the liquid phase was observed, which was due to a low solubilization rate as well as to simultaneous microbial degradation of the dissolved PAHs. Temporary anaerobiosis successfully suppressed the microbial degradation of both the surfactant and the solubilized PAHs, resulting in a more intensive PAH accumulation. But the PAH content of the soil - the essential criterion for evaluating the efficiency of surfactant application - was not decreased to a larger extent with surfactants than without them. To find out why the surfactants failed to act, the surfactant and hydrocarbon distribution among the liquid and solid phases was studied in mixtures of phenantherne-spiked solis and Präwozell-containig liquids; at heavy phenanthrene loading, the aqueous phase was saturated with PAH; at weak loading, it was unsaturated. Model-aided data analysis showed that the soil may contain PAH in two fractions: strongly sorbed into soil pores and, in the case of heavy loading, also weakly attached to the soil surface. The latter is easily extractable, resulting in a PAH-saturated liquid, while strongly adsorbed PAH is only partially dissolved due to competition between the micelles and the soil pores for the PAH. The microbially pretreated soil contains only strongly bound PAHs, which are as difficult to extract by surfactants as they are poorly accessible for microbes.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nitrogen fixing Anabaena azollae strains isolated from four different Azolla cultures were characterized based on their total protein profile and RAPD profile to study the existing variation among them. As expected, the isolates showed almost similar protein banding patterns, but exhibited differences in 40-70 KDa protein subunits. Polymerase chain reaction of the DNA of the isolates, using four different primers, amplified specific sequences of DNA and showed clear polymorphism among the isolates. The RAPD profile generated the fingerprinting pattern characteristic of each strain based on the sequence of the primers used. Common band sharing observed between the strains A. azollae-RS-KK-SK-AM and A. azollae-RS-KK-SK-RP probably represents maternal inheritance of DNA to the progeny. The polymorphic bands were generated specifically for the isolates A. azollae-RS-KK-SK-RP and A. azollae-RS-KK-SK-AM with primers numbered 2 and 4, respectively, which could be developed as possible markers for these isolates.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mature seed-derived callus from an elite Chinese japonica rice cv. Eyl 105 was transformed with a plasmid containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and the reporter β-glucuronidase (gusA) genes via particle bombardment. After two rounds of selection on hygromycin (30 mg/l)-containing medium, resistant callus was transferred to hygromycin (30 mg/l)-containing regeneration medium for plant regeneration. Twenty-three independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 127 bombarded callus with a transformation frequency of 18.1%. All the transgenic plants contained both gusA and hpt genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. GUS assay revealed 18 out of 23 plants (78.3%) proliferated on hygromycin-containing medium had GUS expression at various levels. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From R2 generations with their R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation, we identified three independent homozygous transgenic rice lines. The homozygous lines were phenotypically normal and fertile compared to the control plants. We demonstrate that homozygous transgenic rice lines can be obtained via particle bombardment-mediated transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain PY1 was isolated from a 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3CBA) degrading anaerobic enrichment culture, using anaerobic Percoll density centrifugation. When grown on pyruvate (20 mM), in the absence of sulphate and under strict anaerobic conditions, this organism converted not only the co-substrates benzoate (BA), 3-amino-BA and 3CBA to the corresponding alcohols but also ten other different halogenated benzoic acids, viz., 4-Cl-, 3-Br-, 4-Br-, 3-I-, 3-F-, 4-F-, 2,4-di-Cl-, 2,5-di-Cl-, 3,4-di-Cl- and 3,5-di-Cl-BA. This was verfied with HPLC and GC/MS spectrometric analyses. The yields of the co-substrate converted after 30 days of growth were between 20% and 88%, depending on the compounds which had been added at initial concentrations of 500 μM. Sulphate, sulphite, thiosulphate and disulphite inhibited the formation of 3-Cl-benzyl alcohol (3CBOH), i.e. a 97 to 99% inhibition, and nitrate and sulphur had no effect (a 7-10% inhibition). In cell-free extracts, the reduction of 3CBA to 3CBOH required strict anaerobic conditions, pyruvate or H2 as electron donors and the addition of methylviologen (MV), FAD, FMN or ferredoxin as electron carriers. The specific activity of the reduction of 3CBA to 3CBOH in crude extract was 5.3 nmol/(mg protein min). The reaction was not inhibited by additions of sulphate or sulphite (5 mM), but was completely inhibited at concentrations of 10 mM 3CBA or 50 mM BA. A carboxylic acid reductase (aldehyde dehydrogenase), which acted on non-activated 3CBA and was responsible for the reduction of 3CBA to 3-Cl-benzaldehyde, was found in the solube fraction (94% of the total activity). These results demonstrate that strain PY1 was able to effectively reduce a wide range of halogenated benzoic acids to the corresponding alcohols.
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  • 41
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 235-274 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A quite unconventional, innovative scientific methodology called “macroscopic pattern analysis” is presented in this paper. This approach is more adequate in the case of complex systems than the well-known microscopic, mechanistic approach. Complex systems are not only attracting more engineering interest, but their scientific treatment is increasingly wanted by society due to the manifold problems in Earth's ecosphere. The macroscopic pattern approach will be explained in depth and illustrated in some case studies from the ecosphere (sustainability, hurricanes and avalanches), where nature serves as a teacher for the solution of the sustainability problem. Then, a series of case studies on macropatterns are described showing the problem-solving capacity for anthropo- and technosphere: sustainability in society with an index of sustainability, the eco-social market economy with eco-tech as an instrument, biokinetics, bioreactor mixing and integrated bioprocessing with models, design of cars and houses and even quality of life as an attempt to quantify macropatterns.The innovations are briefly compared in their problem-solving capacity with known approaches such as the microscopic method in science, technology and society (free market economy), including the evaluation of other indices and cleaner production, industrial ecology and zero emission initiative. Finally, a deeper integration of sciences, ethics, arts and nature will be introduced based on the vision with macroscopic pattern analysis, where the different domains of human life are integratable to effect a reconciliation.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Because of the growing utilization of renewable raw materials, the technical use of lignocellulosic fibres from wood and other annual plant materials is becoming increasingly important. The conventional production process of fibreboards is characterized by high-energy consumption and use of ecologically insecure synthetic lesins. Approximately 40 to 45% of the total energy expenditure are used for the thermo-mechanical pulping. Because of high plastication temperatures, an inactive lignin crust on the fibre surface is formed. For that reason, for glueing of the fibres, urea formaldehyde and melamin resins are usually used. The costs for the resin amount to approximately 50% of the entire material costs. In addition, environmental problems are caused. The aim of our investigation is the reduction of energy and resin consumption by enzymatic modification of wood chips and the enzymatic activation of the inherent bonding strength of the material. The first industrial use of fungi for the modification of wood was in the production of “Myco wood”. Pleurothus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor were applied for nonsterile delignification of beech wood. The present investigation of the authors deals with the mycological pre-treatment of wood chips in order to reduce the energy consumption during wood pulping. The screening results favour the brown rotter Gleophyllum trabeum for pinewood (Pinus silvestris) and the white rotter Trametes hirsuta for beech (Fagus silvatica). Both species show resistance against mould fungi. The use of submerged inoculum of these fungi has the advantage over wheat inoculum that the lag phase is less than 12 hours and that the addition of nutrients or fungicides is not necessary. Short-time wood chip incubation results in a 40% decrease of energy consumption during thermo-mechanical pulping and in improved fibreboard properties. Lignin reduction could not be determined by gravimetrical and x-ray microanalysis.Comparative investigations of fibre incubation using laccase, a submerged culture of Trametes versicolor and rape straw fibres show a high increase in bending and tensile strength and an improvement in the hygroscopic properties of glue-free fibre boards for the last two incubation kinds. Similar effects have been obtained incubating pine wood fibres for the production of fibre sheets with enzyme medium of Trichoderma reseei.
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  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 20 (2000), S. 351-368 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The action resonance theory (ART), a hypothesis based on a logical extension of EINSTEIN's theory of Brownian movement, suggests that the genotype × environment interaction can be modelled as forceful encounters of the gene-products of an organism with its environment. This model has implications for molecular and cell biology, morphogenesis, evolutionary development via mutation, the mechanism of natural selection and overall function of ecosystems, extending SCHRÖDINGER's programme for molecular biology. Action, a thermodynamic property with the same physical dimensions as angular momentum and PLANCK's quantum of action, is proposed to be reversibly generated as a result of the molecular exchange of quanta, which become resonant at equilibrium, corresponding to an optimum degree of entropy and action for living systems. Because the theory can potentially predict solutions to unsolved problems such as the folding of proteins it has strong implications for successful genetic modification of organisms and for biotechnology in general; the design of a programme of research to test this theory is proposed. A key element in this research programme, improving productivity and sustainability, would be the need to select genetically modified strains in the ecological environment or niche in which they are required to function.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The ability of the Rhizobium sp., isolated from the root nodules of the leguminous pulse yielding shrub Cajanus cajan, to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) was checked. A large amount of EPS (1, 128 μg/ml) was produced by the bacteria in yeast extract mannitol medium. Growth and EPS production started simultaneously, but the production reached its maximum level in the stationary phase of growth at 28 h. The EPS production by this Rhizobium sp. was much higher than by many other strains from nodules of Cajanus cajan which took a much longer time to reach maximum EPS production than this strain. The maximum EPS production (2,561 μg/ml) was obtained when the medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%), cetyl pyridinium chloride (2 μg/ml) and KNO3 (0.2%), in which the production was increased by 276% compared to the control. The EPS production rose in the period up to 65 h with increased mannitol concentration. The EPS contained arabinose, xylose and rhamnose monomers. The possible role of rhizobial EPS production in root nodule symbiosis is discussed.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Agar-agar, agarose, carrageenan and calcium alginate were used for the immobilization of Dunaliella salina cells. Out of the four, agar-agar was found to be the most effective and therefore the study was carried out on it using different pH values ranging from 6 to 10 and cell densities from 0.1 to 0.8 μg chlorophyll (chl, a) per bead to find which are is best suited for glycerol production. The maximum glycerol production of 9.2 μM/mg chl a was recorded in agar-agar immobilized algae and this was followed by 8.4 μM/mg chl a in calcium alginate. The maximum cell number 6.2 × 109/ml and the specific growth rate (μ) of 0.80 l/day were reached at pH 8 in agar-agar immobilized algae. It was shown that the maximum amount of glycerol was produced when the cell density was 0.8 μg chl a/ block. Changing the medium after 24 hours affected the rate of glycerol production at different pH values. Using a cell density of 0.8 μg chl a/block at 16 W/m2 light intensity increased the glycerol production in comparison with the use of free living cells.
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 19 (1999) 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The application of biotechnology in environmental processes is an enormous subject that could remain the topic of a university lecture course for many years. For this reason I wish to limit my lecture to a few examples and to attempt to sketch out particularly promising opportunities for future development.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 53
  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 19 (1999), S. 263-272 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An acid α-amylase hyperproducing strain, designated as MIR-61, was isolated in a screening procedure from South American soil samples. MIR-61, a 60°C thermoresistant strain, was identified using 98 biochemical and morphological tests and characterized as Bacillus licheniformis by numerical taxonomy. Batch cultures of B. licheniformis MIR-61 showed extracellular α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities during the exponential growth phase.The production of α-amylase was studied at free and constant pH values at 37 and 45°C. Maximum α-amylase activity (4,767 kU/dm3 in a liquid medium) was detected at 45°C at a constant pH (7.0) in the late exponential phase. The α-amylase production by B. licheniformis MIR-61 is 10 to 300 times higher than the enzyme production reported in strains of the same species.Optimum α-amylase activity was found at 50 to 67°C in an acid pH range from 5.5 to 6.0. These properties would allow its use in starch industry processes.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The continuous aerobic degradation of phenoxyalkanoate herbicides by Sphingomonas herbicidovorans MH was investigated in a bubble reactor filled with modified polyurethane-foam (PU 90/51) as a carrier for the adsorptive immobilization of the bacterial cells. The PU-foam was applied in the form of plates (5 × 10 × 10 mm) and the amount added was equivalent to a PU-load of 1.25% [w/v]. Strain MH is capable of detoxifying the dichloro-substituted phenoxyalkanoates 2,4-DP, 2,4-D and 2,4-DB and the methylchloro-substituted phenoxyalkanoates MCPA, MCPP and MCPB. Degradation of the respective substrate was followed by HPLC analyses and by determination of the chloride release. No intermediates of the degradation pathways or “dead end” products were detected by HPLC analyses. The PU-bubble reactor with immobilized 2,4-DP-pre-grown cells was run continuously at 30°C at the high dilution rate of D = 0.5h-1 with 2,4-DP (0.2 g/l), and with subsequent changes to each of the other phenoxyalkanoates as a single substrate in the feed and with an intermittent return to 2,4-DP. Finally, after an intermediate substrate accumulation, 2,4-D, 2,4-DP, MCPA and MCPP could be degraded under the aforementioned conditions corresponding to a maximum degradation rate of Qphen = 100 mg/l × h. In the case of 2,4-DB, a slightly reduced conversion rate of about 94% could be calculated. In contrast to these results, 0.2 g/l of the more recalcitrant MCPB could not be metabolized at this high dilution rate of D = 0.5 h-1 by the biofilm of Sphingomonas herbicidovorans MH, but it was degradable at a reduced dilution rate of D = 0.25 h-1. Complete detoxification of a stoichiometric mixture of the dichloro- and the methylchloro-substituted phenoxyalkanoates including MCPB, respectively, at a total concentration of 0.2 g/l was achieved at D = 0.25 h-1, corresponding to a degradation rate of Qtot = 50 mg/l × h. Finally, the efficiency of the PU-immobilized cells of Sphingomonas herbicidovorans MH in detoxifying mixtures of all six herbicides could be increased to Qtot = 75 mg/l × h by the further addition of PU-foam particles corresponding to a final PU-load of 2.5% [w/v]. This PU-bubble reactor was successfully operated for more than 12 months to clean up synthetically concocted waste waters with fluctuations in phenoxyalkanoate concentration and composition.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The biodesulphurization of Mengen lignite by a mesophilic bacterium, Rhodococcus rhodochrus ATCC 53968, was investigated in a batch stirred and aerated reactor. The experiments were carried out at 28°C with an inoculum percentage, initial pH, initial sodium acetate and lignite concentration of the biodesulphurization medium of 8% [v/v], 6.5 mM, 20 mM and 20 g/l, respectively. Variations in the sulphur contents of the lignite relative to the biodesulphurization period were monitored. The effects of the stirring and aeration rates on the removal of different sulphur forms from coal were investigated in the ranges 450-1,200 rpm and 0.1-0.53 vvm and the optimum values were found to be 500 rpm and 0.18 vvm, respectively. An increase in the total sulphur reduction with increasing biodesulphurization time was observed. The maximum total sulphur removal percentage was found to be 15.2% at 1,200 rpm after four days of incubation. The highest total sulphur removal rate was calculated on the second day of microbial desulphurization for each run. The total and organic sulphur contents of the coal after biodesulphurization were correlated with the stirring and aeration rates by using the non-linear least squares regression method. In the experimental runs lasting 8 days, the highest organic sulphur reducing percentage of 10.1% was obtained at a stirring rate of 500 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.40 vvm.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Rhizobium sp., isolated from the root nodules of the leguminous fodder herb Melilotus alba, produced large amounts of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) (963.5 μg/ml) in a yeast extract mannitol medium. Growth and EPS production started simultaneously, but EPS production reached its maximum during the stationary phase of growth of the bacteria, at 20 hours. EPS production was increased with all of the thirteen sugars tested. Different nitrogen sources, such as nitrates, glutamic acid, casamino acid and L-asparagine, increased the EPS production although it was inhibited by glycine, nitrite and ammonium salts. Among the vitamins and metal ions, only pyridoxal phosphate and ZnSO4 promoted EPS production. Attempts were made to optimize the cultural requirements for growth and maximum EPS production. Maximum EPS production (1457.0 μg/ml) was obtained when the medium was supplemented with glucose (1%), pyridoxal phosphate (2 μ g/ml), ZnSO4 × 7 H2O (10 μg/ml) and glutamic acid (0.1%). Under these conditions, the production was increased by 254.3% compared to the control. The EPS contained arabinose, xylose and rhamnose monomers. The presence of arabinose and xylose in the EPS produced by a Rhizobium sp. was uncommon.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the present work, the use of flame-burned WS as carriers of Z. mobilis and extracellular levansucrase and the effect of the cell fixation method by dehydration on system productivity were investigated. Lyophilization and convective drying of Z. mobilis biomass at 30°C to a moisture content of 10-14% gave the best results for the repeated batch fermentations of a sucrose medium to obtain levan and ethanol. Significant correlation between the product formation and the concentration of free cells in the fermentation medium was established. Clearly, the cells were weakly bound to the newly generated WS and were washed out into the medium during fermentation. Here the hypothesis is presented that components excreted from damaged cells during dehydration can intensify the reactivation of damaged living cells and influence the interactions between the cells and the wire surface.The passive immobilization of extracellular levansucrase in oxidized WS was also observed. The superiority of oxidized WS in comparison with non-treated WS is related to an increase in the number of OH groups. The potential regeneration of WS by burning after the termination of fermentation cycles was also considered.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Comamonas acidovorans MC1, which is capable of degrading the chiral phenoxypropionate herbicides 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionate [dichlorprop, (RS)-2,4-DP] and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionate [mecoprop, (RS)-MCPP] and of degrading the phenoxyacetate herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA), was investigated with respect to the enzymatic basis of this broad substrate specificity. The initial steps of the degradation pathway of (RS)-2,4-DP and 2,4-D were studied. By applying either ion exchange chromatography or hydrophobic interaction chromatography it was possible to separate two enzyme fractions with etherolytic activity, which exhibited pronounced substrate specificity. One enzyme fraction was highly specific for the degradation of the R-enantiomer of 2,4-DP and did not essentially attack the S-configuration. The other enzyme fraction showed pronounced activity toward the cleavage of the S-enantiomer and additionally utilized 2,4-D with almost equal velocity; (R)-2,4-DP was even cleaved at a low rate by this enzyme. These results confirm the existence of phenoxyalkanoatedegrading enzymes with enantiospecific properties in strain MC1.
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 19 (1999) 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis was studied using β-glucosidase from Penicillium funiculosum, both free and immobilized on nylon powder, at different temperatures, pH values, enzymatic activities and initial cellobiose and glucose concentrations.The experimental results were fitted to a kinetic model by considering the substrate and product inhibitions as well as the thermal deactivation of β-glucosidase with a mean deviation of less than 10%. The immobilization of β-glucosidase led to an increase in the stability of the enzyme against changes in the pH value.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of adding some inducers of lignolytic activity to semi-solid-state cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725) were investigated. The inducers assayed were veratryl alcohol and solid manganese (IV) oxide. The microorganism was cultured on corncob, which functioned both as physical support and source of nutrients.Supplementing the cultures with veratryl alcohol created the situation where manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of approximately 1,500 U/l and 200 U/l, respectively, could be attained. These activities were considerably higher than those obtained in the reference cultures (about 5 and 4-fold).In the same way, the addition of manganese (IV) oxide led to MnP and LiP activity levels of about 2,000 U/l and 300 U/l, respectively. These activities were also notably above (about 6 and 5-fold, respectively) those achieved in the reference cultures.Moreover, laccase activity (around 200 U/l) was only detected in veratryl alcohol or manganese (IV) oxide supplemented cultures.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 65
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    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 19 (1999), S. 45-56 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The culture behaviour of Thermus aquaticus was characterized. The response of the bacterium to various carbon (tryptone, glucose, glycerol) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4, leucine, thymine, thiamine, glutamic acid) was studied. Amino acids did not support growth, but CASTENHOLZ salt medium supplemented with yeast extract and glucose or tryptone resulted in good growth and production. A suitable medium composition giving the highest biomass concentration and enzyme yield was developed. The simple medium containing TYE-NaCl resulted in the highest biomass concentration, whereas CASTENHOLZ mineral medium supplemented with tryptone and yeast extract gave the highest specific activity and enzyme yield. The effect of inoculum age and size on growth was also investigated in order to improve the yield and process consistency. The use of shake flasks inoculated with precultures at their early or late stationary phase resulted in the same biomass concentration (0.56 ± 0.015 g/l) and similar maximum specific growth rates (0.258 ± 0.003 h-1). Inoculum sizes between 1 and 2.5 per cent were optimal for cell growth. As the other papers on thermophilic microorganisms, including the T. aquaticus YT-1 strain, gave qualitative information on growth, the results presented here cannot be compared with others on a quantitative basis. TaqI endonuclease was purified using a 5 step protocol including cell disruption, adsorption, precipitation, column chromatography and final dialysis. The enriched fraction had a specific activity of 33,600 U TaqI endonuclease per mg protein.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 68
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 19 (1999), S. 88-88 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 69
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The stability of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) preparation from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor during a process for the enzymatic decrease of the phenolic content of commercial canola meal (CM) was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH, protein origin and concentration, and meal particles were considered. The results showed that the thermal stability of the enzyme preparation was significantly increased in the presence of CM. The half-life times for the enzyme preparation, pre-incubated with CM at 50, 60, 70 and 75°C, were 45, 10.5, 3.5 and 1.5 hours, respectively; this represents an increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme preparation of up to four times in the presence of CM compared to the stability in the absence of CM. This effect was caused by the protective actions of both the CM particles and CM proteins, with the former responsible for 90% of the observed effect. The thermal stability of the enzyme in the presence of CM, from which 20% of the extractable proteins was extracted, was 5% lower compared to the stability in the presence of untreated CM. Changes in pH level from 5.0 to 3.2 resulted in a loss of stability comparable to that observed when the pre-incubation temperature was increased from 50 to 70°C.A semi-empirical model describing the changes in the concentration of the active enzyme pre-incubated in the presence and absence of CM at various incubation temperatures was proposed. A very good agreement between the model and experimental data was obtained. The proposed model, together with a general set of model parameters, can be used as a tool for the optimization of a process for the upgrade of CM by enzymatically decreasing the meal's phenolic content.
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  • 70
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 19 (1999), S. 111-145 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A non-comprehensive review of several technical developments in the field of aerobic biological waste-water treatment engineering is carried out, considering the active role the engineers have to play in this field. This paper brings together conventional and advanced problems in the field of aerobic biological waste-water treatment.Such an overview of biological waste-water treatment also precedes comments on some important aspects concerning the microorganisms responsible for waste-water treatment as well as considerations of the application of fundamentals and kinetics to the analysis of the biological processes used most commonly for aerobic biological waste-water treatment.A survey of the development of the biological activated-sludge process and some modifications are given. Some problems implied in the conventional activated-sludge waste-water treatment are analyzed, considering conventional processes and bioreactor models (the continuous stirred-tank reactor model and the plug-flow reactor models of the activated-sludge process) as well as aerated lagoons.Further, modifications of the activated-sludge process are presented. These include additional details on the bioreactor progress and applications, with emphasis on aspects concerning airlift bioreactors and their variants, deep-shaft bioreactors and reciprocating jet bioreactors which are considered as the third generation of bioreactors owing to their important advantages in design, operation and performance in waste-water treatment. Sequencing-batch reactors and aerobic digestion processes, including conventional aerobic digestion, high-purity oxygen digestion, thermophilic aerobic digestion and cryophylic aerobic digestion are also reviewed.Finally, some aspects regarding the operational factors that are involved in the selection of the reactor type are included.
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