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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (630)
  • 1975-1979  (630)
  • 1970-1974
  • 1977  (630)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 151 (1977) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 151 (1977), S. 1-15 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The radii of curvature (R) of the horizontal (Rh), anterior (Ra) and posterior (Rp) semicircular canals were measured by a new technique (called ROTA) for cat, guinea pig and man. For each canal, data points from the ossecus canal were rotated and plotted by computer such that the plane of the sheet of computer plot corresponded to the plane best fitting that canal. The radius of each osseous canal was determined and where necessary, the radius of the are of data points was corrected for thickness of the absent tissue. For cat, guinea pig and man there are differences in R between canals within a labyrinth suggesting that if other things are equal there could be differences in the average mechanical sensitivity of the canals, which is consistent with physiological recordings from primary vestibular neurons in the cat, The Rs determined by ROTA are compared with Rs determined by conventional histological means.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 154 (1977) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 154 (1977), S. 339-356 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The organization and fine structure of the muscles of the scolex of the cysticercoid of Hymenolepis microstoma are described. The contractile apparatus consists of thick (175-325 Å diameter × 1.4 μm) and thin (60-80 Å diameter × 1 μm) filaments. The thick filaments are occasionally attached to the thin filaments by cross bridges. The thin filaments are attached to the dense bodies or to a dense zone at the sarcolemma at muscle insertions. In contracted muscle the thick filaments appear as quasi-hexagonal arrays or in lines. Each thick filament is surrounded by an orbit of up to 12 thin filaments, which in turn may be shared by adjacent thick filaments. Thin filaments may be present in quasi-rectangular or hexagonal groupings indicating some low order degree of actin lattice. The fusiform dense bodies (1,500 Å × 900 Å), consisting of up to 25 discrete substructures, are distributed uniformly throughout the myofiber and/or attached to the sarcolemma at attachment plaques. The sarcoplasmic reticulum, consisting of a presumed anastomosing network of tubules is structurally connected to the sarcolemma by periodic deposits of electron opaque material. Sarcoplasmic extensions of the myofiber(s) contain the nucleus, Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, β-glycogen, mitochondria and membrane bound electron dense structures. Upon activation of the metacestode, groups of α-glycogen and enlargement of the rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed. Microtubules which were conspicuously absent from the sarcoplasm of the unactivated worms appeared adjacent to the myofibers in activated worms.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A survey is made of some ultrastructural features of the developing cornea of Macaca mulatta. The observations are confined to the anterior central area, starting with the lens vesicle stage and progressing through midgestation, when the morphologic characteristics of the cornea are fully established. Subepithelial filaments and some partially aggregated collagen fibrils are present in the earliest embryo and are of a size and appearance similar to those in the future vitreous cavity. Epithelial secretory activity points to, but does not prove direct contribution to the deposition of the acellular matrix components beneath it. No trace of a structured, orthogonal collagenous stroma can be visualized. The primitive endothelium forms prior to the fibroblast invasion of the distended filamentous matrix. Bowman's layer has undoubted epithelial contributions. Its aggregated collagen fibrils have approximately the same diameter as those of the anterior stroma. Intraepithelial appearance of single nerve fibers and fascicles takes place during the first trimester of gestation, as soon as the two continuous epithelial layers are formed. Terminal areas approach closely to the basal cell's nucleus, without touching it. The plasmalemma of the invaginating nerve fiber is surrounded by that of the epithelial cell in a mesaxon-like manner, with occasional gap junctions uniting adjoining neural and epithelial cell membranes. The fetal neurites contain microtubules, some clear vesicles and dense vacuoles resembling those of mature monamine and non-monamine neurons. Mitochondria are small and compact, their presence indicating a high rate of metabolic activity in the immature terminal area.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 153 (1977), S. 299-306 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Compared to the lepadomorph barnacles, the morphology of hemolymph circulation in the balanomorphs is poorly known. This report on Megabalanus californicus is the first detailed description of blood circulation in a balanomorph barnacle.In Megabalanus hemolymph circulates in a similar pattern to that seen in lepadomorphs. However, Megabalanus shows major differences. (1) The mantle and associated structures ( =peduncle in the lepadomorphs) shows no large sinuses and blood is directed to branchiae via well defined vessels. (2) The gut is entirely invested with vessels from the distributive system (except for the proctodaeum). (3) A large sinus in the thoracic region (thoracic sinus) has no similar structure in the lepadomorphs. (4) The prosomal sinus is reduced and positioned dorsally. (5) The rostral sinus is larger than any found in the lepadomorphs and receives a substantial amount of blood from the peripheral circulation.The smallness of the prosomal sinus in Megabalanus probably is due to lack of a contractile peduncle. In the lepadomorphs the prosomal sinus likely serves as a storage sinus for hemolymph when the peduncle is contracted.
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  • 7
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 153 (1977), S. 307-316 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The thoracic muscles of Drosophila melanogaster can be classified into two classes, the fibrillar and the tubular muscles, on morphological grounds. Histochemical techniques were used to characterize these two classes of muscle according to their content of various enzymes (α-glycerophosphate, NAD-dependent isocitrate, malate and succinate dehydrogenases, fumarase, acid phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and acetylcholinesterase) and of glycogen. These investigations showed that the two muscles types are histochemically very different and, further, that the morphologically similar tubular muscles are heterogeneous with respect to their enzyme content. In particular, the tergal depressor of the trochanter of the second leg, the largest of the tubular muscles, has considerably less of all the enzymes studied, with the exception of acetylcholinesterase, than all the other tubular muscles examined. The histochemical techniques were also used to follow the changes in enzyme levels that occur during development of the indirect flight muscle fibres. All the enzymes that are present in adult flight muscles showed an increase in staining intensity throughout muscle development. Some minor differences were observed in the time of appearance and rate of increase of intensity of the different enzymes.
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  • 8
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 153 (1977), S. 317-331 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The arrangement and structure of sinus hair muscles in the snout of the shrew, Sorex unguiculatus, were studied by electron microscopy and serial section light microscopy. Both striated and smooth muscles are directly associated with sinus hair follicles. The striated muscle fibers originate from the base of a follicle and insert onto the superficial portion of adjoining caudally positioned follicles. Some fibers insert into the corium instead of inserting into a follicle. The fibers show a fine structure typical of red fibers. Smooth muscle cells form a network with elastic fibers beneath the corium. Some cells are directly attached to the capsule of the sinus, thus forming a type of M. arrector pili. Striated muscle fibers that appear to end in the corium are connected with the smooth muscle network through the elastic fibers which appear to function as the tendon of these two types of muscle cell.
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  • 9
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 148 (1977), S. 479-511 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Secretory ameloblasts in lower second molars of 1-week-old kittens were studied with the elctron microscope after perfusion-fixation with and without decalcification.Ameloblast height varied from 40-65 μm. Tomes' process presented a stepped profile with two type-1 faces (presumably enamel secreting) and one type-2 face (thought to be non-secreting). The type-1 face was associated with extensive membrane infoldings. The enamel facing the type-1 face was lined by a dense border, and stippled material was present between cell membrane and enamel. The type-2 face was characterized by minute membrane invaginations and, sometimes, stippled material between enamel and cell membrane. In cross section, the distal part of Tomes' process showed bilateral symmetry, with one dorsal, one ventral and two lateral aspects. It was suggested that enamel formation occurs in three stages. First, interrod enamel on the lateral aspects of Tomes' processes is formed by two adjacent amelblasts. Next, the interrod enamel on the dorso-ventral aspects of Tomes' processes is formed mainly by the dorsal extension of one Tomes' process. Finally, the enamel rod is formed by one ameloblast.Stippled material was consistently present in the extracellular spaces between Tomes' processes and in irregularly shaped vesicles in the ameloblast apex, and occasionally in large masses between the ameloblast cell bodies. Spherical vesicles within the ameloblast, thought to be lysosomes, also could contain material resembling stippled material. The possibility was considered that stippled material is partly derived from enamel, and finally phagocytosed by ameloblasts. There was no clear morphologic evidence for merocrine secretion playing a role in the formation of either enamel, stippled material or the rod sheath.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present study was undertaken to seek ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland of the spontaneously hypertensive rat which would contribute to the understanding of previously reported abnormalities in thyroid function. Light and electron microscopic observations and measurements of plasma T3 and systolic blood pressure were recorded from a colony of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher than that of WKY but the plasma T3 levels of the two groups did not differ significantly. After administration of propylthiouracil (PTU), serum T3 levels and systolic pressure of both groups decreased. The size of the thyroid follicles in SHR was highly variable throughout the gland, and the colloid contained unevenly dense areas and cell debris. The follicular cells contained slightly dilated rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and numerous pleomorphic bodies of uneven density. After treatment with PTU, the vessels between the follicles of SHR did not become as dilated as those in WKY but the fine structure of follicular cells in SHR was similar to that of WKY and was characteristic of the typical thyroid response to PTU administration. We suggest that the thyroid in SHR does not respond adequately to the elevated TSH levels reported to be present in these animals, although it can respond to the highly elevated TSH levels which occur with PTU administration. This impairment most probably involves defects in synthesis and/or secretion of thyroid hormones in response to TSH stimulation.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Regional differentiation of the plasma membrane and related structures of the exocrine pancreas has been studied ultrastructurally and cytochemically. Fixation with an osmium tetroxide-silver acetate solution produced abundant fine precipitates on the luminal and basal surface of the centroacinar but not the acinar cells. Staining with dialyzed iron (DI) revealed the heaviest concentration of anionic sites on the luminal plasma membrane of the acinar cells, including the surface of both the intercellular canaliculi and the main lumen. The reactive sites on the apical acinar plasmalemma appeared to consist of discrete globules. DI-reactivity of the lateral basal membranes was most prominent in the centroacinar cells and essentially absent in the acinar cells but was weak relative to that of the acinar-cell apical plasmalemma. The lamina lucida of the basement membrane of the duct stained with DI, but that of basement membrane under acinar cells did not. Sialidase digestion prior to DI staining abolished the staining of plasma membranes. These results indicate that duct epithelial cells, including most prominently the centroacinar cells, are chiefly responsible for electrolyte and fluid transport.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 14C-Nicotine·HCl (4.5 mg) was injected into the air space of chick eggs after one day of incubation and the distribution of radioactivity measured on days 3, 5, 7 and 12. By day 3, 98% of the dose had passed from the air space into the egg, proper. The quantity of nicotine in the yolk was highest on day 3 (74% of dose) and decreased steadily until day 12 (52%). The quantity in the albumen increased from 16% on day 3 to a maximum on day 7 and remained constant at 34% until day 12. The embryo contained 0.03% of the nicotine on day 3, and this level increased to 5% by day 12. Nicotine in the allantois increased throughout the study period (0.01% on day 3 to 3% on day 12). Although only 5% of the dose was present in the embryo, the highest concentrations of nicotine observed were in the heart, liver and carcass. The concentrations within these components of the embryo ranged from a minimum of 0.85 μg nicotine/mg dry wt in the heart to a maximum of 2.00 μg nicotine/mg dry wt in the carcass. These levels within the embryo were two to five times higher than the greatest concentrations in the yolk and albumen. The dynamics of nicotine passage from the air space into other components of the fertilized chick egg were clarified. Whereas the conventional expression of teratogenic doses of drugs in chick eggs (i.e., ppm of egg weight) assumes that the compound is distributed uniformaly, this study indicates that such expressions are inaccurate.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A daily rhythm was demonstrated in levels of specific activity for the Na, K-ATPase and glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes in adrenal and renal subcellular fractions in the rat. A bimodal daily rhythm was observed for 5′-nucleotidase in a renal subcellular fraction. The rats were maintained on a 12:12 light-dark (LD) regimen. Animals were killed at approximately 4-hour intervals.The daily rhythm in Na, K-ATPase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities persisted in animals maintained under continuous illumination (LL) and continuous darkness (DD). The 5′nucleotidase activity persisted under LL, and under DD.The data from the enzyme assays were analyzed by fitting to a cosinor regression model designed to assess the rhythmic nature of the findings. A linear transformation method was applied to assess the closeness of fit to the cosinor regression model.The Na, K-ATPase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities appeared to be endogenous circadian rhythms. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity in renal fractions appeared to be influenced by the feeding cycle. The 5′-nucleotidase enzyme appeared to have an ultradian rhythm. The ultimate derivation and significance of these observed rhythms remains to be determined; however, they appear to be independent of the light-dark cycle.
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  • 14
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 149 (1977), S. 477-487 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the rat the size distributions of cell bodies in the trigeminal motor nucleus and of myelinated fibers in the portio minor were bimodal. The size distribution of mesencephalic nuclear somata was unimodal. The number of fibers in the portio minor was approximated by the number of somata in the motor and mesencephalic nuclei. Within the motor nucleus large and small cells were chromatolytic after destruction of the portio minor. Injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the masseter and temporalis muscles labeled both the large and small neurons in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus. Similar injections into the anterior belly of the digastric and mylohyoid muscles labeled neurons in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus, but these neurons were not among the smallest in the nucleus. Within the mesencephalic nucleus chromatolytic somata occurred only ipsilaterally after unilateral lesions of the portio minor, and in lesser numbers after destroying the portio major. Unilateral injections of HRP into the masseter and temporalis muscles labeled cells in the ipsilateral mesencephalic nucleus and trigeminal ganglion. Labeling of mesencephalic neurons was abolished by lesions of the portio minor. Similar injections into the anterior belly of the digastric and mylohoid muscles labeled cells in the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion, but not in the mesencephalic nucleus. These results are discussed in light of previous work on the trigeminal system.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Myocytes of the heart of the newborn rat are mononucleated, whereas myocytes of the heart of growing, maturing rats become predominantly binucleated. This appears to be explained by mitotic division shortly after birth without cell division, i.e., karyokinesis without cytokinesis. Myocytes isolated from hearts of adult guinea pig and pigeon are also predominantly binucleated. Although only about an eighth of the cells of adult rat hearts are myocytes, most of the increase in size of the heart from birth to six months can be accounted for by change in size of these cells.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The monkey epididymis was subdivided into four regions: initial segment (continous with the ductuli efferentes), head, body and tail. The initial segment possesses a very tall columnar epithelium (108 ± 4 μm). Epithelial height in the head, body and tail is diminished to 81 ± 5 μm, 69 ± 2 μm, and 50 ± 5 μm, respectively. The pseudostratified epithelium is composed of four main cell types: principal, apical and basal epithelial cells, and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Occasional macrophages are also found in the epithelium. The tall, narrow, columnar principal cells demonstrate morphological features characteristic of absorption and secretion. An unusual feature, apparently unique to the primate, is the presence of deep invaginations of the apical cytoplasm which contain membrane-bounded vacuoles. Similar, but larger vacuoles are present among the stereocilia and in the tubular lumen. Large clusters of mitochondria and electron-dense membrane-bounded granules characterize the infranuclear region of the cytoplasm. Principal cells are studded with closely aligned stereocilia. Their nuclei are spindle-shaped in the initial segment and first portion of the head region, but become highly infolded in the distal head, body and tail portions. The apical or mitochondrion-rich cells possess a cytoplasm which extends from the base of the epithelium to the tubular lumen. Basal cells contain few organelles and are found throughout the length of the duct. Arterioles and capillaries appear to penetrate directly into the epithelium from the underlying connective tissue; however, the basal lamina of the epididymal duct always intervenes between the endothelium of the blood vessels and the epithelial cells. Several of the above observations have not been noted in rodents and other mammalian species and may be unique to the primate.
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  • 17
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 149 (1977), S. 533-561 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Young adult male rats were treated with clomiphene citrate, a non-steroidal inhibitor of gonadotropin release in the rat. They were administered 2.5, 3.5, or 5.0 mg/100g/day for intervals up to 12 weeks. The weights of the sex accessory glands were less than those of control rats, and decreased with increasing dose and length of treatment. At the longer intervals, the weights of the testis and epididymis were also less than those of control animals. Microscopic alterations in the testis included a scarcity or even absence of late spermatids, the presence of necrotic cap-phase spermatids, and accumulation of lipid droplets and large lysosome-like structures in Sertoli cells. In rats treated for the longest interval, 12 weeks, testicular changes were even more extensive; degenerating primary spermatocytes were observed, and in one rat germ cells were virtually completely absent and the seminiferous tubules were occupied by Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells of treated animals were smaller than those of normal or control rats. Sperm were absent from the lumen of the caput epididymidis in most specimens. Although the epithelium of the caput appeared reduced in height in some samples, ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles were not detected. In most specimens of the cauda epididymidis, the lumen was small, irregularly shaped, and lacking in sperm. Light cells were prominent in the epithelium by virtue of their content of many apical vacuoles and dense granules. In some specimens of the distal cauda epididymidis, the duct had a circular profile and the lumen contained round cells and debris. The seminal vesicle and the ventral prostate were greatly suppressed. The normally tall columnar epithelia were reduced to a low columnar or cuboidal shape. Especially at the longer treatment intervals, the normally abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum was sparse, and in some samples secretory vacuoles were absent. The possible mechanism of production of these morphological changes is discussed, and the results are compared with those following treatment with other antifertility agents, including cyproterone acetate, a progestin, and a progestin-androgen regimen.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: When a single sublethal dose (300 mg/kg body weight) of cyclophosphamide was injected intraperitoneally into experimental mice, several morphological alterations were detected in the crypt epithelium within a few hours. These were (a) mitotic activity of epithelial cells decreased, reaching the lowest level at 16 hours; (b) an abnormally high number of lymphocytes and cells with eosinophilic granules appeared in the epithelium; later these cells degenerated and the maximum number of dead cells was observed at six hours after the drug injection. At four days post-injection the morphology of crypt epithelium had returned to normal.Electron microscopic examination revealed that although the mitotic activity of crypt epithelial cells was depressed, there was little change in their morphology following the drug administration. However, many intermediate stages of degeneration of lymphocytes and eosinophilic cells were observed in the intercellular spaces as well as apparently inside the cytoplasm of crypt epithelial cells. The eosinophilic cells are characterized by the presence of large crystal-containing granules in the cytoplasm, and are believed to be equivalent to “globular leucocytes” described by many investigators. Evidence from this study suggests that lymphocytes and globular leucocytes are more sensitive to cyclophosphamide than crypt epithelial cells, and that they degenerate in crypt epithelium.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Following multiple tooth pulp extirpations, electron microscopic preparations show degenerating axons and synaptic terminals in the same region of the brain stem trigeminal nucleus previously demonstrating degeneration by light-optical methods. The observations confirm the phenomenon of transganglionic degeneration in this system and identify the class of central nervous system axons and synapses specifically related to innervation of the teeth.
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  • 20
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 149 (1977), S. 597-603 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ependymal cells in the region of the hypothalamic sulcus, hypothalamus, infundibular recess and supraoptic recess exhibit large apical protrusions between day 12 and day 14 post coitus. The ependyma was examined using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The protrusions contain ribosomes and cytoplasmic matrix. Occasionally other cytoplasmic organelles were found within the protrusions. The protrusions range in shape from a rounded elevation of the apical surface of the ependymal cell to spherical bodies attached to cell surface by a slender stalk. The unique transitory specialization of the ependyma may represent either a neurosecretory or mechanical folding mechanism.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Osteoclasts have been observed for the first time in toothless (tl) rats, a mutation which inherits osteopetrosis as an autosomal recessive. The ability of tl rats to raise the serum calcium concentration after injection of parathyroid extract was severely limited when compared with normal littermates. In addition, osteopetrosis in tl rats is not cured by radiation and infusion of normal spleen or bone marrow cells from normal littermates, a method known to cure osteopetrosis in mutants of this and other species. This indirect evidence for a reduction in bone resorption as a cause of osteopetrosis in this mutation and the failure of transplanted cells to cure the disease are discussed in relation to the development and function of osteoclasts.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The volume densities of type II alveolar cell cytoplasmic organelles and alveolar surface densities were estimated by established stereologic procedures. The morphometric measurements were obtained from normal dog lungs (in situ) and isolated dog lungs perfused for 30-minute, 1-hour, and 2-hour periods. The type II cell lamellar body volume densities and the alveolar surface densities progressively decreased as the times of perfusion were increased. The volume densities of the granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum progressively increased during the periods of perfusion. These morphometric parameters from lungs in situ and isolated lungs suggest that changes occur in pulmonary surfactant synthesis and activity during perfusion. It is further postulated that progressive increases in the rates of surfactant removal and/or inactivation during perfusion may contribute to spontaneous edema in lungs isolated for periods exceeding two hours. The morphologic and physiologic integrity of isolated perfused lung preparations, widely used as models of lungs in vivo, in situ requires further evaluation.
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  • 23
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 150 (1977), S. 175-184 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neurons isolated from the lateral vestibular nucleus of young adult and senescent Fischer-344 rats were incubated with fluorescamine-labelled Concanavalin A (fl-Con A) alone, or following incubation in trypsin or Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase. They were then observed and photographed. Microdensitometric analysis of fluorescence micrographs showed that senescent rat neurons were significantly more fluorescent than those from young adult rats. Additionally, either patches or caps of fl-Con A were seen on the surface of neurons from senescent rats, while most young adult rat neurons bound fl-Con A uniformly.Pretreatment with trypsin or neuraminidase had no effect on the amount of fluorescence on the surface of senescent rat neurons, and only a slight effect on the surface distribution. Trypsin and neuraminidase treatments caused a significant increase in fluorescence on the neuronal plasma membranes of young adult rats and a rearrangement of the binding pattern in the majority of neurons observed.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fresh pullet eggs (White Leghorn strain) were incubated from 11 to 21 days. Embryos were killed by decapitation and portions of the esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, caecum and rectum were dissected and removed rapidly. The inner lining of the gut was exposed by using small needles to pin the cut edges of the tube to a wax plate immersed in Hank's fixative modified with aldehydes (Litke and Low, ′77). Preparation for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was routine.Esophageal cilia appeared in tufts along with microvilli and microplicae. These were more frequent at the lower end of the esophagus. Developing cilia were present. In the 12-day proventriculus, structures resembling macrovilli were predominant. These disappeared by the seventeenth day, when aggregates of rounded cells covered with microvilli appeared. The gizzard acquired a prominent rounded cellular appearance with microvilli at 17 days. These cells increasingly elongated and flattened out towards hatching (21 days). Observations of the duodenum confirmed those made by Grey (′72). A hexagonal pattern of cells was also observed. The ridges of the ileal portion of the small intestine were larger and fuller than in the duodenum. Formation of rectal villi was not as well organized as in the small intestine. Villi could be seen scattered at random at 12 days. By 17 days, definitive ridges were seen. The villi in the cloacal region of the rectal area were extremely long and elaborate, as previously reported by Zeitschmann (′02, cited by Calhoun, ′57). Our observations show that the mucosal surfaces become highly specialized in different parts of the tract during development. Marked changes in geometric form occur during development.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 150 (1977), S. 201-205 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using an immunohistochemical technique at the electron microscopic level, it has been shown that α-MSH is localized within the small vesicles of a few cell bodies found in the arcuate nucleus and numerous nerve fibers widely distributed throughout the brain. These findings suggest that α-MSH could possibly be considered as a neurotransmitter.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Chondroblasts exposed to the phorbol ester, PMA, rapidly lose their polygonal morphology, and rapidly cease to synthesize or accumulate the chondroblast-specific Type IV sulfated proteoglycan. This striking effect is reversible if the cells are kept in PMA for up to 72 hours.A longer exposure induces irreversible effects and results in a population of cells, the vast majority of which lack the phenotypic properties of terminal chondroblasts.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: During the last one-third of their gestational period, lathyritic rats incorporate significantly lower amounts of Sr85 as revealed by whole body counting techniques. This difference was maximum at term. The study provides evidence for a lathyritic disturbance in the initial phases of mineralization of hard tissue matrices.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Techniques of quantitative stereology have been utilized to determine the relative volume occupied by the Sertoli cells and germ cells in two particular stages (I and VII) of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. Sertoli cell volume ranged from 24% in stage I of the cycle to 32% in stage VII. Early germ cells occupied 3.4% in stage I (spermatogonia) and 8.7% in stage VII (spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes). Pachytene spermatocytes occupied 15% (stage I) and 24% (stage VII) of the total volume of the seminiferous epithelium. In stage I the two generations of spermatids comprised 58% of the total epithelium by volume, whereas in stage VII, after spermiation, the acrosome phase spermatids occupied 35% of the total seminiferous epithelial volume.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 150 (1977), S. 509-529 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of the pineal complex was compared in seven species of lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) using both light and electron microscopes. On the basis of compactness of the pineal end-vesicle and presence or absence of a dorsal sac, the species in this study were divided into two groups. This grouping seems to correlate well with current views on the phylogenetic relationships among these fishes. Receptor cells and supportive cells are described in the pineals of all species examined. The deepest-dwelling of the forms studied, Parvilux ingens, showed a significant increase in the mean number of lamellar membranes in the outer segments of the receptor cells and a higher convergence ratio of receptor cells to ganglion cells as compared to the shallow-dwelling form Tarletonbeania crenularis. Accordingly it is suggested that the pineal of P. ingens is more photosensitive. Additional differences among species were found in the ultrastructure of the supportive cells. Dorsal sacs were absent in the three shallowest-occurring myctophids studied. In those species with a dorsal sac, its close association with the pineal-end-vesicle suggests a functional relationship between the two structures.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 150 (1977), S. 531-537 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Allometric growth in the innominate bone has been studied in eight primate taxa. A total of 266 skeletons were examined and the lengths of the ischial and pubic rami of the right innominate bone and the bicondylar length of the right femur were measured. These data were converted to natural logarithms and the allometric relationships were studied. The taxa could be divided into two groups on the basis of the allometric coefficients.Slopes were similar in Homo, Colobus, Presbtis, and Ceropithecus; in these taxa mean ischial length was greater in male skeletons but pubic length showed either no significant increase in the larger males or mean pubic length was greater in the smaller female skeletons.A second group of taxa, Gorilla, Pan, Papio and Cerecocebus all showed a similar pattern of allometric coefficints, a pattern which contrasted with those in Homo etc. Ischial and pubic length in the second group increased in the larger males but the rate of increase in ischial length always exceeded the rate of increase in pubic length. The net effect of these two different mechanisms is to produce sexual differences in the “ischium-pubic” index, but in the first group of taxa, which show selective pubic growth in the female, sexual dimorphism in the index is greater. Concentration in earlier studies on the “ischium-pubic” index to study sexual differences in innominate growth have masked these relative growth differences.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Following artificial ulceration of the guinea pig bladder epithelium, study by light microscopy showed that mitotic activity occurs within 24 hours in the basal layer of the remaining epithelium, which leads to thickening, disorganization and cell shedding. At the ulcer margin, the epithelium forms a rolled edge, from the extremity of which a two-layered sheet of flat cells grows over the edematous ulcer bed, and the ulcer site is protected during dilation of the bladder by localized muscle spasm. Healing is effected within about one week, as the mitotic activity declines. Organization of the new epithelium commences at the periphery and the cells acquire glycogen and alkaline phosphatase. Study by SEM, which included normal bladders, confirmed that new epithelium spreads from a rolled epithelial edge, and also showed that cells undergoing rejection have globular profiles with surface microvilli. The immature epithelial cells are markedly distorted from mutual pressure during migration and their surfaces show only short microvilli. Ulcers heal after four to seven days, depending on size, and the new cells rapidly assume the pentagonal and hexagonal outlines and the reticular pattern of surface ridges, characteristic of mature surface cells. The ridges apparently develop by fusion of rows of microvilli. By the tenth day it is difficult to identify the original ulcer site.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The existence of a discrete group of cells that are able to phagocytose spermatozoa is reported in the terminal vas deferens of the rat. In addition it is shown that phagocytosis of spermatozoa occurs in the gland of the vas deferens. The cytological mechanisms involved in the phagocytotic process are discussed, and the role that this activity may have on the removal of surplus spermatozoa is discussed.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The reproductive biology of Noctilio albiventris was investigated histologically in 112 females collected at the start of their synchronized breeding season during two different sampling years in the Cauca Valley of Colombia. Both ovaries were functional, but the animals were generally observed to be monovular. Embryonic development in the oviduct was found to proceed to blastocyst formation and loss of the zona pellucida. In 22 animals the discarded zona had been left behind in the oviduct upon passage of the embryo into the uterus and was still undissolved at the time of amniogenesis, the latest stage examined. The zonae which had passed into the uterus with the embryos often exhibited signs of dissolution. Most of the early blastocysts were morphologically distinctive, lacking a typical inner cell mass and being instead largely bilaminar. Degenerating ova from previous ovulations were found in the oviducts of two pregnant bats, suggesting that Noctilio may be another species in which the embryo stimulates its own escape from the oviduct. During tubal passage of the embryo the secretory cells of the oviductal ampulla and isthmus exhibited a transient engorgement with glycogen, particularly on the side ipsilateral to the new corpus luteum.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The histogenesis and mechanism of joint clefting of the developing chick embryo up to the fifteenth day of incubation have been studied morphologally, ultrastructurally, and by histochemical methods. Cell degenration was consistently noted 24 hours after differentiation of the joint tissue, and it is postulated that this early cell necrosis might account for the loosening of the medial part of articular mesenchyme (interzone) leading to differentiation of a three-layered embryonic joint. At the time of joint clefting degenerative cells were also seen in the peripheral parts of the developing articular cavity. In somes cases clefting was immediately preceded and/or accompanied by the appearance of elongated, basophilic and electron-opaque cells closely arranged along the zone of tissue cleavage. These cells were thought to be implicated in some way in the clefting process and later to constitute a surface cell layer of articular cartilage. In addition to these observations clear morphological and histo-autoradiographic evidence was found for the presence of an organic component, presumably mucopolysaccharide, in the primitive synovial fluid. Fluid secretion might also account for tissue cleavage at the sites of its accumulation.The data reported here suggest that joint cavity formation results from a combination of both intrinsic, genetically expressed and extrinsic mechanical factors acting synchronously.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the mouse seminiferous epithelium four sites of formed microtubules (MTS) are axonemes and manchettes of spermatids, Sertoli-cell cytoplasm, and spindles of dividing cells. Various experimental treatments indicate that the manchette MTS are different from other formed MTS. Fixation in 1% osmium tetroxide yields good preservation of axonemal MTS, varying degrees of preservation of manchette MTS, but no preservation of spindle or Sertoli-cell MTS. Cell-suspension, and intact-tubule cultures subjected to 0-4°C or 50°C exhibit a breakdown of spindle and Sertoli-cell MTS while manchette and axonemal MTS remain intact. Cell suspensions exposed to Colcemid or colchicine show no MTS in Sertoli and dividing cells; axonemal MTS are unaffected while in the manchette there is an increase in cross-bridging between MTS. Cell suspensions treated for 120 minutes with vinblastine sulfate do not show MTS in the Sertoli cells, but crystals presumed to be microtubule protein are present after 15 minutes of exposure. Spindle MTS are dismantled but vinblastine-induced crystals are not present even after 120 minutes of exposure. The manchette MTS are dismantled by vinblastine in a proximal direction from their distal limits. This is accompanied by the formation of crystals of microtubule protein in the spermatid cytoplasm, while axonemal MTS are unaffected. Vinblastine and Colcemid used in combination cause the disruption of Sertoli-cell MTS after 15 minutes, spindle MTS after 30 minutes and formation of crystals after 60 minutes of exposure. The manchette MTS are disassembled, the pattern is disrupted and increased numbers of cross-bridges are seen. These findings indicate that the manchette MTS might be intermediate-type microtubules since they exhibit the reactions of both cytoplasmic and flagellar-type MTS.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The structure and distribution of elastic tissue were studied in the limiting membrane of the seminiferous tubule from normal human testis. The elastic and elastic-related fibers (oxytalan and elaunin) were recognized by their tinctorial and ultrastructural characteristics. The connective structures of the limiting membrane, including the fibrotubules and the amorphous material of the elastic system, were studied after tannic acid-glutaraldehyde fixation. Fibrotubules (oxytalan fibers) were observed in almost all intercellular spaces of the limiting membrane, closely related to the contractile cells; the elaunin fibers (patches of amorphous material surrounded by bundles of fibrotubules) were evident in the outermost layers. The function of this system of elastic tissue and myoid cells is discussed, considering the permeability of the limiting membrane and the role of the myoid cells in the elastogenesis and contractility of the seminiferous tubule.
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  • 37
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 150 (1977), S. 375-380 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase reaction with acid preincubation allowed the identification of three types of intrafusal fibers in pigeon flexor carpi ulnaris muscle spindles. Measurements of cross-sectional areas at the polar region showed much overlap in fiber size among populations of each type.
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  • 38
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Structures superficially resembling dictyosomes were present in guinea pig primary spermatocytes and in spermatids in late stages of development. The dictyosome-like structures (DLS) were composed of 2 to 17 saccules. Each saccule averaged about 20 nm in thickness (membranes plus lumen) and 400 nm in diameter and was separated from adjacent saccules in a stack by an intersaccular space of about 12 nm. Single saccules separated from the DLS were also present. Tubules up to 60 nm in diameter were continuous with the edges of the saccules and sometimes extended for several micrometers into the cytoplasm. The membranes of the tubules appeared similar to the saccule membranes. Some DLS saccules and tubules had coated vesicles attached to them.A distinguishing feature of DLS was the presence of microtubule-like structures, about 10 nm in diameter, that bridged the inter-saccular spaces. Some of these bridging structures appeared continuous through one or more saccules. The bridging structures were often arranged in linear arrays or in clusters of three to four.The membranes of the DLS appeared tripartite but stained differently from the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. The inner (luminal) leaflet of the tripartite membrane usually appeared discontinuous or globular after fixation in glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide. The DLS could be distinguished from all other cellular components and may represent a new organelle unique to spermatogenesis.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Electrotonic spread of applied potentials was observed between longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the small intestine with no rectification. Nexal junctions were demonstrated between muscle fibers of each layer. Connective tissue cells bridged between the two muscle layers. These showed structural characteristics of fibrocytes and of interstitial cells. Some nexuses were seen between connective tissue cells and between these cells and muscle fibers of each layer but in most junctions the membranes were 10-18 nm apart. Since connective tissue can serve for electrical conduction between cultured heart cells and since electrical properties of intestinal muscle permit transmission with low degrees of coupling, it is suggested that interstitial cells and fibrocytes may electrically couple longitudinal and circular muscle layers of cat intestine.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this investigation was: (a) to study the developmental relationships of the temporal muscle and the coronoid process during the critical initial stages of morphogenesis and (b) to correlate the developmental stages of the muscle and the bone with data describing the functioning of the muscles of mastication in utero.The heads of 41 human embryos and fetuses, 6 to 11 weeks, estimated fertilization age, were sectioned and examined under light microscopy. The findings are described in terms of six successive stages, each characterized by a major developmental change occurring during that stage.The data indicate that the temporal and masseter muscle anlagen begin to develop prior to the skeleton to which they ultimately become attached. The coronoid process differentiates subsequently as a discrete entity within the mass of the temporal muscle anlage at an estimated fertilization age of 7 to 7.5 weeks (23-24 mm CRL). At approximately eight weeks of age, the coronoid process unites with the main portion of the mandibular ramus. The findings here presented do not support the conclusion that the coronoid process is self-differentiating as Washburn (′47) contended. Instead, the development of this feature of the human mandible represents a response that follows the differentiation of the temporal muscle. This conclusion is consistent with the observations drawn from a number of investigations concerning structural and functional development of the face.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of the ependymal surface of the rabbit third ventricle was studied following intraventricular injections of an ovulatory dose of synthetic LH-RH. Identically treated rabbits that received injections of saline, only, served as controls. Animals from both groups were killed 5 minutes and 15 minutes after the injections. The ependyma of the dorsolateral ventricular wall and transitional zone maintained a constant appearance from animal to animal regardless of treatment or time of autopsy. The uniformly non-ciliated ependyma of the ventrolateral wall and floor (infundibular and mammillary recesses) of the ventricle, however, not only exhibited an appearance quite distinct from either the dorsolateral wall or transitional zone, but also exhibited a transient responsiveness to LH-RH treatment. In the controls, most ependymal cells of this region bulged conspicuously into the ventricle. Numerous pleomorphic knob- of bleb-like protrusions and occasional microvilli characterized their apical membranes. In contrast, marked changes were seen in the character of the ependymal surface of animals killed five minutes following LH-RH administration. These changes, which principally took the form of numerous irregular microvillous eruptions of the apical membrane, pervaded the rostrocaudal extent of the infundibular and mammillary recesses. Equivalent regions of the ependymal surface in animals killed 15 minutes after LH-RH administration, however, were similar to those of the controls. These transient morphological changes observed in the ependymal surface of the ventrolateral wall and floor of the ventricle five minutes after LH-RH injection may reflect structural modifications associated with absorption of the hormone across the ependymal-CSF interface.
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  • 43
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 44
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 148 (1977), S. 1-18 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The octopus cell area (OCA) of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus was studied electron microscopically in kittens. The adult OCA, a region of morphologically homogenous neurons receiving heterotypic synapses from the cochlea, was used to define the mature state. The OCA reaches cytological maturity at three weeks postnatally, after progression through four stages, defined on the basis of octopus cell cytology (including relative numbers of somatic and dendritic filopodia and spines) and the frequency, ultrastructure and location of previously defined synaptic terminals. Octopus cell size was also studied in rapid Golgi impregnations. The OCA from birth through three postnatal days (stage 1) showed small neurons, few identifiable synaptic types, small, mostly unmyelinated axons, mitotic cells and undifferentiated glia. Between the fourth and seventh postnatal days (stage 2) distinct type 1 and type 2 endings appeared and dendrites thickened, expanded peripherally and developed mature spines. During stage 3 (8-19 days) loss of filopodia, increased somatic spicules, larger somas and clearer differentiation of type 1 and type 2 synapses occurred. After three postnatal weeks (stage 4) the OCA contained morphologically mature octopus cell somas, all three synaptic types ending upon somas and thick basal dendrites, and fascicles of myelinated fibers. Although cytologically mature, the OCA at this stage (about 20-35 days) is substantially smaller than the adult OCA. This smaller size will facilitate further study of OCA synaptic organization.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Adult male Syrian hamsters were given daily intraperitoneal injections of epinephrine (1.0 mg/kg) and papaverine, a vasodilator, (60 mg/kg) for a period of ten days. After the treatment period, lanthanum and horseradish peroxidase tracer studies were used to examine the intra-epithelial component of the blood-testis barrier. Degenerating tubules often exhibited only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia, or Sertoli cells alone. Sertoli cell processes in the degenerating tubules often arched out from the main cell body to make contact with other Sertoli cell processes, forming a series of vacuole-like spaces in the germinal epithelium, adluminal to the Sertoli-Sertoli junctions. At the site of contact between these arching Sertoli cell processes one to eight tight junctions had formed, with hexagonal arrays of Sertoli cell cytoplasmic filaments located immediately adjacent to these junctions. Cisternae of the Sertoli cell endoplasmic reticulum lay deep to the layer of cytoplasmic filaments. It appeared that these junctions had originated after the expulsion of the germinal elements of the seminiferous epithelium. Penetration of the tracers in the degenerating seminiferous tubules was prevented by what appeared to be normal Sertoli-Sertoli junctions located between apposed Sertoli cells, adluminal to the remaining spermatogonia when these resisted degeneration, or just adluminal to the basal lamina in those tubules in which spermatogonia were absent.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Electron microscope autoradiography was used to detect the incorporation of 3H-fucose into glycoproteins of toad bladder epithelial cells. After short exposure to 3H-fucose, without a chase period, the Golgi regions of all four cell types were labeled. When exposure to 3H-fucose was followed by chase periods (1, 3, 4 and 6 hours) the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of granular cells were heavily labeled. Apical granules and the cytoplasm of granular cells were also labeled, suggesting that they both provide the means for glycoprotein transfer from the Golgi to the plasma membranes. The heaviest labeling in mitochondria-rich cells, after the 1- and 3-hour chase periods, was over the apical tubules, although the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes were also heavily labeled. After the 4- and 6-hour chases, the labeling of the apical tubules decreased, whereas the labeling of the plasma membranes increased, strongly suggesting that in these cells apical tubules play a major role in the transfer of glycoproteins from Golgi to the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrate that the route of 3H-fucose incorporation into plasma membrane glycoproteins and the rate of glycoprotein synthesis and breakdown are not the same in the two major epithelial cell types in toad bladder.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The interstitial tissue of the testis of the nine-banded armadillo is composed of blood vessels, clusters of Leydig cells, the usual connective tissue elements, and a network of lymphatic sinusoids. The endothelial walls of the sinusoids are separated from the peritubular contractile cell layer surrounding the seminiferous tubules by a thin layer of collagen. The peritubular contractile cell is characterized by filaments and dense bodies within the cytoplasm, whereas the endothelial cells lack these structures. Within each cluster, several Leydig cells surround one or more blood vessels. Adjacent Leydig cells are joined by 2- to 3-nm wide gap junctions and desmosome-like specializations. The Leydig cell is polygonal in shape with an ovoid nucleus. The cell is characterized by an abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which appears as sheets of membranes, concentric whorls around vacuoles, and a random tubular network. Only a few short cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum are observed. Centrioles are closely associated with the Golgi apparatus. Rod-like mitochondria with tubular cristae are scattered throughout the cytoplasm. In addition, the cells contain vacuoles resulting from lipid extraction, filaments, microtubules, and glycogen. The surfaces of the cell exposed to the intercellular spaces exhibit numerous pinocytotic vesicles and cell processes which indicate active movement of material across the plasma membrane. In comparison to other mammalian species, the ultrastructural organization of the interstitium and the fine structure of the Leydig cell of the armadillo resemble those of the guinea pig.
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  • 48
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 29-45 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The spleens of rats were studied by light and electron microscopy during the course of an acute myelogenous leukemia, with special reference to infiltration of leukemic myeloblasts in the spleens and to the correlation of leukemic cell infiltration with splenic hematopoiesis and splenomegaly. Leukemic myelo-blasts infiltrated the cordal space of the red pulp. Many of them appeared in groups. Even in spleens which were heavily infiltrated, leukemic myeloblasts did not penetrate the white pulp. Massive infiltration and proliferation of the leukemic myeloblasts in the red pulp resulted in splenomegaly. The spleen increased its he-matopoietic activity, while the medullary hematopoiesis diminished due to the invasion of leukemic myeloblasts in the bone marrow. Compensatory splenic hemato-poiesis occurred in most of the leukemic spleens, but diminished in spleens which were very heavily infiltrated with leukemic myeloblasts. Thus, the degree of splenomegaly and splenic hematopoiesis did not necessarily correspond to the percentage of leukemic myeloblasts in the bone marrow, but rather related to the number of leukemic myeloblasts present in the spleen. A possible role for the splenic sinus walls in promoting compensatory hematopoiesis in the spleen is discussed. A consistent association of type “C” virus particles with leukemic myeloblasts was observed.
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  • 49
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 47-61 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We describe morphological sex differences in urinary bladders of the urodele amphibian Necturus maculosus. The mucosal epithelial cells of bladders from males were tall and contained considerable PAS-positive material. In scanning electron micrographs of the mucosal surface, epithelial cells from male bladders were well demarcated and were capped with microplicae or with long cilia. The mucosal epithelial cells of bladders from females were low and contained only a small amount of PAS-positive material; in scanning electron micrographs cell boundaries could not be distinguished and no cilia or microplicae were present. Bladders from males had higher transepithelial potential difference and lower water content than bladders from females. Urine analyses were not significantly different in the two sexes. It is suggested that response to androgens in the male accounts for the observed differences.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: During renewal of the enamel organ in the rat incisor cohorts of epithelial cells are transported sequentially through presecretory, secretory and maturation zones to the gingival margin where the life cycles of these cells terminate. This process was examined kinetically by determining the absolute flux of cells within each of these zones of amelogenesis. It was found that the efflux of ameloblasts, stratum intermedium and papillary layer cells from the presecretory zone was about equal to the efflux plus expected growth within the secretory zone. However, between the secretory and maturation zones about 50% more ameloblasts entered the maturation zone than were required to account for the egress at the gingival margin and the expected growth. Since there was no similar imbalance between these zones for papillary layer cells, it was concluded that this discrepancy must represent a 50% reduction in the size of the ameloblast population during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. It was calculated that a little over 25% of the loss occurred immediately at the start of maturation within the region of postsecretory transition and the remaining 25% of the loss occurred throughout the subsequent regions of the maturation zone. In addition to the kinetic analysis graphic reconstructions, or surface maps, of ameloblast nuclei were prepared. These maps illustrated the characteristics of ameloblast nuclear packing within the three zones of amelogenesis and they provided quantitative confirmation that as ameloblasts progress through the maturation zone, there is a loss of cells in an amount predicted by the kinetic analysis.
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  • 51
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 99-106 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The distribution of axons in the posterior articular nerves in rhesus monkey has been studied in terms of ratio of myelinated to unmyelinated fibers, and size of myelinated fibers. Conduction velocity measurements were also made. The nerves contained 2,000 to 2,200 unmyelinated fibers of 0.2 to 1.2 μm. diameter. They contained 399 to 478 myelinated fibers, varying in size from 1.4 to 12.3 μm. Thus 80 to 85% of fibers in these nerves were unmyelinated. The maximum conduction velocity of 70 to 80 meters per second corresponded to an initial small deflection, with most fibers conducting at slower rates. These results are compared to previous reports which severely underestimated the number of unmyelinated fibers because electron microscope counts were not utilized.It is suggested that pain fibers from the knee joint of monkey make up much of this large population of unmyelinated axons. An unknown number of post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers is also included in the unmyelinated fiber group.
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  • 52
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 107-111 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Presence of a ridge of fatty tissue running obliquely upwards and backwards over the left aspect of the pulmonary trunk was observed. It started from the left end of the infundibulo-truncal junction and after running parallel adjacent to free anterior border of the left auricle, terminated into an expanded, oval and discoid structure, a little above the level of the tip of the left auricle. The structure was found to be of constant occurrence, position and form.A comparison between similar structure reported in relation with the aorta and the right auricle was attempted.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 113-123 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this article a description of the process of spermatogenesis in the Chinese hamster is given.Spermiogenesis could be divided into 16 steps. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was divided into 12 stages, coinciding with the first 12 steps of spermiogenesis. The relative and absolute duration of the stages was determined. The duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was found to be 17.0 days.The morphology of the spermatogonia was studied in seminiferous tubules mounted “in toto.” Four classes of spermatogonia could be discerned: undifferentiated A spermatogonia (Ais, Apr, Aal), differentiated A spermatogonia (A1, A2, A3). In spermatogonia and B spermatogonia (B1, B2). It is interesting to note that the last generation of spermatogonia (B2) arises at the beginning of stage 7 and divides to give rise to primary spermatocytes in the second half of this stage; in most other species the last generation of spermatogonia arises in stage 4, giving rise to primary spermatocytes in stage 6.The undifferentiated A spermatogonia were counted in six stages of the cycle, together with the differentiated A, In or B spermatogonia present in the same stages. The results of these cell counts are discussed in detail. One of the conclusions that could be drawn about the behaviour of the Ais and Apr spermatogonia during the cycle of the epithelium was that there is mitotic activity in these cells in several stages of the cycle. It is suggested that this mitotic activity serves to generate the Aal spermatogonia, which after one or more divisions transform into A1 spermatogonia between stages 2 and 8.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977) 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Incubation of early embryos of Nothobranchius korthausae in sterile Tris-buffered pronase with added salts and EDTA results in complete dechorionation, after which development proceeds normally and at the same rate as in control embryos. The time required for dechorionation varies according to the age of the embryo and the concentration of pronase employed.
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 135-145 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although a number of morphological studies have investigated the vascular system of the rat kidney, minimal data are available on the detailed anatomy of the efferent arterioles located throughout the cortex of the kidney. In the present study, the renal vascular system was filled with Microfil and the various efferent arteriole patterns were examined extensively. The efferent vessels of the entire cortex appear to form three major patterns which in turn divided the cortex into three separate regions: the outer, middle and inner cortex. The efferent arterioles of the outer cortex leave the glomerulus and run perpendicular to the kidney capsule. However, as the efferent arterioles ascend, they may show three variations in the way they branch: (1a) the efferent arteriole does not branch until directly beneath the capsule, (1b) the efferent vessel begins to divide into its major branches 100-200 μm below the surface of the kidney and (1c) the efferent vessel has only a short course before giving off many side branches. In the middle cortical area, the branches of the efferent arteriole run lateral to the glomerulus. However, the efferent arterioles of the inner cortex have a few branches which run lateral to the glomerulus while most of them descend into the medulla as vasa rectae. The unique morphological features of the efferent arterioles of the outer cortex are of particular interest in light of the functional data which suggests that the reabsorption of fluid by peritubular capillaries may indeed regulate the rate of net tubular sodium reabsorption.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Granular cell indices (GCI: Dunihue and Robertson, 1957) in kidneys of fetal rats one day after maternal nephrectomy or fetal unilateral nephrectomy on day 21 of gestation were determined by examining sections stained with Bowie's technique. Maternal nephrectomy induced an extreme increase of GCI in fetal kidneys with increased granularity of cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Fetal unilateral nephrectomy did not cause any significant change.
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  • 58
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 153-171 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sublingual gland of the cat consists primarily of branched secretory tubules that open into an abbreviated duct system. The simple epithelium that composes the secretory tubules consists of an admixture of mucous and serous cells, with the former predominating. Some secretory tubules are capped by a serous demilune. Regardless of position, almost all serous cells have prominent basal folds and border on at least one intercellular canaliculus as well as on the tubule lumen. Serous cells possess an extensive array of irregular, distended cisternae of rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum that frequently contain dense intracisternal granules. Serous granules are relatively few in number and rarely show evidence of substructure. Mucous cells, which lack basal folds, contain an apical mass of secretory material in the form of partially fused droplets. The duct system is somewhat less ordered than in most major salivary glands; secretory tubules empty into structures resembling intercalated ducts or may be in direct continuity with ducts intermediate in morphology between intercalated and excretory ducts. The absence of striated ducts noted in this study may be correlated with the high sodium content of cat sublingual saliva. The main excretory duct of the sublingual gland closely resembles that of the cat submandibular gland in terms of morphology, but exhibits little of the transport functions reported in the latter duct.
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  • 59
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 173-189 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In 29 normal persons with complete dental arches, the muscular activity of the temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, anterior belly of the digastric, mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles was studied electromyographically with bipolar fine wire electrodes during various mandibular movements - both resisted and unresisted. Action potentials were recorded on FM magnetic tape and each experiment was also videotaped. Temporalis muscle was active during centric closing of the jaw with either contact of the teeth, or against resistance; during free lateral movements to the ipsilateral side, either against resistance or occlusal contact; during incisor gum chewing, molar gum chewing on ipsilateral or contralateral sides, during normal mastication; and during forceful centric occlusion.Activity occurred in the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles during the following movements: closing the jaw slowly either without occlusal contact or with occlusal contact and against resistance; free lateral movement to contralateral side, either against resistance or with occlusal contact; protraction of the jaw either without occlusal contact or with occlusal contact; swallowing either saliva or water; incisor gum chewing with either the ipsilateral or contralateral molars; normal mastication; and during forceful centric occlusion.Activity occurred in the digastric, mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles during the following movements; opening of the jaw either slowly or maximally against resistance; closing the jaw against resistance; free lateral movement to ipsilateral and contralateral sides, either against resistance or with occlusal contact; protraction against resistance of the jaw either without or with occlusal contact; swallowing saliva and water; and protraction of the tongue. They work in antagonism (reciprocally) during gum chewing and normal mastication.
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  • 60
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 191-205 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Reticular and collagenous fibers stain differently when subjected to ammoniacal silver reduction. A variety of tissues were subjected to such a “reticulin” technique and the association of reaction product with intercellular connective tissue elements was studied with the electron microscope. The reaction with reticular fibers was primarily associated with the interfibrillar matrix, and was globular in form having a wide variety of particle sizes. Conversely, in dermal collagen the unit fibrils were stained rather than the interfibrillar matrix. The precipitate was punctate in form and was associated with the cross striations of unit collagen fibrils. Large microfibrils also reacted positively with the stain, imparting a faint periodicity. Basement membranes were stained uniquely. The underlying plasmalemma and the lamina densa were heavily stained with silver while the lamina lucida was relatively unstained. The unit fibrils of the lamina reticularis stained in the same manner as dermal unit collagen while the ground substance remained unstained. This represents a clear distinction between the argentophilic characteristics of collagenous fibers, reticular fibers, and basement membranes.
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  • 61
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 207-217 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mice fed a high cholesterol-cholic acid diet for two to six months develop gallstones; these were studied by transmission electron microscopy after glutaraldehyde-digitonin fixation. Examination of the contents of mouse gallbladders presents views of layered structures and surrounding amorphous material. We interpret these images of gallstones to suggest that they may arise by cohesion of material rich in cholesterol to form more ordered structures. Gallbladder contents of mice fed the diet for five to six months were found to contain occasional crystals and rectangular areas similar to those observed in thin sections of human gallstones (unpublished observations). Recent findings that human gallstones can be dissolved with chenodeoxycholic acid are discussed, with reference to their applicability to studies of gallstones in mice.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The differentiation of leukocytes in the bone marrow and blood of normal adult male rats was studied by electron microscopy and peroxidase cytochemistry. Tissue samples were fixed in glutaraldehyde, or paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, and incubated in a peroxidase medium containing 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and H2O2 at pH 7.6. Mature cells of blood were identified, and then the earlier stages of maturation in bone marrow were analyzed. In immature cells of four cell lines, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils, peroxidase is synthesized and could be demonstrated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgi complex, and in cytoplasmic granules. Later in maturation, reaction product for peroxidase could not be found in RER or Golgi complex, indicating that peroxidase synthesis had ceased. In two cell lines, neutrophils and monocytes, peroxidase-negative granules were formed, and the mature cells contained two populations of cytochemically distinct granules. All granules of mature eosinophils were peroxidasepositive. In mature basophils, some granules were clearly peroxidase-positive; others displayed variable density, making interpretation uncertain. Mast cells were never seen in blood, but were abundant in bone marrow; peroxidase was never found in their granules by either electron microscopic cytochemistry or a variety of light microscopic methods. Hence, these cells differ from basophils, not only in morphology but also in the enzyme content of their granules.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The fine structure of luteal tissue from sheep and goats at the mid-stage of the estrous cycle and during pregnancy was examined. At the mid-stage of the estrous cycle, when the corpus luteum of both species is secreting progesterone, the ultrastructure of the luteal cells is similar in that granule secretion is prevalent. In late pregnancy, the corpus luteum of the sheep produces very little progesterone and there is an absence of granule secretion. In the pregnant goat, the production of progesterone from the corpus luteum is high and there is plentiful evidence of granule formation and secretion.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) incubated three to eight minutes at 37°C in medium containing 1 × 10-6M of the ionophore antibiotic A23187 released their cytoplasmic granules into the extracellular medium. Transmission electron microscopy of treated cells showed microfilament bundles extending between adjacent granules within the cytoplasm and between granules and the plasma membrane. Tiny dense projections (beads) 8-12 nm in diameter were observed along segments of the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane with a periodicity of 20-30 nm. These beads were observed on the plasma membrane only in the vicinity of intra- or extracytoplasmic granules. The structural relationships of the beads with the plasma membrane micro-filaments suggest they play a role in the process of ionophore-induced granule release from polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 189 (1977), S. 169-175 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The number and the size of different populations of nuclei were studied in skeletal muscles and in the diaphragm of male Wistar rats of 200-250 g weight. Nuclei on cross-sections were counted and classified by electron microscopy, their incidence was corrected for their different lengths, and the number of nuclei per mm3 of muscle was determined by light microscopy. The total number of nuclei per mm3 was 5 · 104 in the superficial part of the anterior tibial muscle, it was 10 · 104 in the soleus, and it was 15 · 104 in the diaphragm. Half of the nuclei were localized inside muscle fibres. The incidence of satellite cell nuclei on cross sections was 4% of muscle nuclei in the anterior tibial muscle, and 8% in soleus and diaphragm. The number of satellite cells per mm3 muscle were 900, 4,900, and 5,300 in these muscles.More than half of the satellite cells were closely associated with a capillary. In the anterior tibial muscle, and in 1-μm sections no satellite cells could be identified by light microscopy. In the soleus muscle and in the diaphragm, satellite cells were more rich in cytoplasm and many were visible in the light microscope.
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  • 66
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 187 (1977), S. 329-333 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Scanning electron microscopy of permanent tooth buds of the monkey confirmed that mineralizing interrod enamel surrounds Tomes' processes on three sides, forming pits that restrict enamel rod formation. The forming face of the enamel rod, which is the floor of the pit, angled toward the tooth surface at the apical edge of the pit, the side nearest the cervical region of the tooth. Consequently, the apical edge of each pit was the only site where both rod and interrod enamel were formed at the nascent tooth surface.The ameloblasts had two secretory surfaces. One was the microvillous surface of the short Tomes' process abutting the forming face of the enamel rod. The other surface, closer to the ameloblast, was between Tomes' processes, abutting the crests of interrod enamel which formed the pits. At each site forming enamel crystallites had specific orientations.Due to the angle of the forming face of the rod and the short Tomes' process, crystallites with both rod and interrod orientation form at the same time and the same plane within the apical (cervical) margin of each rod. It is hypothesized that indistinct boundaries between rod and interrod enamel at the apical margin of each rod are due to both secretory surfaces of ameloblasts secreting at the same time and at the same site.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The initiation of Wallerian degeneration in the severed optic nerve of the newt (Triturus viridescens) was very rapid and intense. Significant degeneration of nonmyelinated axons was observed as early as six hours after lesion (h.a.l.) and was almost complete by 48 h.a.l. Initial degeneration of non-myelinated axons began in “extracellular digestion chambers” formed between burgeoning ependymoglial processes. The remaining fragments and debris were later phagocytized by surrounding ependymoglial processes.Many axons of myelinated fibers have degenerated as early as 6 h.a.l. However, the overall population of myelinated axons degenerates at a much slower rate than nonmyelinated ones, for many of them appear intact as late as 48 h.a.l.Some myelin sheaths show significant signs of degeneration by 6 h.a.l. Indeed, by this time a number of myelinated fibers have completely degenerated leaving only large vacuolated spaces in the nerve parenchyma. Swelling and vacuolization of the sheath are among the earliest signs of myelin degeneration.The ependymoglial cell response to optic nerve lesion is manyfold and dramatic. By 6 h.a.l. there are signs of burgeoning ependymoglial processes which begin to resemble scar formation (gliosis) by 48 h.a.l. The morphological evidence is consistent with the concept of an important phagocytic role of ependymoglial cells during the early stages of optic nerve degeneration.
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  • 68