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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (5,469)
  • 1975-1979  (3,091)
  • 1970-1974  (2,378)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 17-27 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Eggs of Chelydra serpentina were shifted during incubation between the female producing temperatures of 20°C or 30°C and the male producing temperature of 26°C. In the 20°C and 26°C combination, the stages during which incubation temperature determined sex were stage 14 through stage 16 (stages of normal series, Yntema, '68). In the 30°C and 26°C combination, the temperature sensitive stages for sex determination were stage 14 through stage 19. Incubation at 26°C throughout this period was needed to produce all males. Incubation at 30°C during either the first or second half of the period produced nearly all females; shorter periods of incubation at 30°C were more effective in producing females during the second half of the sensitive period. In the 20°C and 26°C combination, incubation at 20°C or 26°C for parts of the sensitive period produced both males and females. In three of the 57 clutches of eggs used in the experiments, incidence of females was atypically high.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The distribution and morphology of phagocytic (Type II) supraependymal cells residing within the third ventricle of the guinea pig were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Type II supraependymal cells were restricted to nonciliated regions of the ventricle. They were most numerous on the choroid plexus, abundant within the infundibular recess and were present on the ventricular floor in the region of the median eminence. Morphologically, they were characterized by a soma from which pseudopodia-like processes extended to the subjacent ependyma. Type II cells varied in configuration according to their location. Those residing on the choroid plexus typically had irregular somas and possessed processes that generally terminated in finger-like extensions. In contrast, cells on the ventricular floor and within the infundibular recess were stellate and possessed processes that terminated in fan-like cytoplasmic expansions. There were no differences noted in the frequency, distribution or morphology of Type II supraependymal cells in male and female animals. Furthermore, cell frequency did not appear to vary in relation to the estrous cycle. The data suggest that the pleomorphism exhibited by Type II supraependymal cells may reflect adaptations to diverse environmental conditions present within different regions of the third ventricle.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 81-87 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Study of the fine structure of the macronucleus in Euplotes eurystomus, a ciliate protozoon, during various stages of the cell division cycle has yielded new information about intranuclear helices. They are frequently observed at the periphery of chromatin bodies or next to the nuclear envelope, and they appear to be a constituent of nucleoli. The fibril that forms a helix is about 11-15 nm thick, and torus profiles of helices cut in cross section are about 35 nm in diameter. In substructure the helix is composed of a thin strand 3-5 nm thick which is coiled to form the 11-15 nm fibril; so the helix is a super-coiled structure. The intranuclear helices are present in the macronucleus throughout the cell cycle. They do not show obvious changes of relative abundance nor changes of relative localization in the nucleus, with one exception: they were never observed in the diffuse zone of replication bands. Evidence is presented indicating that nuclear helices migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores. Although the chemical composition of the Euplotes intranuclear helices is unknown, information in the literature on similar helices in Amoeba indicates that they contain RNA and not DNA. The observations on Euplotes helices are consistent with a concept of “packaged” RNA for transport to the cytoplasm.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The retina and optic nerve of Strombus luhuanus were examined by transmission electron microscopy in order to provide an ultrastructural basis for their electrophysiological responses, described elsewhere. The retina exhibits a distinct rhabdomeric layer and layers of cell nuclei and neuropile. These layers are comprised predominantly of three cell types that can be readily distinguished on the basis of their shape, their nuclei and cytoplasmic inclusions such as vesicles and filaments. One type of cell, apparently a photoreceptor that depolarizes in response to photic stimulation, possesses a long distal segment with microvilli; such distal segments comprise the bulk of the rhabdomeric layer. A second cell type, which appears to be supportive in function, contains a bundle of tightly packed tonofilaments that extend across the retina from the capsule to the vitreous body; this cell is quite narrow except in the region near the rhabdomeric layer, where it is expanded and wraps around the other cell types. A third type of cell possesses many short microvilli that project from its apical end into the rhabdomeric layer; it may be a second type of photoreceptor or another type of neuron. The retina also contains bundles of cilia that appear to project from a possible fourth type of cell. The layer of neuropile contains numerous processes that exhibit a variety of vesicle types and structures generally associated with synapses; these appear to play a role in mediating inhibitory and excitatory interactions between the retinal neurons. The optic nerve exhibits two populations of fiber distinguishable on the basis of mean diameter. Fibers in these two populations apparently yield “on” and “off” discharges in response to photic stimulation of the eye.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The unusual lymphogranulopoietic bone marrow of the large lungless salamander Plethodon glutinosus was examined by light and electron microscopy. Developing neutrophils, eosinophils, and fat cells were found in large numbers, while lymphocytes of various sizes, plasma cells, plasmablasts, macrophages, pigment cells, and fibroblasts were present in more moderate numbers. Basophils were observed only rarely. Macrophages were found in extravascular locations and did not appear to be associated directly with the walls of the blood vessels supplying the marrow. Both neutrophils and eosinophils seemed to arise from small precursor cells whose ultrastructural features bore a resemblance in some ways to those of mammalian myeloblasts described by Bainton and Farquhar ('66). Developing neutrophils and eosinophils seemed to produce only single populations of specific cytoplasmic granules, rather than both primary (azurophilic) and secondary (specific) inclusions, as are produced typically by mammalian granulocytes. Both eosinophilic and neutrophilic granules were formed in association with Golgi complexes; and eosinophilic granules were much larger, more densely stained, and more regularly rounded in shape than the inclusions of developing neutrophils. Peroxidase activity was associated with the specific granules of neutrophils but seemed to be lacking in the granules of eosinophils. The specific granules of eosinophils were especially unusual because they contained irregularly shaped, lightly stained cores which occasionally displayed a distinctly crystalline substructural organization. The specific granules of basophils also possessed a prominent crystalline organization. The overall appearance of the marrow of Plethodon suggests that it functions not only as a valuable source of neutrophils, eosinophils, and cells of the lymphoid series, but also as a part of the phagocytic system of the animals and as an important repository for fat.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The three major salivary glands of the monotreme echidna are described. The parotid is a typical serous gland with tubulo-acinar secretory endpieces and a well-developed system of striated ducts. The mandibular gland, although light microscopically resembling a mucous gland, secretes very little glycoprotein. Its cells are packed instead with serous granules, resembling in fine structure the “bull's eye” granules in the mandibular gland of the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. The sublingual glands secrete an extremely viscous mucous saliva. Expulsion of this saliva through the narrow ducts is probably aided by contraction of the extensive myoepithelial sheaths surrounding the secretory tubules. Application of the glyoxylic acid induced fluorescence method failed to demonstrate adrenergic innervation in any of the glands.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When Aedes aegypti females first emerge as adults, their oocytes possess no yolk. The abdominal fat body cells contain large quantities of lipid, protein, and glycogen, and possess many free ribosomes, but have very little rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). When the females are starved for four days, their oocytes form fine lipid and protein yolk endogenously, the latter being located mainly around the nucleus. The adipocytes in these fasted mosquitoes have greatly reduced amounts of lipid, protein and glycogen and contain many cytolysosomes. Seven hours after 4-day-starved females had fed on blood, their oocytes begin filling with exogenous protein yolk at the oolemma, and lipid arises endogenously throughout the ooplasm. At this hour, the fat cells have synthesized more RER than is seen in unfed controls. Twenty-four hours post blood meal, the follicle cells have secreted discrete endochorionic plaques onto the oolemma. At this period, the adipocytes are densely filled with RER, and show for the first time many Golgi bodies and protein inclusions. They have noticeably less glycogen than at seven hours. Within 48 hours after mosquitoes have fed on blood, the endochorion forms a continuous layer around the steadily enlarging egg which is synthesizing additional protein and lipid yolk. Concurrently, the adipocytes show a greatly increased amount of glycogen and a significant reduction of RER. By the sixtieth hour after the blood meal, the follicle cells are attenuated, and the fat cells have less RER and more glycogen than at 48 hours. The nurse cells steadily decrease in size during vitellogenesis and release material onto the micropyle.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 159 (1979), S. 221-232 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The electron microscopical structure of the type “B” cells in the rectal pad epithelium of Locusta is described. The type “B” cells occur singly in the distal region of the rectal pad epithelium. They are characteristically goblet shaped and join with contiguous type “A” or rectal pad cells, near the apical surface by means of a restricted region of septate desmosomes. Type “B” cells possess a microvillate apical membrane, with the villi arranged as a rosette overlying the apical inaginations of adjacent type “A” cells.Large numbers of microtubules and vacuoles of various sizes containing an assortment of inclusions are present in the apical region of the type “B” cells. Many of the microtubules insert distally on hemidesmosomes located in the apical plasma membrane. Rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria are also present but neither are abundant. The possible significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 9
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 169-175 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The vascular anatomy of five beavers (Castor canadensis) was studied by dissection and injection of arteries and veins with vinyl acetate. There is extensive countercurrent arrangement of arteries and veins distal to and including the common iliac artery and veins. Two types of countercurrent vessels occur (1) a venae comitantes type in which two or three veins surround a central artery, and (2) a modified rete type. The retia are located proximal to the large flat tail and the webbed hind feet. Two bypass veins are described for the feet and tail and the significance of these structures in temperature regulation is stressed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the parathyroid glands of adult Japanese lizards (Takydromus tachydromoides) in the spring and summer season was examined. The parenchyma of the gland consists of chief cells arranged in cords or solid masses. Many chief cells contain numerous free ribosomes and mitochondria, well-developed Golgi complexes, a few lysosome-like bodies, some multivesicular bodies and relatively numerous lipid droplets. The endoplasmic reticulum is mainly smooth-surfaced. Cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are distributed randomly in the cytoplasm. Small coated vesicles of 700-800 Å in diameter are found occasionally in the cytoplasm, especially in the Golgi region. The chief cells contain occasional secretory granules of 150-300 nm in diameter that are distributed randomly in the cytoplasm and lie close to the plasma membrane. Electron dense material similar to the contents of the secretory granules is observed in the enlarged intercellular space. These findings suggest that the secretory granules may be discharged into the intercellular space by an eruptocrine type of secretion. Coated vesicles (invaginations) connected to the plasma membrane and smooth vesicles arranged in a row near the plasma membrane are observed. It is suggested that such coated vesicles may take up extracellular proteins. The accumulation of microfilaments is sometimes recognized. Morphological evidence of synthetic and secretory activities in the chief cells suggests active parathyroid function in the Japanese lizard during the spring and summer season.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 177-183 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of a sex pheromone-producing gland found in the abdomen of Drosophila grimshawi males was studied by light and electron microscopy. This gland, consisting of two intra-anal lobes, contains cells that resemble those of other insect pheromone glands. However, in contrast to many other insect pheromone glands that release pheromone through the cuticle, cells of the intra-anal lobes secrete into a canaliculi-duct system that empties into the anal region. The liquid secretory product flows along the surface of the intra-anal lobes and is brushed onto the substrate by fingerlike projections on the lobes' surfaces.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 211-219 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The nucleoli of rat liver cells duplicate in great detail the lifelong series of reorganizational changes encountered in kidney and intestinal epithelial cells. The ultrastructural components of the large, loosely organized polymorphous nucleoli, which are dominant in the rapidly multiplying stem cells of embryos, are readily accessible for chemical activities. Smaller, more compact amphinucleoli are dominant in more mature cells, which were characterized by Smetana ('70) as “idling” cells, showing slowly continuing ribosome formation and RNP synthesis. In older cells bipartite nucleoli become dominant and are reorganized in increasing numbers from the younger amphinucleoli. These, however, are not replaced in equal numbers from the shrinking pool of polymorphs of young cells which have greatly reduced mitotic potential. Paralleling the shifts in dominant nucleolar types, the high level of protein synthesis declines in older cells not only in the quantity of proteins synthesized but also in kinds of enzymes produced. These fail to meet the structural and functional requirements of aging cells leading ultimately to the onset of age-related degenerative changes. Again it is noted that separation of the karyosomal DNA from the plasmosomal RNA-protein complex of the nucleolus may lead to possible breakdown of the DNA-dependent RNA-protein transcription system ultimately bringing protein synthesis to a very low level in the senescent animal.
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  • 13
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 185-210 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cellular populations present in dorsomedial cortex in the snakes Constrictor constrictor, Natrix sipendon and Thamnophis sirtalis are described at the light microscopic level using Nissl and Golgi preparations as well as at the ultrastructural level. This area plays a central role in cortical organization in snakes by participating in major commissural and association projections.Systematic analyses of Golgi preparations indicate that five populations of neurons are present in dorsomedial area and have a preferential laminar distribution. Layer 1 stellate cells have somata positioned in the center of the outermost cortical layer, layer 1. Their dendrites are confined to this layer. Double pyramidal cells have their somata loosely packed in layer 2. Their dendrites bear a moderate population of spines, ascending through layer 1 to the pial surface and descending partially through layer 3. Some double pyramidal cells have somata displaced downwards into the upper third of layer 3. These neurons closely resemble the layer 2 double pryamidal cells. Layer 3 stellate cells have somata positioned in the middle third of layer 3. Their dendrites extend in all directions throughout layer 3 and through layer 2 into layer 1. Finally, horizontal cells have their somata positioned deep in layer 3, near the ventricle, and dendrites aligned concentric with the ventricle.Comparison of the organization of the known afferents to dorsomedial area with the distribution of the five cell types suggests that the laminations of both afferent fibers and dorsomedial neurons places specific neuronal populations in synaptic contact with specific sets of afferents.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The heart of Crocodylus porosus is described, and deemed to be typical of living crocodilians after examination of the hearts of Alligator mississippiensis, Caiman crocodilus ssp., Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus n. novaeguineae. Some inconsistencies between the anatomy and supposed patterns of blood flow are discussed. The crocodilian heart is compared with, and seen as an advancement of, the heart of non-crocodilian reptiles. The varanid ventricle is re-examined, as it appeared to contain many crocodilian features, along with the ophidian characteristics described previously. The broad similarities within the three groups are interpreted as adaptations towards a high pressure systemic circulation. Consequently varanids and snakes show the same left and right ventricles, as do crocodilians and birds. The evolution of the complete interventricular septum of crocodilians and birds appears to have involved three major trends: firstly, the development of a high pressure left ventricle and the fusion of most of the combined atrio-ventricular valve to the ostium of the right systemic artery; secondly, a line in which right to left shunting became gradually redundant and the vertical septum was completed to the aortico-pulmonary septum (giving rise to the avian ventricle); and thirdly, a line in which right to left shunting became increasingly important, and the vertical septum completed to the interaortic septum (giving rise to the crocodilian ventricle). Perhaps the crocodilian ancestry included a crocodile that was far more aquatic than any extant species.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 241-256 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the sacculus and lagena of a moray eel, Gymnothorax sp., was investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Particular emphasis was placed on the orientation of the sensory hair cells and on the ultrastructure of the sensory cells. The ciliary bundles on the sensory hair cells are of several types, each having a different size relationship between the kinocilium and stereocilia. The cell bodies of the sensory cells are similar to the mammalian type II sensory cell. There were no apparent differences in the cell bodies between sensory cells with different ciliary bundles.Hair cell orientation patterns on the saccular and lagenar maculae differ from patterns found in other fishes. The posterior side of the saccular macula in Gymnothorax has cells oriented dorsally and ventrally, as is typical in other non-ostariophysan species. The anterior end of the saccular macula has alternating groups of anteriorly and posteriorly oriented cells, a situation that differs from the more typical pattern in which anteriorly oriented cells are found on the ventral side of the macula while posteriorly oriented cells cover the dorsal side of the macula. The orientation of cells on the lagena includes ventral cells that are located above a group of dorsally oriented cells. In many other non-ostariophysans, ventrally oriented cells are generally posterior to the dorsally oriented cells.
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  • 17
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 309-321 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Rhabdomeric microvilli of the housefly were freeze-fractured (FF) and thin sectioned (TS) for ultrastructural examination. Ordered files of closely packed membrane particles (82 Å wide, 250 Å long) were seen (FF) on the microvillar membrane (usually E face). The long axis of each particle was canted about 45° to that of the microvillus. Occasionally particles in this array appeared on the P face. It is hypothesized that ordered particles may represent either a photopigment precursor stock, a second photolabile pigment, or the newly discovered sensitizing, UV-absorbing, photostable visual pigment. In the underlying membrane leaflet (P face) were found spherical (85 Å diameter) unoriented particles in a concentration of about 6,000/μm2. The size, shape and density of these structures are compatible with those of rhodopsin particles. These particles also covered the basal area of each microvillus. The findings from TS material were difficult to correlate with those from FF replicas. At high magnification the former showed that the plasma membrane of the transected microvillus is composed of spherical, hollow subunits (averaging 43 Å diameter), sometimes fused to form double, 86 Å units. These substructures were closely packed and continuous around the microvillus. This beaded plasma membrane, in rare cases, was doubled around the microvillus. In other instances the plasma membranes were continuous between neighboring microvilli. The physiological implications of these ultrastructural features are discussed.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Exocrine dermal glands, comparable to the class 3 glandular units of insects, are found in the gills of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. The dermal glands are composed of three cells: secretory cell, hillock cell and canal cell. Originating as a complex invagination of the apical cytoplasm of the granular secretory cell, a duct ascends through the hillock and canal cells to the cuticular surface. The duct is divisible into four regions: the secretory apparatus in the granular secretory cell, the locular complex, the hillock region within the hillock cell and the canal within the canal cell. A tubular ductule is contained within the latter two regions. As the ductule ascends to the cuticular surface, its constitution gradually changes from one of a fibrous material to one which possesses layers of epicuticle. During the proecdysial period, the ductule is extruded into the ecdysial space and this is followed by the secretion of a new ductule. Temporary ciliary structures, located near the secretory apparatus of the secretory cell, are associated with the extrusion and reformation of the ductule. Characterized only by a basal body and rootlets throughout most of the intermolt cycle, the ciliary organelles give rise to temporary axonemic processes which ascend through the ductule toward the ecdysial space at the onset of proecdysis. Subsequently, the old ductule is sloughed off and a new ductule is reformed around the ciliary axonemes. Following this reformation, the ciliary axonemes degenerate. The function of cytoplasmic processes, derived from the apical cytoplasm of the secretory cell, is also discussed.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The combined techniques of light microscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy were used for the first time to study the structure of unicameral lungs of a Tegu lizard (Tupinambis nigropunctatus). The lungs are prolate spheroid bags with blood supplied by superficial branches of a dorsal pulmonary artery and returned by diffuse, more deeply located veins. The primary bronchus enters the medial aspect near the apex of the lung. The lung wall is composed of trabeculae: (1) arranged in a faviform pattern, (2) forming individual faveoli (gas exchange chambers) which appear deepest in the cranial one-half of the lung, (3) all of which have a smooth muscle core overlain by either a ciliated or nonciliated epithelium. A ciliated epithelium lines the luminal surfaces of the large primary trabeculae and parts of smaller secondary trabeculae; it is composed of cone-shaped cells with ciliated-microvillous surfaces, and of columnar serous secreting cells. Nonciliated epithelium covers the luminal surface of portions of some secondary trabeculae, abluminal surfaces of primary and secondary trabeculae and all surfaces of the small tertiary trabeculae forming the faveoli. The nonciliated epithelium overlies an extensive superficial capillary network. The blood-gas barrier (0.7-1.0 μm thick) is composed of a thin cytoplasmic flange of Type I pneumonocytes, a thick homogeneous basal lamina and an attenuated endothelial cytoplasm. Numerous surfactant-producing Type II pneumonocytes are closely associated with the Type I pneumonocytes. The nonrespiratory ciliated epithelium may function in humidification of air and clearing of the lungs.
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  • 20
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 323-335 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The blood supply of muscle spindles was studied in serial cross sections in macaque, cat, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse and pigeon muscles which had been incubated in a medium containing 3,3′ diaminobenzidine. Lumina of blood vessels were recognized by the reaction product that was localized within erythrocytes. The outer capsule was well vascularized, but few or no capillaries were seen in the periaxial space. The inner spindle capsule, which closely invests the axial bundle, was rarely contacted by periaxial capillaries at the equator and juxtequator. Capillaries occurred more frequently adjacent to intrafusal fibers at the polar region and beyond the end of the outer capsule. Shorter diffusion distances and, usually, higher capillary densities were found at the polar region than at the spindle midsection. This suggests that transcapillary exchange at the polar segment is nearer to conditions prevalent in extrafusal muscle than elsewhere in the spindle, provided the inner and outer capsules are not less permeable at the poles than at the midsection. Differences in blood supply among mammalian species appear to be related to receptor size.
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  • 21
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pineal complexes of the two closely related deep-sea fishes Cyclothone signata and C. acclinidens were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Photoreceptor and supportive cells were identified in both species. The deeper-dwelling species, C. acclinidens, had a significantly greater number of photoreceptor-cell outer segment saccules and a higher ratio of receptor cells to nerve fibers in the pineal stalk. It was suggested that these indicate increased photosensitivity of the pineal. Supportive cells were sometimes seen to contain arrays of undulating tubules. The functional significance of these tubules is not understood. A prominent dorsal sac is closely associated with the pineal end-vesicle. Both structures appear to have a common vascular supply suggesting that they are functionally related. Dorsal sac cells contained abundant mitochondria, glycogen, and large filament-like inclusions.
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  • 23
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 161 (1979), S. 337-345 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In considering primate and hominoid phylogeny, the fundamental position assigned to opossums is explained partially by the characteristic morphology of their hands and feet. One of the main functional features of the human hand is the ability to make a stabilized arch of the finger. Because the extensor assembly plays a key role in establishing an arched finger, the extensor systems of the digits of both the hands and feet were studied in two species of opossum, Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis.In the foot, two extensor tendons join in each toe to form one tendinous plate, which inserts onto the base of the second phalanx. Lumbricals join this plate along the tibial side, and interosseus insertions are found, although a true interosseus wing is lacking. At the proximal interphalangeal level, a terminal tendon takes its origin from this tendinous plate. This terminal tendon is oval in cross-section and contains elastic structures. Oblique bands arise from this terminal tendon and run proximally along the proximal interphalangeal joint inserting onto the base of the first phalanx. There are elastic structures in the flexor tendon on the dorsal side near its site of insertion.In the hand, the main extensor tendons are arranged differently and the interossei contribute substantially to the extensor assembly. Otherwise, the extensor assembly of the hands and feet are quite similar. The function of the so-called paratendinous intravaginal flexors is discussed as are evolutionary aspects of the extensor assembly.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The optic tectum is a major subdivision of the visual system in reptiles. Previous studies have characterized the laminar pattern, the neuronal populations, and the afferent and efferent connections of the optic tectum in a variety of reptiles. However, little is known about the interactions that occur between neurons within the tectum. This study describes two kinds of interactions that occur between one major class of neurons, the radial cells, in the optic tectum of Pseudemys using Nissl, Golgi and electron microscopic preparations.Radial cells have somata which bear long, radially oriented apical dendrites from their upper poles and short, basal dendrites from their lower poles. They are divided into two populations on the basis of the distribution of their somata in the tectum. Deep radial cells have somata densely packed in the stratum griseum periventriculare. Their plasma membranes form casual appositions. Middle radial cells have somata scattered throughout the stratum griseum centrale and stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale and do not contact each other. The apical dendrites of both populations of radial cells participate in vertically oriented, dendritic bundles. The plasma membranes of the dendrites in these bundles form casual appositions in the deeper tectal layers and chemical, dendrodenritic synapses within the stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale. The synapses have clear, round synaptic vesicles and slightly asymmetric membrane densities. Thus, radial cells interact via both casual appositions and chemical synapses.These interactions suggest that radial cells may form a basic framework in the tectum. Because both populations of radial cells extend into the stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale and stratum opticum, they may receive input from some of the same tectal afferent systems. Because the deep radial cells alone have somata and dendrites in the deep tectal layers, they may receive additional inputs that the middle radial cells do not. Neurons in the two populations interact via chemical dendrodendritic synapses, thereby forming vertically oriented modules in the tectum.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 77-91 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Diploid tadpoles of the discoglossid frog, Bombina orientalis, possess a distinctive rectangular network of epidermal melanophores. The ontogeny of this network was examined and utilized as a model for the comparison of tissue integrity and cellular interactions in diploid and haploid embryos.During the process of network formation in diploids, a variety of melano-phore-melanophore interactions was observed. These included temporary contacts between neighboring melanophore processes, deviations of processes toward neighboring melanophores, and lateral extensions between closely situated, parallel processes originating from different cell bodies. None of these intercellular interactions were seen in haploid embryos. Haploid melanophores displayed fewer cytoplasmic extensions, appeared to be randomly oriented, and failed to establish the ordered network seen in diploid embryos. It was also discovered that, in comparison with diploid tissues, relative densities of melanophores and epithelial cells were not uniformly regulated in haploid embryos.These findings are interpreted as indicating that haploid embryos possess fundamental cell and tissue defects, and that the “haploid syndrome” is likely based on more than one or a few defective physiological functions.
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  • 26
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 37-65 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sialis flavilatera L. (Sialidae, Megaloptera) has telotrophic-meroistic ovarioles. The germ cells of the tropharium are organized into two distinct tissues, the central syncytium and the germ cell tapetum. The central syncytium consists of nurse cell nuclei embedded in a common cytoplasm which is rich in ribosomes and mitochondria. Cell membranes are totally absent. The germ cell tapetum surrounds the syncytium and consists of a monolayer of cells, each of which is connected with the central syncytium by an intercellular bridge. The oocytes differentiate from basal tapetum cells by previtellogenic growth. Their nutritive cords remain connected to the central syncytium by the intercellular bridge.Ovariole development starts soon after hatching with the immigration of germ cells into the ovariole-anlagen and is finished during pupal stages 23 months later. In apical regions of each tropharium, mitoses occur throughout larval life. The descendants enter the prophase of meiosis which lasts until pre-vitellogenesis; thus, a differential gradient of position and time is established. About 12 months after hatching, the central syncytium arises at the base of the tropharium from a membrane labyrinth in which intercellular bridges are entangled. Evidence is presented that endopolyploidization does not occur during germ cell differentiation.Finally, the results are compared with those found in Hemiptera and polyphage Coleoptera. The great diversities are interpreted as an indication for a polyphyletic origin of the telotrophic ovary.
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  • 27
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 67-75 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of dying cells in the optic stalk in relation to retinal fiber migration was investigated in the chick embryo. Cell death was analysed at various stages of development by counting pycnotic nuclei and also by the Gomori acid phosphatase reaction, while nerve fibers were visualised by the Bodian method. A wave of cell death, beginning in the neural retina at stage 18 and advancing with time through the stalk towards the diencephalon, occurred simultaneously or slightly prior to differentiation and migration of ganglion cell axons. Cell death stopped and gliogenesis occurred in the stalk after penetration by retinal fibers. Cell death occurred in the stalk even when fiber penetration was prevented by optic cup ablation. In this case, necrosis ensued until almost complete degeneration of the stalk, usually within three days after the operation, and gliogenesis did not occur. As the stalk degenerated, its cells became heavily pigmented. These observations suggest that the onset of cell death in the optic stalk is determined prior to and independently of retinal fiber penetration. On the other hand, cessation of cell death and subsequent gliogenesis occur only in the presence of ingrowing optic fibers.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A β-keratin pattern, consisting of 30 Å filaments embedded in an amorphous matrix, is formed by fusion of membrane-bound packets with the 70 Å filaments of immature cells. This pattern occurs in the Oberhäutchen and the β-layer. When completely mature, these two components show no cell boundaries. It is suggested that this feature is associated with the process that leads to the separation of outer and inner epidermal generation. Filaments of 100-150 Å embedded in an amorphous matrix form the α-keratin pattern, which occurs in the α-layer only. The lacunar tissue is regarded as consisting of cells resembling immature α-cells, whereas mesos and clear layer show a keratin-like material consisting of 100-150 Å filaments without matrix. This is regarded as a modification of α-keratin. The cells of all components synthesizing α-keratin (α, mesos and clear layer) have the following features in common: (1) the plasma membrane is modified in that its inner leaflet is obscured by the deposition of a marginal layer, and (2) the cells have 0.06-0.1 μm mucous granules containing mucopolysaccharides, which release their content into the intercellular space.Protective and barrier functions of the epidermis are provided by the following features: (1) Oberhäutchen and β-layer merge during final maturation to a homogenous stratum of β-keratin without intercellular spaces. Their function seems to be mechanical protection. (2) The marginal layer of α-keratin containing cells, which decreases in thickness from without inwards, is highly resistant to physical and chemical influences. (3) Mesos granules contain phos-pholipid-lamellae, which are partly discharged into the intercellular space and partly remain within the mesos cells. These lipid lamellae are believed to contribute to the establishment of the permeability barrier. (4) The content of mucous granules may play a role in immunological processes. (5) Tight junctions seal off the intercellular space between the uppermost living cells of the epidermis and contribute to the permeability barrier.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Five different types of sense organs were found on the antennal flagellum of Homadaula anisocentra. These were (1) tactile hairs; (2) thick-walled chemoreceptors; (3) thin-walled chemoreceptors of several kinds; (4) styloconic chemoreceptors and (5) small chemoreceptor pegs in shallow depressions. No coeloconic sense organs were seen.
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  • 31
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 221-247 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The light and electron microscopic structure of the pineal complex of the domestic goose was studied. The complex is tubulofollicular but there is no direct connection between the constituent system of ducts and the third ventricle of the brain. Within the pineal, blood vessels accompanied by sympathetic nerve bundles are confined to the connective tissue. Other nerve fibers and occasional nerve cell bodies, however, do occur among the pineal cells.Three basic pineal cell types were distinguished: (1) elongate epithelial cells which are arranged around follicles and ducts and resemble degenerate photo-receptor cells; (2) intramural supportive cells which are interspersed with elongate epithelial and intramural supportive cells; and (3) small supportive cells which lie between the bases of the elongate epithelial and intramural supportive cells. The follicular structure, vascularization, presence of secretory granules, and the nature of the elongate epithelial cells indicate that the pineal complex is primarily endocrine though a possible photoreceptive function cannot be ignored. Vesicles, 100-300 and 40-100 nm wide, were found within nerves and intramural supportive cells. The larger vesicles, present in pineals collected in the night, probably contain peptidic hormones. The smaller vesicles present in both day and night samples probably contain aminergic hormones.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 33
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 249-273 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To gain insight into the multiple functions of a complex biological structure, the morphology of the pharynx of the larva (ammocoete) of the lamprey Petromyzon marinus was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and histochemistry (PAS and Alcian blue). Features studied include the gills, the parabranchial chambers external to the gills, intrapharyngeal ciliary tracts, the ridged pharyngeal roof, the floor, and the intrapharyngeal taste buds. Significant findings are: (1) All (nonciliated) cells lining these structures are covered with microvilli or microridges. The pattern and packing density of these membrane features vary among different pharyngeal structures. The lumenar membranes of pharyngeal lining cells overlie a mucous prosecretion in the apical cytoplasm, suggesting that the microvilli/ridges on these membranes function to anchor mucus. (2) Patterns of microvilli/ridges on the gill respiratory lamellae differ among ammocoetes of different species. (3) Pharyngeal osmo-regulatory cells (“chloride cells”) could not be identified on the basis of the microvillus/ridge pattern. (4) Two types of ciliary tracts are present within the pharynx. One has tall (x= 13 μm) and densely packed cilia, whereas the other has shorter (x= 7 μm) and less densely packed ones. Because mucus covers both types of tracts their function appears to involve the transport of mucus. (5) Food particles were found on the lateral surfaces of the gill filaments and on the surfaces of the parabranchial chambers. It appears that goblet cells in the epithelia of these regions secrete mucus in which the particles are trapped.
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  • 34
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 311-311 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 35
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 275-309 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In order to provide an ontogenetic basis for the establishment of tetrapod muscle homologies and for the analysis of complex mammalian muscle states, a descriptive analysis of the morphogenesis of the thigh of Mus musculus has been made. The pattern and sequence of muscle cleavage and the migrations of individual muscle primordia are characterized from the eleventh day of gestation, when cleavage begins, through early neonatal stages. Observations on skeletal differentiation and lumbosacral plexus formation are also included. Thigh muscle morphogenesis is compared to that in the lizard, Lacerta, (Romer, '42) and the chick (Romer, '27) and homologies identified. An ontogenetic basis for the definition of ancestral and derived muscle states is provided in muscles that are morphologically variable in mammals. These include the gluteus minimus, gracilis, adductor brevis and several hamstring muscles. Certain muscles that show variable innervation patterns in adult mammals, i.e., pectineus, quadratus and adductor magnus, typically develop from premuscle regions that separate muscle anlagen innervated by different nerves. Two muscle anlagen appear in the embryonic mouse thigh and then disappear late in prenatal or early postnatal development. Comparisons with other mammals, especially the marsupial, Marmosa, reveal that these muscles are phylogenetic vestiges that degenerate before maturity. A sartorius vestige is identifiable through the thirteenth day of gestation. A tenuissimus anlage is present until shortly after birth and is clearly innervated by a branch of the peroneal nerve.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cell surface coats are important in adhesion and other cellular activities. The lamprey egg possesses a surface coat that has been divided into two morphologically and functionally distinct regions. The amorphous apical tuft forms a cap over the animal pole, while the elaborately-textured adhesive coat covers the ventral two-thirds of the egg. This latter area is composed of saccules that form rosettes over the egg surface and is derived from the remains of specialized follicular cells which break down during ovulation. The adhesive qualities of these coats may be inhibited or abolished by various proteins and sulphydryl-blocking agents, thereby implicating, as a possible source of this adhesion, classes of acid and sulphated glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans which occur on the egg surface.
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  • 37
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    Journal of Morphology 162 (1979), S. 327-341 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The structure of ankylotic teeth in Xenopus laevis was studied by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy as well as by microradiography in decalcified and undecalcified specimens.The mature teeth of Xenopus laevis are calcified from the crown to the base, fused to the jaw bone, and have no uncalcified area, such as a fibrous ring separating the tooth into the crown and pedicle. Microradiography shows that the mature tooth and jaw bone appear as an X-ray opaque area, except for the basal region of the dentine. This region is composed of an X-ray translucent area and an X-ray opaque thin layer on the lingual side of the translucent area. The mature tooth is composed of two differently calcified areas: (1) a highly calcified area, which makes up almost all of the tooth and contains a thin layer of the basal dentine on the lingual side, and (2) a lowly calcified basal dentine, which is fused to the jaw bone. Therefore, the lowly calcified area does not completely separate the dentine and jaw bone.Repeating banding patterns among the collagen fibrils differ among the dentine-forming area and the matrices of dentine and jaw bone. During the formation of ankylosis of the tooth germ, collagen bundles in the dentine-forming area accumulate directly on the surface of the jaw bone. Consequently, the mature teeth of Xenopus laevis fuse to the jaw bone directly without the mediation of the other structures.
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  • 38
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Structures termed tubulobulbar complexes are known to be formed by adjoining Sertoli cells at the level of the blood-testis barrier (Russell and Clermont, 1976). Here, long (2-4 μm) tubular evaginations of one Sertoli cell, which end in bulbous dilations, are seen in corresponding invaginations of a neighboring Sertoli cell. In most regions of the tubular and bulbous portions of the complex, the Sertoli plasma membranes were found to be separated by a 4-5-nm intercellular space, but in some areas the membranes converged to form tight and gap junctions. The numbers, distribution and properties of tubulobulbar complexes were studied in relation to the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. From the data obtained it was concluded that tubulobulbar complexes develop and undergo regressive changes during the spermatogenic cycle. Most complexes arise during the early stages of the cycle (Stages II-V) and develop large bulbous endings. Developing tubulobulbar complexes consist of short evaginations of one Sertoli cell which face a bristle-coated pit of the opposing Sertoli cell. At midcycle (Stages VI-VII) most show regressive changes and are eventually resorbed as a consequence of the action of nearby Sertoli lysosomes. Once resorbed, the probability of seeing a tubulobulbar complex in thin sections decreases from 4- to 8-fold. The few tubulobulbar complexes which remain past this period (Stages VII-XIV-I) usually lack bulbous endings and are frequently seen above type A spermatogonia. The data suggest that small fragments of cytoplasm and plasma membrane (including junctional surfaces) are lost from one Sertoli cell as a result of the degradative processes occurring in a neighboring Sertoli cell. Tubulobulbar resorption is discussed in relation to the impending breakdown of the blood-testis barrier above spermatocytes as these cells move upward. The possible significance of the cyclic resorption of tight and gap junctional sites between Sertoli cells is also discussed.
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  • 40
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    American Journal of Anatomy 154 (1979), S. 57-79 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The opisthonephric kidney of larval anadromous sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L., undergoes a programmed regression during metamorphosis. Degeneration is initiated in the anterior end of each kidney and progresses posteriorly until the kidneys are reduced to short, pigmented strands by the end of metamorphosis.The first sign of degeneration in both the epithelium of the renal corpuscles and the tubules is a folding of the basal lamina. Autolysis then occurs throughout the entire epithelium of the nephron with the gradual accumulation of larger and greater numbers of acid phosphatase-containing autophagic vacuoles, cytosomes, and myelin figures. Cytoplasmic debris and electron-dense material accumulates in the tubular lumina and in the urinary space. Although no definitive evidence is provided for the method of removal of the tubular epithelium, macrophages play a large part in the phagocytosis of the components of the renal corpuscle. Mesangial cells appear to engulf debris from the capillaries while a second type of macrophage is involved in the destruction of podocytes and parietal epithelial cells. The method of programmed degeneration of the renal corpuscle closely resembles descriptions of the mammalian renal corpuscle in diseased conditions. The sole surviving element of the degeneration of the entire nephron epithelium is a pleated basal lamina.The regressing larval opisthonephros has potential as an alternative system for studying a normal developmental pattern such as tissue regression.
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  • 41
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sacculi of five species of catfishes were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In four species, the sagitta exhibited a multifluted anterior part and a tapered posterior part; in Corydoras aeneus, however, the fluted part was absent, and a vertical component extended dorsally to terminate near the opening of the transverse canal. In all species, the otoliths had a laminar structure. An otolithic membrane was present, and hair cell bundles projected into cavities on the macular surface of the membrane. Attachments of the otolithic membrane to the neuroepithelium included short extensions of the membrane to the tallest components of the hair cell bundles of the peripheral cells and more delicate connections to the kinocilium and taller stereocilia of central cells; in addition, attachments to the microvilli of supporting cells were present. In both hair cells and supporting cells single microtubules and bundles of microtubules were present; the bundles had an orderly arrangement and were associated with cytoplasmic densities surrounding the desmosomes. The hair cells were innervated by both afferent and efferent nerve endings. Studies of the polarization of the hair cells in all species (except C. aeneus) showed that there was a single longitudinal axis that divided dorsally polarized cells from those oriented ventrally. In Doras spinosissimus and Bunocephalus bicolor, an additional line of polarization was evident in a small area in the anterior part of the macula; therefore, in these forms there was a double bipolar orientation.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ultrastructural features of the tubular nephron of the garter snake, with special reference to modifications for conservation of water, were studied using transmission electron microscopy, freeze-fracture and tracer experiments. Although a nephric loop (loop of Henle) is lacking, the tubules appear to be structurally well adapted for efficient ion and water reabsorption. The most prominent features are well developed microvilli in the proximal tubule and elaborate lateral folds, particularly in the distal tubule and collecting ducts. The latter structures are highly interdigitated, creating complex intercellular channels, perhaps facilitating transepithelial fluid transport. Only the proximal tubule actively absorbs and degrades protein tracers from the lumen. The cells of the collecting duct secrete mucus which may precipitate and bind urate salts in the lumen. This may be significant in the excretion of these salts, a process which combines maximal removal of salts and nitrogenous wastes with minimal loss of water.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The development of the atrioventricular (AV) node and bundle in the ferret heart was examined at the light microscopic level. The AV node develops from two primordia which were first observed in the posterior wall of the common atrium during the stage when the single heart tube convolutes. During septation of the heart, the AV nodal primordia eventually fuse and come to lie at the base of the interatrial septum. The right AV nodal primordium is located below the attachment of the right venous valve to the interatrial septum. The left AV nodal primordium maintains a position anterior to the prospective ostium of the coronary sinus. At 16 days of gestation, large pale cells were seen in the dorsal AV canal. By 21 days of gestation these AV canal cells have been replaced by AV bundle cells. At this time the bundle is continuous with both nodal primordia. At birth the AV bundle is continuous mainly with the component of the AV node that is derived from the right AV node primordium. The anulus fibrosus begins to undergo the greatest developmental change after the AV node and bundle attain their final position in the AV junction. However, the anulus does not completely separate the atria from the ventricles during the later stages of development nor at birth, so that accessory AV pathways are present in the newborn ferret heart. Both the AV node and the AV bundle also demonstrated continuity with the myocardial cells of the interventricular septum in the neonatal heart. During development there was no evidence that rings of specialized tissues at the junctions of the cardiac chambers give rise to any component of the cardiac conduction system.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Microfilaments (MF, 5-8 nm in diameter) are a prominent feature of the pinealocyte cytoplasm of baboons (Papio ursinus) kept under controlled lighting conditions. MF occurred as a filamentous network in these cells during the light phase of the diurnal light-dark cycle, while a close structural association was noted between MF and the membranes of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). This association was especially evident during the dark period. Increased numbers of single synaptic ribbons (SR, vesicle-crowned rodlets), together with large aggregations of SR, i.e., ribbon fields (RF), were seen in the pinealocyte cytoplasm of baboons killed during the dark phase. It is suggested that the vesicles of RF may arise from those of the SER and that MF may play a role in the movement of SER-vesicles to those areas of the cytoplasm where new RF are being formed.
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  • 46
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    American Journal of Anatomy 154 (1979), S. 163-177 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pilocarpine HCl, a parasympathomimetic drug, was administered to pregnant white rabbits in a daily subcutaneous injection of 5 mg/kg on days 24 through 27 of gestation. Fetuses from these animals and from salineinjected controls were obtained by caesarean section at day 28 of gestation. Light microscopic examination revealed thinner alveolar septa in the lungs of pilocarpine-treated fetuses and, morphometrically, a significant increase in the number of mature type II cells, both per unit area and per 1,000 lung cells of any kind. Examination by electron microscopy revealed that the alveolar epithelium of pilocarpine-treated fetuses demonstrated morphologic correlates of increased maturation. These included thinning of type I cells to form blood-air barriers and substantial reductions in the glycogen content of both epithelial cell types. Type II cells of pilocarpine-treated fetuses contained (as indicated by morphometric analysis) more and larger lamellar inclusion bodies, as well as more multivesicular bodies than those of controls. Biochemical determination indicated that the glycogen content of fetal lung, but not liver, was reduced significantly in the pilocarpine-treated group. The findings of this study indicate that maternal administration of pilocarpine results in increased maturation of the fetal alveolar epithelium, thus providing a basis for the autonomic manipulation of fetal lung maturation.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 154 (1979), S. 179-193 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The normal postnatal development of the canine kidney was investigated utilizing qualitative and quantitative histologic methods. Kidneys were examined at 2, 4, 8, 14, 22, 70, and 200 days of age. A subcapsular nephrogenic zone was present in the kidneys until approximately eight days of age. This zone contained tissues which interacted to produce new nephrons and interstitial tissues. Several developmental stages of forming nephrons were identified in this zone. Beneath the nephrogenic zone, renal corpuscles of increasing maturity were located at successively deeper cortical levels. The total number of nephrons was estimated to be 445,000 per kidney. This number did not vary significantly during growth. The corpuscular volume per nephron increased 249% from 14 to 200 days of age. During the same period there was a 303% increase in the tubular volume per nephron. Although the developing kidney differed anatomically from the adult kidney, the individual nephrons maintained volumetric corpuscular-tubular balance during growth.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Human embryonic and fetal eyes from 4 mm to 200 mm crownrump length (26 days to 21 weeks of gestation) were studied in 0.75-μm sections impregnated with silver and toned with gold. The layer of Chievitz was formed by an inward migration of ganglion-cell and Müller-cell nuclei from the outer neuroepithelium and then, after further changes in nuclear location, the layer of Chievitz was cleared of ganglion-cell nuclei to become the definitive inner plexiform layer. Müller-cell nuclei later populated all retinal layers in the fetus. The argyrophilic Müller-cell cytoplasm associated with neuronal development is discussed in relation to glia-neuron interactions, with emphasis on the particular needs of retinal tissue.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the male little brown bat Myotis lucifugus lucifugus was studied with the electron microscope. Animals were killed by intracardial perfusion at each season throughout the year so that the arcuate nucleus could be examined for seasonal variations in morphology. Striking seasonal changes in the fine structure of ependymal tanycytes lining the arcuate nucleus were observed. Tanycytes in animals collected in the fall and early winter exhibited pale processes characterized by a scant internal framework of microtubules and fine filaments. These processes, which were found throughout the arcuate nucleus, exhibited simple irregular shapes. In animals collected between January and June, tanycyte processes contained dense accumulations of fine filaments intermingled with microtubules, and projected long attenuated extensions that often formed multilamellar sheets around axodendritic terminals or other neuronal elements. Tanycyte processes of animals collected in July and August were densely packed with microtubules and fine filaments. The processes radiated elaborate multilamellar extensions that encapsulated axons, dendrites and even entire neuronal perikarya. Multilamellar sheets consisted of as many as 10 or 12 closely spaced gyres. The seasonal variations in tanycyte structure are suggestive of astrocyte-like behaviour. These changes are discussed with respect to seasonal changes in hypothalamic neuroendocrine activity.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Calcitonin-containing cells in serial, 6-μm sections of the thyroid glands of Swiss Webster mice, at 1 day, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age, were demonstrated by an immunoperoxidase method, using antiserum to human calcitonin. C-cell nuclei were counted in every sixth section of both left and right lobes. The average number of C-cells counted in the thyroid glands of 8-week-old animals was 18-fold, 5.5-fold and 2.5-fold greater than the number observed in 1-day, 2-week and 4-week-old animals, respectively. C-cell concentration was found to be greatest in 4-week-old mice. Mitoses of C-cells were observed in animals which were 1 day, 2 weeks and four weeks old. No mitotic figures were seen in 8-week-old animals. A few C-cells were seen in close association with neurons. The volume of the thyroid glands of 8-week-old animals was about 14-, 4- and 3-fold greater than the volume in the 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 4-week-old mice, respectively.These changes in the C-cell population during development provide a model for the study of C-cell proliferation and storage of calcitonin.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pyroantimonate has long been used as a cytochemical technique for the localization of cations. Although the technique was originally alleged to be specific for Na+, other cations, including Mg++, Ba++, Ca++, Zn++ and polycationic amines, form pyroantimonate precipitates. In seminiferous tubules treated with antimonate-osmium fixation, the nuclei of the Sertoli cells and germ cells contained precipitates. In regions of condensed chromatin the precipitates were dense while, in dispersed chromatin, precipitates were sparse or absent. It is postulated that the dense precipitates observed in the condensed chromatin may represent an accumulation of calcium that may facilitate chromatin condensation. The Sertoli cell nucleolar apparatus contained light precipitates in the pars amorpha, moderate precipitates in the nucleolonema, and heavy precipitates in the perinucleolar heterochromatin bodies. The nuclei of the maturation-phase spermatids lacked any precipitates. The perinuclear ring of the acrosome-phase spermatids contained pyroantimonate deposits. In the maturation-phase spermatids, staining occurred in the postacrosomal dense lamina, in the subacrosomal space between the perforatorium and the inner acrosomal membrane, and in the central mass of the residual bodies. Since the postacrosomal dense lamina is the portion of the spermatozoon that initially fuses with the ovum, it is postulated that its cationic properties in some way facilitate this fusion.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The regulatory role of estrogen on cell population kinetics in the descending colon was studied in intact female and ovariectomized mice. In the colonic crypts from intact mice, the crypt size (the number of epithelial cells per crypt column) and the proliferative activity of epithelial cells fluctuated slightly during the estrous cycle. Peak cellularity per crypt column was exhibited during estrus and early diestrus, whereas peaks in labeling index were seen during estrus and late metestrus. While the population size of mucous cells showed a minimal variation, the number of proliferative vacuolated cells per crypt column varied inversely with that of differentiated columnar cells during estrous cycle. The vacuolated cells were increased in number in the preovulatory phase and the columnar cells in the postovulatory phase.Three weeks after bilateral ovariectomy, the colonic crypt appeared to reach a new steady state, which was characterized by a small crypt size, a decrease in the number of differentiated cells, an increase in the relative number of proliferative cells and a relative increase in the proliferative activity of the crypt as compared to intact mice.When ovariectomized mice were treated with estrogen, the number of 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the crypt was decreased as compared to untreated ovariectomized mice, the decrease being greater after a single injection than after multiple injections of estrogen, and the vacuolated-columnar cell line being affected more than mucous cell line. Meanwhile, the crypt size as well as the population size of differentiated cells in the crypt failed to return to normal after estrogen treatments. Thus, estrogen did not promote differentiation of epithelial cells in the crypt.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 156 (1979), S. 301-311 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We developed a constant-pressure vascular perfusion system of the isolated rat stomach, utilizing an artificial, fluorocarbon (FC-75)-containing medium. Perfusion could be maintained for at least six hours, as demonstrated by the ultrastructure of the mucosal cells and by the constant incorporation of [3H]-galactose in the surface mucous cells. Moreover all mucous cell types in tissue fixed after six hours of perfusion showed the same histochemical reactions for glycoproteins as in tissue fixed shortly after decapitation of the animal.The surface mucous cells of the antrum incorporated 30% less [3H]-galactose, [3H]-serine and [35S]-sulphate than those of the fundus. The amount of radioactivity incorporated per cell did not decrease during a subsequent 2 hour chase.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Labeled leucine, serine, galactose, glucosamine and sulphate were administered to rat stomachs in a perfusion system. Sections of the gastric fundus were studied by light microscopic autoradiography. Five categories of mucous cells were distinguished and their glycoprotein synthetic activity was measured in autoradiographs by counting silver grains over each category. During their differentiation, while migrating from the isthmus of the fundic glands to the free luminal surface, the surface mucous cells (SMC) showed an increase in incorporation of all precursors used. Differences between the incorporation patterns of the various precursors, in cells of different ages, suggest that structural development runs ahead of functional activity, and that the latter continues up to the very moment the cell is shed from the surface. Sulphate was incorporated at a considerably lower rate by the SMC of the free surface than by the foveolar SMC, in which by cytochemical staining strongly acidic glycoproteins were shown. Since the mucous neck cells incorporated all precursors at a low rate, these cells apparently do not play an important role in gastric mucus synthesis. They did not incorporate sulphate, which is consistent with histochemical observations.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This present study describes an experimental approach whereby subcellular 3-dimensional filamentous structures present within whole cells can be examined, using a conventional transmission electron microscope. This procedure uses cells which have been cultured on carbon-coated titanium grids, and treated with Triton X-100 to extract the soluble cytoplasm. Subsequent fixation and critical-point drying allows filamentous proteins to be easily visualized, due to the increase in contrast produced by removal of the ground cytoplasm. The high resolution obtainable in these preparations permitted an initial classification and description of the filamentous reticulum within cultured presumptive myoblasts. This reticulum is a continuum of filaments and cables, all elements of which appear to be interconnected. These morphological findings were then correlated with the biochemical identification of detergent-insoluble proteins, of which only actin, myosin, and, perhaps, intermediate filament and LETS protein are the major elements.
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 154 (1979), S. 563-575 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Many mammalian muscles have a complex internal architecture. This type of structure could allow a single muscle to produce a variety of force vectors through selective regional contractions. This hypothesis was tested electromyographically in the multipinnate pig masseter by recording simultaneously from several intramuscular sites. It was found that the activity in different portions of the masseter varied systematically during the various phases of mastication. Anatomical correlates of the differential activity included fasciculus orientation and length, sarcomere length in specific jaw positions, and histochemical fiber type. The usual assumptions made about muscles for biomechanical analysis, such as uniform contraction and constant line of action, are inappropriate for complex muscles such as the pig masseter.
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  • 58
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 155 (1979), S. 1-13 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the corpora lutea of the goat, cow, rabbit, pig and guinea pig have been examined at a stage when progesterone was being secreted by the luteal cells. Densely staining granules, 0.2 μm in diameter, are present within the luteal cells of all the species examined. Granules were detected in the extra-cellular spaces of the corpora lutea of the goat, cow and pig, but not of the rabbit or guinea pig. The luteal cells of the various species have the same basic structure but differ in the amounts of lipid and forms of smooth endoplasmic reticulum present.A common mechanism of hormone secretion, in granule form, is postulated for all luteal cells.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 155 (1979), S. 15-29 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Clara cells in the terminal bronchioles of mouse, rat, rabbit, calf and human were compared by light, transmission and scanning microscopy, and species-differences were clearly present. Mouse Clara cells were most numerous and mouse and rabbit Clara cells had large dense mitochondria. Rabbit and calf had glycogen in Clara cells and rat Clara cells had the most variability in secretory granules, some of which had a crystalline structure. Calf Clara cells had deeply indented nuclei. Human Clara cells had the most prominent nucleoli and lacked smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which was a prominent feature of most other species. No evidence of apical extrusion or apocrine secretion of Clara cell secretory granules was observed.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report a quantification of the maximum mucus accumulation in proliferating rat colonic epithelial cells. The proliferative potential was determined by radioautographic study of one-hour pulse exposures to tritiated thymidine, mucous content was determined by Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) staining. We examined 55 labeled mucous cells in 0.5- to 1-μm serial sections. The maximum thecal and nuclear profiles of these cells were photographed and their surface areas were determined utilizing a coordinate sensor. The data were expressed as a theca-to-nucleus (T/N) ratio. The maximum (T/N) ratio for a labeled mucous cell was 3.0. We performed a similar analysis on 22 unlabeled mucous cells from upper crypt regions and surface epithelium to derive the range of (T/N) ratios for terminally differentiated mature mucous cells. The range of (T/N) ratios from these cells was from 4.8 to 16.4. Our study shows that proliferative potential of mucous cells is determined by the interrelationship between mucus accumulation and nuclear size.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Adult pigeons received dantrolene sodium, a skeletal muscle relaxant which blocks the release of calcium during excitation-contraction coupling, for 12 to 16 weeks. The pectoralis muscles of these birds were analyzed for changes occurring in the various fiber types of the muscle. Both histochemistry (ATPase and SDH activity) and electron microscopy (mitochondrial and lipid volume percentages) differentiated two fiber types. The two fiber types consisted of fast-twitch glycolytic fibers (FG) and fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. After dantrolene treatment some FG fibers showed little or no ATPase activity. Dantrolene treatment also produced a disappearance of thick filaments in some FG fibers. We infer that the fibers without thick filaments are the ones lacking ATPase activity. The FOG fibers were nearly normal. Since drug-fed birds lose weight, a few birds were starved to determine whether the filament loss was related solely to the bird's loss in weight. No fibers in starved birds showed reduced ATPase activity or loss of thick filaments. In fibers that showed thick filament disappearance, the I-bands remained organized and intact, suggesting that the I-band maintains its integrity without interaction with the thick filaments. Changes in activity patterns may cause loss of thick filaments by inhibiting either their synthesis or assembly.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The renal corpuscle of the garter snake was examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, freeze-fracture and tracer experiments. The renal corpuscle was small and glomerular architecture simple. The visceral epithelium was composed of irregular, highly branched podocytes with broad, interdigitating foot processes. Numerous cell junctions, including fasciae occludentes and adhaerentes, occurred between podocytes. The podocytes bore numerous microvilli which projected into the urinary space and contained large bundles of microfilaments. The podocytes lay on a basal lamina which appeared to act as a primary filtration barrier.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Scalopus membranes are characterized by: Superficial nidation; antimesometrial orientation of the embryonic disc; amniogenesis by folding; an extensive but transitory choriovitelline placenta; a large yolk sac with late and incomplete inversion; large persistent allantoic vesicle; a very broad, thin, villous, epitheliochorial chorioallantoic placenta of annular shape interrupted mesometrially, dotted with numerous areolae, and bordered by a non-villous sparsely vascular chorioallantoic membrane connected with the persistent bilaminar omphalopleure by a very narrow rim of chorion. There is no decidua. Electron microscopy shows that at 8 mm, CR, (limb bud embryo) the uterine epithelium of the interhemal membrane may be 0.5 μm or less in thickness, but that it shows no signs of degeneration. Trophoblastic microvilli often penetrate the epithelium to within 0.2 μm of its base. At this time there is active secretion by the uterine glands, and cellular hypertrophy and cytolysis of the epithelium at the gland mouths, with active phagocytosis by the areolar cytotrophoblast. The occurrence of absorptive areolae in an insectivore emphasizes the probable primitiveness of this widely distributed placental mechanism. In spite of similarities of the yolk sac to that of rabbits and rodents, the bilaminar omphalopleure produces no invasive trophoblastic giant cells. The definitive membranes of Parascalops breweri and Scapanus latimanus are like those of Scalopus. The placentae of Talpa europaea, Condylura cristata, and Neurotrichus gibbsii are discoid and relatively much smaller, thicker and more complex in internal structure. There is some reason to believe that the fetal membrane systems of moles and shrews (Soricoidea) are more like those of the ancestral mammalian stock than are those of any other recent eutherians.
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  • 64
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    American Journal of Anatomy 155 (1979), S. 125-129 
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Interstitial cells in the interalveolar septa of lungs, which are considered to be myofibroblasts, are coupled by communicating junctions.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fetuses were obtained on the 28th gestational day from pregnant New Zealand white rabbits treated daily, on the 24th through the 27th gestational day, with pilocarpine HCl, 5 mg/kg in saline, or saline alone. Lung fragments from these fetuses were incubated for two hours in medium containing 3H-thymidine. Scintillation autoradiography of 1-μm-thick sections of these fetal lungs revealed that the lung tissue from pilocarpine-treated fetuses had significantly lower labelled cell indices for both alveolar epithelial cells and interstitial cells. These results indicate that pilocarpine treatment promotes differentiation of immature cells in the fetal lung at the expense of cell proliferation.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An antiserum which has previously been thought to be specific for LHRH- like immunoreactive material was shown to contain two populations of antibodies, one demonstrating anti-LHRH activity and the other anti -ACTH (1-24) activity. In rat and mouse, ACTH(1-4)-like immunoreactive substance is present in perikarya within the basal hypothalamus and in fibers in arcuate, periventricular and dorsomedial nuclei. LHRH-like immunoreactivity is present in fibers within the median eminence and arcuate nucleus, in a few fibers running along the ventral border of the hypothalamus, and in a small number of cell bodies within the medial basal hypothalamus.
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