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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (14,682)
  • Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  (2,271)
  • Physical Chemistry  (1,466)
  • 1990-1994  (13,016)
  • 1970-1974  (3,075)
  • 1965-1969  (2,328)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cleavage furrows ; cytokinesis ; actin ; phalloidin ; myosin ; filamin ; talin ; attachment plaques ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: PtK2 cells of exceptionally large size were microinjected with fluorescently labeled probes for actin, myosin, filamin, and talin in order to follow the assembly of the contractile proteins into the cleavage furrows. Whereas in cells of normal size, there is usually a diffuse pattern of localization of proteins in the cleavage furrow, in these large, flat cells the labeled proteins localized in fibers in the cleavage furrow. Often, the fibers were striated in a pattern comparable to that measured in the stress fibers of the same cell type. The presence of talin in discrete plaques along fibers in the cleavage furrows of the large cells suggests a further similarity between cleavage furrow and stress fiber structure. The presence of filamin in the cleavage furrows also suggests the possibility of an overlapping mechanism in addition to that of a talin mediated mechanism for the attachment of actin filaments to the cell surfaces in the cleavage furrow. A model is presented that emphasizes the interrelationships between stress fibers, myofibrils, and cleavage furrows. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 27 (1994), S. 161-168 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fluorescent nucleotide analogs ; methylanthraniloyl ATP ; anthraniloyl ATP ; Chlamydomonas ; axonemal mutants ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Substrate analogs are useful for studying the structures of active sites and for distinguishing between similar enzyme activities. Fluorescent ribose-modified ATP analogs were used to investigate the functional differences between dynein ATPases. These analogs reactivate (support the movement of) sea urchin sperm axonemes, yet they do not reactivate wild-type Chalmydomonas axonemes. Surprisingly, the analogs reactivate the axonemes of mutants completely missing the outer arm dyneins. Competition experiments using ATP and these analogs provide strong evidence that the analogs bind to all dynein active sites but fail to release a subset of dyneins from rigor. We suggest that this subset of Chlamydomonas outer arm dyneins unable to use the analogs remains in rigor in the presence of the analogs and paralyzes the axoneme. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sliding movement ; 22S dynein ; Tetrahymena cilia ; dynein-track ; singlet microtubule ; ATP ; polarity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena axonemal dyneins have previously been found to bind to porcine brain microtubules to produce a microtubule-dynein complex. At appropriate microtubule:dynein concentration, microtubules in the complex became covered to saturation by dynein arms of the same polarity and at a spacing of 24 nm [Haimo et al., 1979; Haimo and Fenton, 1988; Haimo, 1989; Porter and Johnson, 1983a].In the present study, two different types of microtubule-dynein complexes (α-and β-complexes) were prepared from Tetrahymena ciliary 22S dynein and porcine brain tubulin. The characteristics of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced extrusion of microtubules from these complexes were analyzed, as a simple and direct in vitro assay for the ATP-induced extrusion of single microtubules. The α-complex prepared by adding dynein to microtubules showed an interrupted sliding movement, which would stop and start several times following the addition of ATP. In the β-complex, prepared by adding dynein bound to DEAE-tubulin to pre-assembled microtubules, microtubules became covered with dynein molecules whose orientation and binding were uniform with respect to microtubule polarity. The microtubules in the β-complex extruded at 12 μm/second following the addition of ATP. Dark-field and electron microscopy indicated that the extruded microtubules had undergone sliding on a dynein-track that had become detached from the complexes and had been absorbed onto the surface of the glass slide. At higher light intensity under a dark-field microscope, the dynein-track was seen to be composed of rows of dynein molecules arranged densely. The orientation of dynein molecules in rows appeared to be uniform considering the images of bound dynein in the β-complex under electron microscope. The higher sliding velocity of the microtubules on these dynein-tracks compared to that seen on slides coated at random with dynein [Vale and Toyoshima, 1988, 1989], may be due to more efficient force generation by this dense arrangement of dynein molecules with the same polarity on the tracks. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 27 (1994), S. 206-218 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; sperm maturation ; flagella ; protein kinases ; protein kinase inhibitor ; cGMP ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ejaculated ram sperm were demembranated with Triton X-100, separated from the detergent-soluble matrix, and reactivated [San Agustin and Witman (1993): Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 24:264-273]. The percent motility of models prepared from freshly washed sperm was comparable to that of the washed sample before demembranation, regardless of whether cAMP was included in the reactivation medium. However, demembranated models derived from aging or metabolically inhibited sperm exhibited a lower percent reactivation and required cAMP to attain the level of motility of freshly washed sperm. Cyclic AMP was ∼100 times more effective than cGMP. The requirement for cAMP could be bypassed by addition of porcine heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit to the reactivation medium, demonstrating that cAMP was acting via PKA. The cAMP stimulation of reactivation was not affected by inclusion of the PKA inhibitor PKI(5-24) in the reactivation medium, but was decreased when the models were preincubated with PKI(5-24) prior to reactivation. The cytosol-free models retained 〉90% of the sperm PKA activity; therefore, the PKA appears to be anchored to internal sperm structures. This PKA could not be extracted by cAMP or Triton X-100 alone, but only by cAMP and Triton X-100 in combination. We conclude that cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation is critical for sperm motility, but that the essential protein phosphate sites turn over slowly under our reactivation conditions, so that the cAMP requirement is apparent only in models prepared from sperm having a low internal ATP or cAMP content. Interestingly, reactivation was rapidly blocked by the peptide arg-lys-arg-ala-arg-lys-glu, which has been reported to be a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule-associated protein 2 ; neurons ; microtubule-associated proteins ; cytoskeleton ; dendrites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) is an abundant component of the cytoskeleton present in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons of the CNS. To examine the biological function of MAP-2, two MAP-2 antisense (AS) oligonucleotides complementary to the 5′ region of the rat MAP-2 cDNA were added to rat primary embryonic day 17-18 (E17-18) cultured cortical neurons 24 h after plating and neurite outgrowth and morphology studied. The treatment of primary cortical cultures with either of the two MAP-2 AS oligonucleotides resulted in decreased MAP-2 and reduction in the number of neuritic processes relative to the control or MAP-2 sense-treated cultures. By immunostaining and light microscopy the AS-treated neurons appeared smaller, more rounded, and less intensely stained for MAP-2 than the untreated or the MAP-2 sense-treated cultures. By electron microscopy disorganized microtubules and a reduction in the number of microtubules within neurites of the AS-treated cultures were observed. We conclude that MAP-2 continues to be required for microtubule spacing and stability within neurites once they have formed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 28 (1994), S. 1-24 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myofibrillogenesis ; directionality ; non-muscle myosin II ; myosin ; α-actinin ; Z-bodies ; zeugmatin ; titin ; C-protein ; premyofibril ; nascent myofibril ; mature myofibril ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When cardiac muscle cells are isolated from embryonic chicks and grow in culture they attach to the substrate as spherical cells with disrupted myofibrils, and over several days in culture, they spread and extend lamellae. Based on antibody localizations of various cytoskeletal proteins within the spreading cardiomyocyte, three types of myofibrils have been identified: 1) fully formed mature myofibrils that are centrally positioned in the cell, 2) premyofibrils that are closest to the cell periphery, and 3) nascent myofibrils located between the premyofibrils and the mature myofibrils. Muscle-specific myosin is localized in the A-bands in the mature, contractile myofibrils, and along the nascent myofibrils in a continuous pattern, but it is absent from the premyofibrils. Antibodies to non-muscle isoforms of myosin IIB react with the premyofibrils at the cell periphery and with the nascent myofibrils, revealing short bands of myosin between closely spaced bands of α-actinin. In the areas where the nascent myofibrils border on the mature myofibrils, the bands of non-muscle myosin II reach lengths matching the lengths of the mature A-bands. With the exception of a small transition zone consisting of one myofibril, or sometimes several sarcomeres, bordering the nascent myofibrils, there is no reaction of these non-muscle myosin IIB antibodies with the mature myofibrils in spreading myocytes. C-protein is found only in the mature myofibrils, and its presence there may prevent co-polymerization of non-muscle and muscle myosins. Antibodies directed against the non-muscle myosin isoforms, IIA, do not stain the cardiomyocytes. In contrast to the cardiomyocytes, the fibroblasts in these cultures stain with antibodies to both non-muscle myosin IIA and IIB. The premyofibrils near the leading edge of the lamellae show no reaction with antibodies to either titin or zeugmatin, whereas the nascent myofibrils and mature myofibrils do. The spacings of the banded α-actinin staining range from 0.3 to 1.4 μm in the pre- and nascent myofibrils and reach full spacings (1.8-2.5 μm) in the mature myofibrils. Based on these observations, we propose a premyofibril model in which non-muscle myosin IIB, titin, and zeugmatin play key roles in myofibrillogenesis. This model proposes that pre- and nascent myofibrils are composed of minisarcomeres that increase in length, presumably by the concurrent elongation of actin filaments, the loss of the non-muscle myosin II filaments, the fusion of dense bodies or Z-bodies to form wide Z-bands, and the capture and alignment of muscle myosin II filaments to form the full spacings of mature myofibrils. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; microtubule-associated protein (MAP) ; marine egg extracts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Alkaline pH favors the assembly of microtubules (MTs) in marine egg extracts [Suprenant and Marsh, 1987: J. Cell Sci. 184:167-180; Suprenant, 1989: Exp. Cell Res. 184:167-180; 1991: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 19:207-220] and mammalian brain extracts [Tiwari and Suprenant, 1993: Anal. Biochem. 215:96-103], even though the assembly of purified microtubule protein (MTP) from both of these sources is favored at slightly acidic pH. The present investigation examines whether alkaline pH has a direct or indirect effect on MT nucleation and growth in soluble brain extracts. Cell-free extracts were prepared from bovine cerebral cortex, and a nucleated assembly assay was used to demonstrate that MT assembly in brain extracts is favored at slightly acidic pH. The increase in MT mass found at alkaline pH is due to an increase in the solubility of tubulin not an increase in the extent of assembly On average, 47.7 ± 11.3% of the total tubulin is soluble at pH 7.2, while only 30.9 ± 8.9% of the tubulin is soluble at pH 6.8. A model is proposed that indicates how microtubule proteins from both mammalian brain and marine eggs may be associated with pH-dependent factors. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations on the 12 isomeric products and the corresponding transition states of ketene-1-azabutadiene [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions as a model system for the reaction of ketenes with 4-iminobenzylfuran-2,3-diones are presented. A [4 + 2] type of reaction of the ketene C=C double bond leading to a six-membered lactam compound is found to be highly favoured both thermodynamically and kinetically. [2 + 2] Cycloadducts generally have significantly higher activation energies. Reactions involving the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond proceed in most cases via attack of the nitrogen lone pair leading to a zwitterionic intermediate. Depending on the respective cycloadduct, both two-step and concerted, albeit asynchronous, processes were obtained. Based on the structures of the various transition states, some predictions with respect to substituent effects are made. Similarities to and differences from the analogous reaction of ketenimines with oxa-1,3-dienes are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reaction of aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2, IDMg] with nitrobenzene (Ar1NO2) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) gives unsymmetrical (unsym) azoxybenzene, which is deoxygenated to give unsym-azobenzene. The reaction is utilized for the independent preparation of ONN and NNO isomers of unsym-azoxy compounds. The effects of the relative value of the difference between oxidation and reduction potentials of para-substituted reactants, special effects of ortho-substituents of the substrate and also effects of structure and concentration of mono- and bis-IDMg reagents were studied previously, and ‘cooperation of their aggregate excess needed for product formation’ was proposed. This unfamiliar concept for reactions of magnesium reagents was studied further. Supporting evidence was obtained from the retarding effect of trimethylene chains of nitro [3.3] metacyclophanes and the derived azoxy [3.3] metacyclophanes and also from the effect of the length of bis-IDMg's central α,ω-polymethylenedioxy chain appropriate for azoxy deoxygenation. By comparison with deoxygenation by X3P reagents (X = EtO, Me2N), the general needs of cooperation of excess magnesium reagents were confirmed and its role in their reactions is discussed.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The magnitude ρx(ρnuc) is shown to decrease with increase in the extent of bond making estimated by the kinetic isotope effect for the reactions of Y-benzoyl chlorides with anilines, XC6H4NH2, in acetonitrile at 25·0°C.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The role of orbital control in product selectivity during electrophilic aromatic alkylation catalysed by zeolites was studied both theoretically and experimentally. In order to discuss this, the alkylation of toluene and m-xylene by methanol was carried out on a series of large-pore zeolites (HY). The changes in the para to ortho ratio observed on changing the framework Si/Al ratio of the zeolites were related to ab initio molecular orbital calculations of the LUMO energy of structurally alike model clusters but containing different tetrahedral cations around the active site. The observed correlation is discussed in terms of the HSAB principle by taking into account the influence of the catalyst composition on the reactivity of the electrophilic reagent.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: N-Substituted carbonimidodithioic acid dimethyl esters, when reacted with an active methylene compound such as nitromethane, undergo carbon-carbon bond formation followed by carbon-sulphur bond cleavage in the presence of zeolite catalysts to give 1-substituted amino-1-methylthio-2-nitroethenes. This carbon-sulphur bond cleavage is facilitated by the presence of rare earth cations in the zeolite-Y framework. The shape selectivity of the zeolite also plays an important role in this cleavage reaction. Force field calculations adopted for the molecules involved in the reaction indicate the geometry and conformational flexibility of these molecules. The computer-simulated model for the zeolite-Y is correlated with the conformation and shape of the reactant and product molecules to explain the variation in yields obtained in the conversion of substituted dimethyl esters.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of the concentrations of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, Na2CO3 and BaCl2 on the rates of reactions of hydroxide ion with ionized N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHP-) at 30°C and in H2O-MeCN solvents containing 10, 50, 60, 66, 70, 76 and 80% (v/v) MeCN reveal the formation of ion-pair complexes between cations of the salts, which probably exist in solvent-separated loose ion-pair forms (Mn+⃛Xk-) and NHP-. An increase in MeCN content from 2 to 76% (v/v) causes an increase in the association constants (K) by factors of 40, 21 and 9 for LiCl, NaCl and KCl, respectively, while the respective increase in the rate constants (k′s1) for the collapse of the ion-pair complexes to product is ca two-fold. The values of k′s1 remain almost unchanged whereas the values of K increase 7·5-fold with an increase in MeCN content from 2 to 70% (v/v) for CsCl. Ion-pair complex formation was not detected in the presence of Me4NCl at 70% (v/v) MeCN. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants are highly sensitive to the valence state of cations and almost insensitive to the valence state of the anions of the salts.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates and products of solvolyses of 4-methylene-2ax- and -2eq-adamantyl p-toluenesulphonates (tosylates) (4a-OTs and 4e-OTs, respectively) were studied. Compound 4a-OTs solvolysed more slowly than 2-adamantyl tosylate (1) in methanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) by factors of 2·3 and 2·5, respectively, at 25°C. However, by taking the inductive decelerating effect of a β-methylene substituent into account, the rates were revealed to be enhanced by α-participation by a factor of 50. The products of solvolyses of 4a-OTs in methanol, 80% acetone and TFE at 100°C were 2ax- and 2eq-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-4-methyleneadamantanes (4a-OR and 4e-OR, respectively), exo-4-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-5-methyleneprotoadamantane (exo-5-OR) and 5-[alkoxy(or hydroxy)methyl]-4-protoadamantene (6-OR) with adamantyl to protoadamantyl product ratio of 39:61 (in methanol), 56:44 (in 80% acetone) and 71:29 (in TFE). Despite the nearly symmetric nature of the intermediate cation, the 4a-OR: 4e-OR product ratio was essentially constant with 83:17 (in methanol), 85:15 (in 80% acetone) and 82:18 (in TFE). The formation of considerable amounts of 4e-OR was interpreted as showing the intermediacy of a pair of rapidly equilibrating classical ions. The rates of 4e-OTs were 2300-4300 times faster than those expected from inductive electron-withdrawing effect of a β-methylene substituent. The major product (84·5% in methanolysis and 98·7% in trifluoroethanolysis) was 4e-OR accompanied by small amounts of 2-alkoxy-2,4-methanoadamantane (9-OR) and 2-(alkoxymethyl)-2,4-didehydroadamantane (10-OR), no formation of 4a-OR having been observed. These results suggested that 4e-OTs solvolyses via a π-bridged intermediate cation.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Molecular mechanics (MM3) calculations were carried out on the title compounds. Comparison between the MM3 results and those of semi-empirical and ab initio calculations and experiment indicates that the MM3 results are at least as good as results of much more expensive calculations. The MM3 calculations predict that unlike corannulene and cyclopentacorannulene, the transition state of the bowl-to-bowl inversion of the related C30H10 is non-planar, and the activation barrier is too high for this motion to occur.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reactions of benzo-, naphtho- and anthraquinone derivatives (unsubstituted and substituted) with aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2] and aryloxymagnesium of a weak electron-donating ability were studied. In addition to the reduction products (quinhydrones and hydroquinones), nuclear substitution and condensation products were formed. The efficiency of single electron transfer (SET) from ArN(MgBr)2, evaluated by the relative values of the difference between the oxidation and reduction potentials of the reactants (ΔE = Eox - Ered), varies with the electron-accepting power of quinones. ΔE governs the modes of semiquinone appearance (ESR signals) and the relative amounts of the heat of reactions, reflecting the types and yields of the products. It is concluded that condensation products of both components are produced in the reactions of quinones with the lower SET efficiency by the presence of a fused benzene ring or MeO substituent. The structure-reactivity relationship proposed previously for reactions of various magnesium reagents is extended in the reactions with a variety of quinones even in cases of higher SET efficiency.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The low temperature 1H NMR spectra of 2,2-bis(3,5-dibromomesityl)ethenol in CS2-CD2Cl2 (3:7) display new signals which indicate the presence of four enol species whose OH is hydrogen bonded. Oligomerization to intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol dimers or tetramers is suggested.
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  • 20
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    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of absorption and emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yields (Φf) and lifetimes (τf) of ω-(1-pyrenyl)alkyl para-substituted benzoates PnX (X = H, Cl, CF3, CN, NO2, with n = 1-4) were carried out in solvents of various polarity. Intramolecular interaction in the ground state is not observed in any of these compounds. PnCN (n = 2-4) shows an intramolecular exciplex emission in solvents of low to high polarity. The broad, structureless emission at longer wavelength observed in ethyl acetate solution of P1CN is ascribed to an ‘exciplex-type’ emission which does not require actual overlapping of the two chromophores. P2CF3 also shows an exciplex emission in solvents of medium to high polarity. The solvent dependence of both Φf and τf increases as the electron-withdrawing ability of the para-sustituents increases. The relationship between fluorescence quenching by electron transfer and para-substituent of PnX is discussed by means of the free energy for electron transfer, ΔGET, obtained from the oxidation and reduction potentials of pyrene and methyl para-substituted benzoates in acetonitrile, respectively. PnH, with positive ΔGET, does not show a solvent dependence of Φf, except for P1H, in which ca 40% of the fluorescence is quenched in acetonitrile. PnCl, with slightly negative ΔGET, shows more efficient quenching, but does not show exciplex emission. PnCN, PnCF3 and PnNO2 have ΔGET values between -0·36 and -0·65 eV, and their fluorescence is fairly efficiently quenched. The fluorescence of PnCN is concluded to be strongly quenched by intersystem crossing from the singlet exciplex to the locally excited pyrene, and by electron transfer from the pyrene part to the benzoate part. That the formation of a singlet exciplex is necessary for intersystem crossing in bichromophoric compounds containing pyrene is thus clearly illustrated.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The evidence for the mechanisms proposed for aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions by primary and secondary amines in aprotic solvents of low relative permittivity is reviewed.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A rigorous procedure was developed for measuring the relative rates of addition of bromine atoms to eleven substituted α-methylstyrenes (1-Y, with Y = CF3, NO2, F, CN, Cl, Br, CO2Me, Me, COMe, OMe and SMe). The reaction was run in tetrahydrofuran in the presence of HBr, O2 and dibutyl peroxyoxalate at 30°C. All products were derived from the YC6H4CMeCH2Br adduct radicals, which were immediately intercepted by O2. Correlation analysis of all the data confirmed the proposition that in the absence of measurable steric effects, the relative rates for radical additions can be correlated only by a dual-parameter equation and not by a single-parameter equation. Among various combinations of σ* and σx, the (σJJ* + σmb) combination yields the best correlation.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Protonation of tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]paracyclophane and tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]metaparacyclophane in high-acidity super acid media, namely FSO3H.SbF5 (1:1) ‘magic acid’-SO2CIF, gave their corresponding acidic disulfonium ions. Additional ring protonation to give a disulfonium-monoarenium trication was not observed. With the non-fluorinated 2,11-dithia [3·3] cyclophanes, the disulfonium ions can be ring protonated in equilibrium to give a dynamic disulfonium-monoarenium trication. Tetrafluoro [2·2]-metaparacyclophane is monoprotonated at the meta ring and gives a complex mixture of conformational isomers. Multinuclear magnetic resonance data on the cyclophane precursors and their derived cations are compared and analysed. The energies, conformations and charge distributions of the isometric fluorinated and non-fluorinated [2·2] - and dithia [3·3] cyclophanes were calculated by the AM1 and PM3 methods, respectively. In all but one case the cyclophane arenium ions predicted by theory to be energetically most favoured are those observed in solution under stable ion conditions. In agreement with experiment, the instabilities of S,S,C-cyclophane trications are also theoretically predicted.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). These models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities for a wide range of organic molecules from molecular structure. The energy differences between the protonated state and the unprotonated state for a molecule of interest are factored into mechanistic components including the electrostatic and resonance contributions and any additional contributions to these energy differences. The RMS deviation was found to be less than 0·62 pKa units, which is similar to the experimental error.
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  • 26
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 169-169 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of N-(p-nitrophenyl)dimethylenediamine (Ia), N-(p-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (Ib), N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (Ic). N-methyl-N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (II), N-butyl-p-nitroaniline (III) and N-(o-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (IV) were studied at different temperatures. Whereas II, III and IV do not show any variation in their spectra characteristics with changes in temperature, I shows a hypsochromic shift with a hypochromic effect when the temperature is increased. The Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic comparison method was applied. A strong effect of the β parameter on I and III was interpreted as being due to the hydrogen bond donor ability of the H atom in the aromatic amino groups. In I, the β influence increases with increase in temperature. These facts are explained by proposing the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between amine groups in all compounds I, besides the intermolecular interactions between compounds I and the solvent. On the other hand, the values of vo, s and b for Ib are smaller than the corresponding values for Ia and Ic. Since in Ib a six-membered ring may be formed, a more stable bond is expected. Comparative 1H NMR of the aniline hydrogen for I and IV (in non-hydrogen bond acceptor solvents) shows a particular downfield chemical shift for I which suggests hydrogen bond formation. Since this effect is independent of concentration, the hydrogen bond is assumed to be intramolecular, in agreement with solvatochromic and thermochromic studies. These conclusions were corroborated by IR spectroscopy in the solid state and in chloroform solutions.
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  • 28
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The secondary α-deuterium isotpe effect on the equiliburium constant (KD/KH) for the hydration of p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·39 ± 0·05. The Kinetic secondary α-deuterium isotope effect (KD/KH) for the addition of water to p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·18 ± 0·07. This result demonstrates that there is extensive carbon-oxygen bond formation in the transition state for addition of water to the carbonyl group of p-nitrobezaldehyde.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rate of the reaction of 2-chloroquinoxaline with piperidine in dimethyl sulphoxide was measured over a wide range of amine concentrations and at several temperatures. It was found that the order with respect to the nucleophile is close to 1 between 300 and 320 K, but is definitely less at lower and higher temperature. It is suggested that below 300 K an unreactive charge-transfer complex is formed between the reactants which dissociates at higher temperatures, whereas at temperatures higher than 320 K an unproductive σ complex is formed, the concentration of which increases with increase in temperature.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The enthalpic contribution to the anomeric effect in r-2-carboethoxy-trans-4,trans-6- and r-2-carboethoxy-cis-4,cis-6-dimethyl-1,3-dithianes was determined by reaction-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of solution of both isomers in pure p-dioxane and the enthalpy of solution and isomerization in the same solvent and in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid were experimentally measured. From these results the corresponding enthalpies of isomerization in solution were calculated, and were found to be ΔHax→eq = -0·16 ± 0·04 kcal mol-1 (-0·67 ± 0·18 kJ mol-1) and ΔSax→eq = -2·68 ± 0·1 cal K-1 mol-1 (-11·2 ± 0·4 J K-1 mol-1). The slightly negative ΔH term nevertheless reflects a substantial anomeric effect owing to the countervailing steric effects in the axial isomer. The significant entropy loss in the equatorial isomer was explained in terms of intramolecular electrostatic effects. The results are in agreement with those obtained from NMR studies of the conformational behaviour of 2-carboethoxy-5-methyl-5-aza-1,3-dithiacyclohexane.
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  • 32
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 591-609 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The MM3 molecular mechanics program calculates a fair representation of hydrogen bonding interactions, but to improve the MM3 hydrogen bond potential, a directional term has been added to the hydrogen bonding function. The resulting total function was reoptimized. Comparisons of the hydrogen bonding potential functions from ab initio, the original MM3, the current MM3(92) force field and the reoptimized MM3 force field MM3(94) for a variety of C,N,O systems are described.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The title sulphenamides were pyrolysed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 310-410°C, pressures of 8-15 Torr and residence times of 0·4-2 s using toluene as the carrier gas. N-(tert-Butylthio)allylamine formed 73 ± 4% isobutene, 23 ± 3% propene and N-allylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for the formation of isobutene and propene, respectively, followed the Arrhenius equations kC4(s-1) = 1012·52 ± 0·36 exp(-163 ± 5 kJ mol-1 RT) and kC3(s-1) = 1010·99 ± 0·29 exp(-151 ± 4 kJ mol-1 RT) N-(tert-Butylthio)diethylamine gave 97 ± 1% isobutene, 1·9 ± 0·4% isobutane and N,N-diethylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for isobutene elimination followed the Arrhenius equation k(s-1) = 1013·45 ± 0·24 exp(-164 ± 3 kJ mol-1 RT). The formation of the products is interpreted in terms of an elimination reaction with a unimolecular, four-centered, cyclic transition state. The reactivity of these sulphenamides was found to be much higher than that of previously studied alkyl or aryl tert-butyl sulphides and disulphides.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The aromatic odd-alternant phenalenyl anion and a number of its derivatives were prepared in order to study the perturbation of this conjugated anion by methyl and methoxy groups. The conjugated anions were studied by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, alkylation experiments and semi-empirical calculations. It was found that a substituent at a charged carbon atom perturbs the entire conjugated system, whereas substituents at inactive (uncharged) carbon atoms have a large effect on the positions ortho to the substituent.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The spontaneous hydrolysis of p-nitrobenzyl cellulose xanthate (CelXNB) with a degree of substitution (DS) in the range 2-9 was studied in 10% aqueous ethanol at pH 10, and was followed spectrophotometrically by the appearance of p-nitro-α-toluenethiol, in a continuous-flow system where the reactor was shaken. CelXNB was characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectra. The reaction occurs through two parallel processes due to two xanthate ester groups with different reactivities. The fast hydrolysis was ascribed to the reaction of the C-2 + C-3 isomers, whereas the slow hydrolysis was due to the C-6 isomer. The percentage of the latter is much higher than C-2 + C-3. The solvent isotope effect of the fast hydrolysis (k′H2O/)k′H2D 11 was 2·22 ± 0·16 and the proton inventory indicated that there is only one proton transfer involved in the transition state, where a second water (or a neighbouring OH group) acts as a general base. The entropy of activation of the fast hydrolysis was only 3·3 ± 0·8 e.u., suggesting that the water molecules involved are highly oriented with respect to the coordinates required to reach the transition state. It is proposed that they form part of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded ice-like structure that involves the cellulose matrix.
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  • 36
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 316-322 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rates of hydrolysis of the vinyl ether functional groups of (Z)- and (E)-β-methoxyacrylic acid and (Z)-and (E)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid and their methyl esters were measured in aqueous perchloric acid solution. Additional rate measurements were also made for one substrate, (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid, in buffer solutions down to pH 7, and a rate profile was constructed. The results show that the β-carboxy and β-carbomethoxy substituents produce strong rate retardations, ranging from 2000- to 25 000-fold, for both Z- and E-isomers in both the acrylic and methacrylic acid series. The rate profile for (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid indicates that ionization of this substrate to the carboxylate ion form rises the rate of hydrolysis by a factor of 240. It is argued that this difference in reactivity of ionized and non-ionized forms of the substrate is due to conjugative and inductive effects of the substituents, rather than β-lactone formation as suggested in an earlier observation of the same phenomenon in a different system.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The stereochemistry and kinetics of the methoxide ion substitution reactions (Z)- and (E)-methylbenzohydroximoyl cyanidc [PhC(CN)=NOCH3] were investigated. The reaction of the (Z)-hydroximoyl cyanide with sodium methoxide in DMSO-methanol (9:1) solution at 44·8°C gives a mixture of methyl (Z)-O-methylbenzohydroximate [PhC(OCH3)=NOCH3] and the O-methyloxime of α-ketophenylacetamide PhC(CONH2)=NOCH3. The (E)-hydroximoyl cyanide undergoes methoxide ion-catalyzed isomerization to the E-isomer faster than it undergoes nucleophilic substitution. These observations were interpreted in terms of an addition-elimination mechanism in which the rate-limiting step is elimination of the nucleofuge (AN + DN#).
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  • 38
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 394-394 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The reaction of nitrosobenzene with aniline, to give azobenzene, in basic conditions was studied. It was shown that the reaction exhibits general base catalysis by different buffers giving a Brønsted coefficient β = 0·318. As in previous studies, a two-step process with a first step of attack of aniline on nitrosobenzene to give an addition intermediate and a second step of dehydration of this intermediate is proposed to interpret the mechanism of the reaction. The analysis of the Brønsted relationship and of the intermediate of the reaction led to the suggestion that hydoxide ion catalyses the reaction by a mechanism of general base catalysis in the dehydration step.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Imidazole (Imz)-catalysed hydrolysis of benzoate esters proceeds via the intermediate formation of N-benzoylimidazoles. This paper considers the second step of this reaction, viz., Imz-catalysed hydrolysis of N-(4-X-benzoyl)imidazoles, X = CH3, H, Cl, CN and NO2, and N-(disubstituted benzoyl)imidazoles, 2-chloro-4-nitro, 2, 4-dinitro and 3,5-dinitro, in water-acetonitrile mixtures (10% or 14%, v/v, in organic solvent). On the basis of catalytic rate constants and the kinetic solvent isotope effect, it is shown that catalysis by Imz is of the general-base type. Unexpectedly, the hydrolysis of N-(2,4-dinitrobenzoyl)imidazole was found to be slower than that of N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)imidazole. It is shown that this reactivity order is due to a combination of a steric effect and stabilization of the reactant state due to a donor-acceptor interaction between the Imz moiety and the 2,4-dinitrophenyl ring.
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  • 41
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates of the solvolysis of 3-R-4-homoadamantyl methanesulphonates (mesylates) (3) were determined in 80% aqueous ethanol. The relative first-order rate constants at 25 °C were 1·0 (R = H), 2·29 (R = Ph), 3·26 (R = p-anisyl), 73·6 (R = Me) and 209 (R = Et). The methanolysis of 3 gave rearranged methyl ethers and rearranged olefins as major products together with small amounts (0·9-3·4%) of unrearranged products. The order of the accelerating effect suggests that the transition states involve significant σ-participation, despite the fact that 3 (R = H) solvolyses via a classical ion intermediate. The logarithms of the solvolysis rate constants of 3 showed linear correlations with those of 1-R-2-adamantyl tosylates (1) and 1-R-exo-2-norbornyl tosylates (2), indicating that the linear free-energy relationship between the β-substituent effects on the solvolysis rate is not a definite measure to distinguish between classical and non-classical intermediates.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 518-524 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of the nucleophilic cleavage of phthalimide (PTH) in buffer solutions of ammonia and pyrrolidine were determined. The reaction rates for ammonolysis of PTH revealed a buffer-catalysed second-order term in the rate law, but the reaction rates for pyrrolidinolysis of PTH showed buffer-catalysed second- and third-order terms in the rate law. Both ammonia and pyrrolidine revealed nucleophilic reactivity towards ionized PTH (S-) only within the pH range of the present study. This is attributed to the occurrence of intramolecular general base-acid catalysis. General base catalysis is detected in the reactions of pyrrolidine with both non-ionized PTH (SH) and S-. The general base-catalysed third-order rate constant for pyrrolidinolysis of SH is nearly 28 times larger than that of S-.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The bisporphyria N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 and its mono- and dizinc derivatives were synthesized in 66%, 46% and 53% yields, respectively, from 5-(4′-bromomethylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin or its zinc derivative and 4,13-diaza-18-crown-6. The zinc-containing bisporphyrins form dimers in solution at low temperature or at high concentration. The unsymmetrical bisporphyrin; monozinc N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 shows singlet-singlet energy transfer from the zinc porphyrin moiety to the free base moiety in both the monomeric and the dimeric form. The energy transfer rates were determined using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and were found to be 1·26 × 109 and 2·29 × 109 s-1 for the monomeric and dimeric form, respectively. The difference in energy transfer rates between the two forms can be rationalized by the difference in overlap between the donor fluorescence spectrum and acceptor absorption spectrum, donor-acceptor distance and donor-acceptor orientation.
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  • 45
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    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 1-9 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: pectoral blood supply ; pectoral nerves ; free muscle transplant ; facial paralysis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recently the pectoralis minor muscle has been introduced as a free muscle transplant for facial reanimation in peripheral facial paralysis. However, reports on the vascular supply of this muscle are incomplete or contradictory. Therefore the pectoral region was examined in 57 human cadavers. A complex pattern of variations in the arterial supply was found: it was, however, systematically arranged and limited to a small part of the arterial tree. A topographical classification was made, based on the dominant muscle artery, to provide a useful orientation during reconstructive surgery. Related to the origin of this dominant artery, three main patterns are distinguished. In the most frequent pattern a major role is played by an artery not mentioned in Nomina Anatomica (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1989). This artery usually arises directly from the axillary artery, accompanies the medial pectoral nerve, and supplies the major lateral part of the muscle from its deep surface. For topographical reasons we propose the name “lateral pectoral artery.” The classification, presented in this study, may provide a better insight for the reconstructive surgeon working in this area. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: headache ; C2 ventral ramus ; superior cervical ganglion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In all papers published up to now it is stated or surmised that in cervicogenic headache, described by Sjaastad and collaborators (Cephalalgia, 3(4):240-256, 1983), the painful stimulus is carried mainly or exclusively by the greater occipital nerve. As a contribution to the study in this modality of headache, the authors made 16 dissection in eight cadavers looking for the anatomical relations of the lesser occipital nerve. The results showed that the head and face pain originating from the ventral ramus of the second cervical nerve (C2) can be explained in three different ways: (1) through anatomical regional peculiarities which make it vulnerable to mechanisms of compression and stretching; (2) through the relationship between C2 ventral ramus, the superior cervical ganglion, and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; (3) through clinical evidence related to painful sensibility.The authors emphasize the possible role of the lesser occipital nerve on the genesis of cervicogenic headache. It is expected that the conclusions reached will be of help to clinical studies of headache. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 48
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    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 108-109 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 49
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994) 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 50
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    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 139-142 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: anatomy ; appendix ; appendicitis ; retrocecal ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The anatomic position of the appendiceal tip is cited in many surgical and anatomical texts as being fixed in the retrocecal position in as many as two-thirds of cases studied. The reference most often quoted to support this observation is Wakeley (1933), but this frequency did not correspond to the clinical experience of the surgical staff at the authors' institution. Accordingly, a prospective survey of the in vivo location of the vermiform appendix was undertaken over a 6-month period. The results demonstrated that the retrocecal position was indeed the most common location, but occurred in only 33% of instances. This observation may encourage greater utilization of laparoscopic appendectomy, since it suggests that retroperitoneal dissection will not be necessary to locate the appendiceal tip in the majority of cases. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 51
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    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 156-161 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Anatomy teaching ; surgeon-anatomists ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 52
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    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 167-168 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994) 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: ventral hernia ; reversed sheath ; rectus abdominus ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Repair of a symptomatic incisional/ventral hernia that is not amenable to simple primary closure is problematic. Therapeutic options include: (1) fascial reapproximation after unilateral/bilateral horizontal parasagittal relaxing incisions (obliquus externusand transversus abdominis) with or without pre-operative pneumoperitoneum; (2) bridging a fascial defect with autologous devascularized (lata femoris, anterior rectus abdominissheath) or vascularized (abdominal wall fascia, tensor fasciae latae, myofascial, or myofascial/cutaneous rotational flaps) tissue; or (3) insertion of prosthetic/synthetic material (polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, polygalactin). In the presence of abdominal infection or contaminated operative wounds use of autologous tissue is preferred, because of the risks of infection and gastroenterocolonic fistulization.Since 1985 the authors have observed excellent results with use of a bilateral reversed anterior rectus abdominissheath technique of incisional/ventral herniorrhaphy. Although the parasagittal incision parallel to the linea semilunarisand mobilization medially undoubtedly caused partial devascularization (interruption of segmental and intermuscular arteriovenous arcades, respectively), the sheath coapted in the midline maintained its integrity as evaluated clinically and radiographically. This implies that the Sheath is relatively hypometabolic, that collateral circulation is maintained and/or develops, and/or sustenance is obtained by contiguity with peritoneal secretions and subcutaneous tissue.Twenty-three patients (13 males, 10 females, age range 19-79 years) with large symptomatic mid-abdominal hernias of 8-16 months duration were so treated. Each of these patients had required multiple (three to seven) exploratory celiotomies for traumatic, infectious, inflammatory., or neoplastic entities. To date all patients have healed per primumwithout recurrence. Only one patient, who had previously received pelvic irradiation, manifested eventration. This qualitative analysis suggests that this technique has validity for patients requiring incisional/ventral herniorrhaphy with an otherwise intact rectus abdominismuscle and sheath. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 60-61 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994) 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 65-71 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: hand ; tendon ; flexor digitorum superficialis tendon ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sixty human hands from adult cadavers were used to study the chiasma tendinum (Camper) of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon in the finger. Two hundred forty fingers were microdissected and examined morphometrically. The formation of the chiasma tendinum could be divided into nine types. The most common type shows that the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon divides into four bundles, the two inner of which cross each other. The length and width of the chiasma tendinum in the middle finger is the longest and widest, while in the little finger it is the shortest and narrowest. The relationship of the chiasma tendinum and the long vinculum of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon was also observed in the present study. In the most common type the long vinculum lies distal to the chiasma lying between the two terminal tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis. The authors suggest three functions for the chiasma tendinum: (1) it provides a pathway for the flexor digitorum profundus tendon; (2) it increases the stability and balance of the proximal interphalangeal joint; and (3) it prevents hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: gross anatomy ; human ; subclavian lymphatics ; axillary lymphatics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Detailed dissections were performed bilaterally on 90 human adult cadavers to obtain more accurate data on the course and origin of the subclavian lymphatics and especially of the subclavian lymphatic trunk. We classified these into four types from the morphology. Type A (46.1 %): The subclavian lymphatics were located along the medial edge of the subclavian vein edge close to the lateral thoracic wall. In this type, the subclavian lymphatics consisted of the subclavian node chain, interconnecting vessels, and short lymph trunks. Type B (20.0%): A large connecting vessel ran along the lateral edge of the subclavian vein or on the subclavian artery, with the result that the trunk was located away from the thoracic wall. In the Type B configuration, the vessels originated from the nodes near the origin of the thoracoacromial artery. Type C (21.7%): The Type B large collecting vessel was observed with the Type A subclavian lymphatics. Type D (12.2%): Lymph vessels were too fine to be found and dissected in the subclavian lymphatics. These observations provide critical information for an unproved clinical examination and lymphatic resection of breast cancer. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 60
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 229-230 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: myocardium ; transcoronary ablation ; anterior interventricular artery ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical explanation for the greater or lesser vulnerabilities of the left ventricular segments in the event of occlusion of each of the main coronary arteries. To this end, we analyzed the arterial perfusion of 1,080 left ventricular segments from 90 human hearts obtained at autopsy. Post-mortem angiography, dissection, and constriction of an arterial map using the classification of Selvester et al. (1982) were applied. By careful monitoring of the arterial perfusion of each segment we conclude that (1) obstruction of the anterior interventricular artery (AIV) especially affects the superomesial, superoapical, and anteroapical segments; (2) obstruction of the circumflex artery (CX) especially affects the posterobasal and posteromesial segments; and (3) obstruction of the right coronary artery (RC) especially affects the inferobasal and inferomesial segments. Vulnerability of the myocardially segments decreases in those segments which have collateral supply, i.e., those which are only relatively dependent upon a particular coronary artery. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 367-369 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: anatomical education ; vascular structure ; macroscope ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The combined method injecting silicon rubber into vessels and magnifying them on a TV monitor with a video macroscope can demonstrate three-dimensional vascular structure of organs. This study compared it with a corrosion casting method observing renal glomeruli, and implied that as it is easy to prepare samples, magnifying 200 times on the TV monitor and operating the machine, students can treat it in the dissection course and in a limited schedule. It leads students to be interested in histology as well as gross anatomy, and is helpful for them to perceive human structures. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Clinical Anatomy 7 (1994), S. 300-300 
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource