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  • Magnetic resonance imaging  (111)
  • Springer  (111)
  • 1990-1994  (111)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
  • 1992  (111)
  • 1972
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (111)
Years
  • 1990-1994  (111)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Disque intervertébral ; Réintervention ; IRM ; Tomodensitométrie ; Saccoradiculographie ; Intervertebral disk ; Reoperation ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Myelography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The differentiation between scar tissue and disk herniation is essential in postdiskectomy problems of the lumbar spine, since reoperation on scar tissue alone is often unfavourable. Epidural scar is a vascularized tissue, and enhancement can be seen after intravenous contrast injection, allowing differentiation from avascular disk material. Ten patients who had previously undergone surgery for lumbar disk herniation and with recurrent symptoms severe enought to warrant repeat surgery were examined by myelography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) before reoperation. MRI was performed with T1- and T2-weighted sequences in sagittal and axial projections before and after intravenous contrast injection. CT scans were obtained before and during intravenous contrast infusion. Reoperation revealed scar tissue, alone or together with disk, in 9 of 10 patients. Enhancement of scar but not of disk material was observed on MRI in 8 cases, but in none on CT. No enhancement of disk was seen with either modality. The correct diagnosis was given by MRI in 9 of 10 patients and by CT in 3 of 10. CT was superior to MRI in only 1 patient, who had a bony stenosis. Myelography could not separate disk from scar in any case. In conclusion, contrast-enhanced MRI was superior to MRI without contrast, CT before and after contrast, as well as myelography in discriminating disk from scar tissue.
    Notes: Résumé Il est essentiel de faire la part entre la fibrose cicatricielle et une hernie discale au cours des récidives symptomatiques survenant après une discectomie lombaire, car la réintervention pour une fibrose cicatricielle isolée aboutit le plus souvent à un résultat défavorable. La fibrose épidurale est un tissu vascularisé qui peut être rehaussé par l'injection intra-veineuse d'un produit de contrast permettant de la distinguer du matériel discal avasculaire. Dix patients ayent été préalablement opérés pour hernie discale et présentant une récidive symptomatique assez sévère pour justifier un éventuel geste chirurgical, ont été explorés avant la réintervention par saccoradiculographie, IRM et tomodensitométrie. L'IRM a été rélisée avec des séquences pondérées en T1 (T1-w) et T2 (T2-w), dans les plans sagittal et transversal, avant et après injection d'un produit de contraste. Les coupes tomodensitométriques ont été réalisées avant et pendant la perfusion intraveineuse du produit de contraste. Chez 9 patients sur 10, la réintervention a mis en évidence le tissue cicatriciel, seul ou accompagné de substance discale. Dans 8 cas l'IRM a permis de mettre en évidence un rehaussement au niveau de la fibrose cicatricielle, sans aucune prise de contraste au niveau du disque; en aucun cas celà n'a été observé au scanner. Quelle que soit la modalité d'exploration, aucun rehaussement n'a été observé au niveau de la substance discale. Le diagnostic correct a été donné par l'IRM dans 9 cas sur 10 et par le scanner dans 3 cas seulement sur 10. La tomodensitométrie ne s'est montrée supérieure à l'IRM que chez un seul patient qui présentait une sténose canalaire osseuse. En aucun cas la saccoradiculographie n'a pu distinguer le disque du tissu cicatriciel. En conclusion, l'IRM avec injection de contraste est effectivement supérieure à l'IRM sans contraste, à la tomodensitométrie avec ou sans injection, ainsi qu'à la saccoradiculographie, pour distinguer la substance discale de la fibrose cicatricielle post-opératoire.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Bacterial meningitis ; Blindness ; Visual evoked potentials ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortical visual impairment (CVI) following bacterial meningitis is a very uncommon complication. Two children with CVI following bacterial meningits are reported. Bacterial agents wereHaemophilus influenzae type B in one and meningococci in the other child. Both children showed only insufficient recovery from CVI, mental retardation and residual neurological symptoms. Flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) showed preserved cortical response at onset of CVI. Re-evaluations several months later showed significantly reduced amplitudes, but normal latencies for P100. Thus, flash VEP does not allow prediction of visual outcome. MRI results have not been reported before. MRI at onset of diagnosis showed occipital parenchymal irregularities with enlarged sulci and subarachnoid spaces. Follow up MRI15 months after onset of CVI in one patient showed marked atrophy of the occipital cortex, hyperintensities of the cortical white matter and no visible optic radiation. The MRI findings indicate hypoxic-ischaemic lesions in the border zone between the distribution of the great cerebral arteries.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Familial cavernous angiomas of the brain ; Autosomal dominant inheritance ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A family with a history of cavernous angiomas of the brain was investigated by MRI. The disease was present in four generations of the family and is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Amongst affected individuals, there was considerable variability in the extent of intraparenchymal cavernomas and neurological symptoms as a result of bleeding events. Three siblings manifested with seizures, two affected persons were symptomfree at the time of investigation, and one sibling had neurological symptoms without certain correlation with cavernomas. The disease appeared to have an earlier onset in younger generations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Hypopituitarism ; Arnold-Chiari malformation ; Syringomyelia ; Breech delivery ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report seven cases of hypopituitarism all having a history of breech delivery, asphyxia at birth, and syringomyelia. A small pituitary gland was found on MRI or CT in six cases, invisible pituitary stalk on MRI in five cases, and type 1 Arnold-Chiari malformation in six cases. A constellation of these abnormalities are best explained by traction of brain and spinal cord of the subjects exerted during breech delivery and further support the primary role of birth trauma in the genesis of “idiopathic hypopituitarism”.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Nuclear magnetic resonance ; Central nervous system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study was set up to see whether lowering the flip angle in proton density- and T2-weighted double-spin echo sequences allows for shortening of repetition time (TR) and imaging time without significant change of image quality. Ten patients with celebral white matter lesions were investigated with an 1.5 T MR scanner using a conventional long- TR double-spin echo sequence (TR = 2500 ms, TE = 15 and 70 ms) and reduced-TR double-spin echo sequences (TR = 1900 ms, TE = 15 and 70 ms) at flip angles of 90°, 80°, 70°, 60°, and 50°. Lowering the flip angle resulted in less T1-contrast and a relative increase of T2-contrast. At a flip angle of 70°, contrast-to noise ratios (NNRs) between lesions and brain, as well as image artifacts of the reduced-TR sequence (CNR: 22.4) were similar to the conventional long-TR sequence (CNR:21.1), while imaging time was shortened by about 25%.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: White matter lesions ; Cerebrovascular disease ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain infarction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To establish data about prevalence, number and topography of “unspecific” white matter lesions as seen on MRI, the T2-weighted MRI scans of 83 patients with hyperintense focal white matter changes were reviewed. Patients with known inflammatory central nervous system disease were excluded. There was an approximately linear increase in prevalence and number of lesions with age. Prevalence ranged from 18% in the third decade to over 90% in those over 70 years. We found a close correlation with concomitant periventricular hyperintensity. However, rating of Virchow-Robin spaces did not correlate with the number of white matter lesions. Both hemispheres were involved nearly equally with a minimal non-significant right side preponderance. Lesions showed a strong predilection for the frontal and parietal paraventricular “watershed” areas.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Pituitary gland ; Hypopituitarism ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Primary panhypopituitarism consists of functional deficiency of the anterior pituitary lobe, which appears during infancy or adolescence. The magnetic resonance findings in 10 patients with a history of primary hopopituitarism are presented. The findings include: reduced pituitary size in all cases: partially (8 cases) or totally (2 cases) empty sella; thin (4 cases), partially visible (3 cases) or absent (2 cases) pituitary stalk; absence of the posterior lobe in 9 cases: bright spot corresponding to an ectopic posterior lobe in 8 cases. These findings are similar to those already reported in pituitary dwarfism and may help under-genesis of the pathogenesis of the disease: which seems to he related to a pituitary stalk lesion.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Kidneys ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Contrast agent ; Gd-DTPA-Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Renal elimination of the paramagnetic contrast agent Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) was analyzed in 24 patients with impaired renal function and 3 normal controls. Dynamic magnetic resonance studies were performed using fast gradient-echo sequences with single images during suspended respiration and a temporal resolution of 10s per image. The time between appearance of the contrast agent in the renal cortex and signal intensity drop mL/min the medulla, due to a high concentration of Gd-DTPA and predominant T2-shortening, was an indicator of glomerular filtration rate and correlated well with creatinine clearance values (r=0.81). Fractionate urine collections and serum analysis up to 120h following administration showed a prolonged but complete elimination of Gd-DTPA mL/min patients with creatinine clearance above 20 mL/min. Renal functional parameters did not change after administration of Gd-DTPA and no nephrotoxic effects were observed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Infectious sacroiliitis ; Sacroiliac joint ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Infectious sacroiliitis is an uncommon septic arthritis, the diagnosis of which is difficult to establish. We retrospectively examined 14 cases of septic sacroiliitis, by CT (two of whom also had an MRI examination). The patient population consisted of eight men and six women; 9 were African, 8 had tuberculous sacroiliitis and 6 pyogenic sacroiliitis. All the cases showed a pre-sacroiliac soft tissue swellilng with ring-like enhancement following intravenous contrast in eight cases. A gas image was observed at the centre of the abcess in two cases. Joint narrowing was found in four patients and widening in eight, associated with an image of bone sequestration in seven, CT gave an etiologic orientation in 8 cases, and facilitated the guidance of bone biopsy. MRI showed low signal T1-weighted images and high signal T2 of the subchondral bone, joint space and soft tissue abcess. We conclude that CT is helpful in the evaluation of infectious sacroiliitis, and that further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of MRI in such pathologic processes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Abdominal aorta ; Blood flow ; Distensibility ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Renal flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Magnetic resonance phase-shift-induced velocity mapping is a powerful technique for measuring in vivo blood velocity and flow non-invasively. Using this method we examined dimensions, distensibility, blood flow and its regional distribution in the abdominal aorta in 10 normal volunteers. Data were acquired at three levels of the descending aorta. Thirty percent reduction in diastolic cross sectional area was observed in the caudal direction between these levels. Total blood flow (ml/min) in the abdominal aorta at the three sites was 4094 ± 1600, 2339 ± 910 and 1602 ± 549 respectively. Flows in the coeliac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries were also calculated. The net flow in the abdominal aorta above the coeliac trunk was persistently forward, while there was considerable backflow (13% of total instantaneous flow) below the renal arteries during early diastole. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive technique for quantitative assessment of blood flow in the abdominal aorta and its main branches.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Hypopituitarism ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report the case of a newborn girl in whom hypopituitarism was diagnosed in the neonatal period. Clinical, biological and radiological evidence suggested that hypopituitarism must have existed before delivery, yet MRI findings were similar to those described in older children with hypopituitarism of later onset.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Knee joint ; Meniscus ; Ligaments ; Cartilage ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The knee joint is frequently affected by trauma as well as degenerative and inflammatory disorders, involving the internal structures (i.e. ligaments, menisci, cartilage, synovial membrane) and the adjacent bones. Plain radiographs represent an indispensable basis for diagnosis. For further analysis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the method of choice, and has widely replaced computed tomography, arthrography and stress examinations. Extensive experience has been accumulated in MRI of the knee joint in recent years. In addition, advances in MRI technology have had a major impact on diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, diagnosis of various lesions of the knee joint, such as meniscal and ligamental injuries, aseptic necrosis, lesions of the hyaline cartilage, occult fractures and inflammatory lesions will be discussed.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Pituitary MR studies ; Hypopituitarism ; Growth disorders ; Diabetes insipidus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to document potentially present morphostructural abnormalities of the hypothalamopituitary region in seven infants (age 0–21 months) who presented very early in life with clinical and biochemical evidence of hypopituitarism. Four infants had associated congenital cerebro-facial malformations. The following anatomical abnormalities were identified in variable combinations: ectopic neurohypophysis absence of the pituitary stalk, extreme elongation of the pituitary stalk, aplasia of the anterior pituitary lobe and no identification of the hypothalamopituitary complex. MRI proved to be very sensitive in the identification of structural malformations of the hypothalamopituitary region in infants with or without cerebro-facial malformations. AllhwuLll the magnetic resonance image does not appear to be a good predictor of endocrine dysfunction, it provides us more insight into the precise aetiology of this disorder and may be therefore of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic importance.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Brain neoplasm ; MR studies ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain diseases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two cases of Lhermitte-Duclos of the cerebellum are presented. MRI was essential in the radiological diagnosis of both lesions by the demonstration, both on T1- and T2 weighted images of thickened cerebellar folia.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Epidural abscess, spine ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report on an acute epidural abscess in a 2-year-old boy, extending from the C1 level to the L5 level. The causative agent was Staphylococcus aureus as proved by pus and blood culture. The infectious source was in the scrotum. The diffuse epidural abscess was readily detected by MRI, which showed hypo-intensity in T1 WI and hyperintensity in gradient echo T2-weighted images. The abscess capsule was enhanced by Gadolinium-DTPA. The patient recovered completely after adequate treatment with antibiotics and follow up MRI showed complete disappearace of the epidural abscess. abscess.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Stomach diseases ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Cryosectioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The case of a 7-year-old girl with a gastric trichobezoar is presented; this was diagnosed preoperatively using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are correlated to those from other radiological modalities and specimen cryosectioning.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Mechanical heart valves ; Deflection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract During in vitro tests, we exposed seven mechanical cardiac valves to a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field and measured their deflection and temperature changes during a gradient-echo sequence. We used a special suspension system which indicated and measured the largest deflection at the entrance to the tube and any deflections within the gradient field. A temperature sensor measured changes in temperature in the valve ring in both air and in a water bath during exposure to a high-frequency field. The Bjork-Shiley (Shiley Irvine, CA, USA) valve displayed the most deflection at the entrance to the coil, namely 1.8 mm. All the other valve models displayed less deflection. No deflection took place during gradient-echo sequences. Three valve models displayed an increase in valve ring temperature. The Medtronic valve displayed the largest increase with 0.6°C.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Gadolinium ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Spinal diseases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-two patients with 30 disc herniations and 5 bony stenoses were investigated together with 5 control subjects, using plain and contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with the control group, additional non-enhancing epidural tissue was found in all patients. The enhancing epidural structures demostrated characteristics change. Compared with plain images, disease definition was improved in 7 of 35 cases after contrast administration. This was especially true for lateral and intraforaminal disc herniations, whereas no diagnostic benefit was seen in cases of posterior and posterolateral herniations or bony changes.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Head injury ; Outcome ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Frontal lobes ; Children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To characterize the brain pathology in relation to long-term outcome after pediatric head injury, 55 children were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 3 months after sustaining moderate to severe closed head injury (CHI). Thirty-nine of the patients had abnormal signal intensity consistent with residual brain lesions, including 28 children with lesions involving the frontal lobes. The clinical features of children with frontal lesions, extrafrontal lesions, and diffuse injury were compared. The analysis disclosed that children with frontal lobe lesions were more frequently disabled than children who sustained diffuse injury. Our MRI findings indicate that residual brain lesions are more common after moderate to severe CHI in children than previously thought and that the frontal lobes are most frequently involved. Further investigation is indicated to elucidate whether distinctive cognitive and behavioral sequelae are associated with frontal lobe lesions in children.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Epidermoid cyst ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain stem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The authors report the case of a 14-month-old baby boy with an epidermoid cyst located entirely within the pons and medulla, without an exophytic component. The lesion was examined by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The child was operated upon three times after two recurrences of the lesion. A suboccipital, subtonsillar approach was used for the first and second procedures and a transtemporal approach for the last one. Excision was thought to be complete the first time, since a solid tumor was found and removed in a large cyst. The cyst wall was not identified. No tumor was found during the second procedure despite recurrence of the cyst, which was drained without an attempt to remove the cyst wall. Finally the cyst recurred with a large tumor in the cyst wall which was again totally removed. Consistent with the high mortality of brain stem epidermoid cysts in the literature, the child eventually died. The therapeutic problems, surgical options, and consequences are discussed.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
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    Child's nervous system 8 (1992), S. 422-425 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Venous dysgenesis ; Cerebrum ; Angiography ; Cerebral blood flow ; Computed emission tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This report describes a rare case of primary cerebral venous dysgenesis in a 3-year-old child with development retardation. Angiography resulted in nonvisualization not only of deep cerebral veins but also of superficial cerebral veins. In computed tomography and in magnetic resonance imaging the collateral venous circulation appeared as a strange configuration in the pineal region. Single photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]-iodoamphetamine revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the basal gangalia and thalamus, but cerebral infarction was not detected in the area. These features indicate that in this case, dysgenesis of deep cerebral veins, which probably occurred during prenatal life, had caused hypoperfusion in the deep cerebral regions.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Shunt malfunction ; Cerebrospinal fluid shunt ; Cerebrospinal fluid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Shunt malfunction is common and its diagnosis may require invasive testing that may be inaccurate or result in complications. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may prove to be a useful noninvasive test of shunt function as it has been shown that MRI is capable of measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows from 2 ml/h to 40 ml/h in model systems. Since flows in functioning shunt systems can be less than 2 ml/h, MRI must be sensitive enough to detect flow in this range in order to be a valid test for shunt function. Continuing previous studies, we have studied MRI flow-related enhancement at flow rates from 0 to 2 ml/h. Multiple spin echo scans (TR2000, TE20) were made through a specialized section of tubing in a model shunt system. The intensity of the MRI signal at points known to demonstrate maximal flow-related enhancement was measured. A linear relationship was demonstrated between signal intensity and flow as low as 0.8 ml/h. These results add support to the concept that MRI is sensitive enough to detect the lowest flows present in functioning shunt systems and therefore may be useful as a noninvasive test of shunt function.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Chiari II ; Meningomyelocele ; Posterior fossa ; Hindbrain dysfunction ; Skull base ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate whether anatomic change of the relationship of the Chiari II malformation and the cranial base was occurring, 22 children with meningomyelocele had serial MRI scans reviewed. A ratio (B/A) was established between the distance from the foramen magnum to the caudalmost portion of herniated cerebellum (B) and the diameter of the foramen magnum (A) and this ratio was compared on serial MRI scans. Eighteen children had an increase in the B/A ratio, two children had a decrease, and two had no change. This indicates that continuous anatomic change of the Chiari II malformation and the skull base is occurring. Clinical deterioration in the older child may be explained by a combination of compressive and traction forces due to this change.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Chiari malformation ; Children ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Scoliosis ; Syringomyelia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The clinical presentations and radiological features of scoliosis accompanying syringomyelia were analyzed in 14 cases of syringomyelia associated with a Chiari malformation in children. Scoliosis was the initial symptom in 11 out of 16 patients (64%) with syringomyelia and present in 14 (88%) at the initial examination. The scoliosis associated with syringomyelia was characterized by a higher incidence of a single curve (6 cases, 43%) and convexity to the left (7 cases, 50%) than seen in idiopathic scoliosis. The syrinx was shifted to the convex side of scoliosis on the axial section at the middle or lower thoracie level in patients with a single curve, and at the cervical or upper thoracic level in patients with a double curve. The authors think that the scoliosis develops in children as a result of damage done to the anterior horn, which innervates the muscles of the trunk, by an asymmetrically expanded syrinx.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Brain ; Spina bifida ; Enterogenous cyst ; Spine ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A thoracic intradural extramedullary enterogenous cyst in association with a syringomeningomyelocele in a 5-year-old boy is presented. The pathogenesis of this rate association is discussed and the pertinen literature reviewed.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Tendon xanthoma ; Familial hypercholesterolemia ; Ultrasonography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The demonstration of tendon xanthomas is helpful in diagnosing heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, but in many patients lipid may accumulate without clinical abnormality being present. We investigated the possibility of detecting the lipid element with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in seven patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and six controls. Although the mean relative signal intensities measured on long TR/TE spin echo sequences of the tendon were signifycantly higher in patients than in controls, the lack of such elevation does not rule out the presence of such lesions. In vitro measurements indicated that the signal intensity of triglycerides was quenched by cholesterolesters. The anatomic findings of MR imaging were compared with those of ultrasonography (US), showing excellent correlation in measurements between MR images and US [r(S) = 0.95 and 0.97 respectively] MR imaging and US provide equal information on the anatomy of the Achilles tendon; as an abnormally increased signal intensity within the xanthoma on MRI was found in only a minority of our patients, the value of MRI in the demonstration of Achilles tendon xanthomas is limited when using conventional T1 and T2 spin echo sequences.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Amyloidosis ; Myopathy ; Amyloid pseudohypertrophy ; Abnormal subcutaneous fat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Amyloid myopathy is a rare complication of primary amyloidosis. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of two patients with amyloid myopathy were studied. Slight prolongation of muscle T1 and T2 relaxation times was evident but the striking abnormality was marked reticulation of the subcutaneous fat. The clinical findings of indurated extremities far exceeds the minimal signal intensity alteration seen in the muscles. The MR appearance of amyloid myopathy differs from that of other neuromuscular conditions in the minimal changes found in muscle, but the striking abnormality seen in subcutaneous fat makes it distinct from many neuromuscular conditions.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Hip musculature ; Cross-sectional anatomy ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Three-dimensional reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'IRM associée à une reconstruction 3-D est particulièrement intéressante pour étudier l'appareil musculo-squelettique humain in vivo de façon précise et détaillée. L'IRM offre la possibilité d'étudier tant les structures superficielles musculaires que profondes sous contrainte in vivo. Les os, les muscles, les tendons et le tissu adipeux sont nettement visibles. On peut également au sein d'un muscle distinguer ses différentes portions. Après reconstruction des images 2-D, on peut visualiser la forme des muscles et de leur portions sous différents angles. Ceci permet une meilleure compréhension de la biomécanique et de l'anatomie fonctionnelle du système de l'appareil locomoteur du corps humain. Dans cette étude, la morphologie des muscles péri articulaires de la hanche a été étudiée chez trois sujets in vivo à partir de reconstructions 3-D des images 2-D obtenues en résonance magnétique.
    Notes: Summary MRI in combination with three-dimensional reconstruction is pre-eminently suitable for the study of the human musculoskeletal system in vivo in an accurate and detailed way. MRI provides the possibility of studying superficial as well as deep muscles under tension in the living state. Bones, muscles, tendons and adipose tissue are clearly visible. Parts can also be distinguished within a muscle. After reconstruction of the 2-D images the geometry of the muscles and muscle parts can be visualized from different angles. This leads to a deeper understanding of the biomechanics and functional anatomy of the musculoskeletal system of the human body. In this paper the morphology of the muscles around the hip was studied in three subjects in vivo on the basis of three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of two-dimensional (2-D) MR images.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Manganese ; Macaca fascicularis ; Positron emission tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Basal ganglia ; Dopamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A series of positron emission tomography scans was made on two monkeys during a 16-month period when they received manganese(IV)oxide by subcutaneous injection. The distribution of [11C]-nomifensine uptake, indicating dopamine terminals, was followed in both monkey brains. The brain distributions of [11C]-raclopride, demonstrating D2 dopamine receptors, and [11C]-l-dopa, as a marker of dopamine turnover, were followed in one monkey each. The monkeys developed signs of poisoning namely unsteady gait and hypoactivity. The [11C]-nomifensine uptake in the striatum was reduced with time and reached a 60% reduction after 16 months exposure. This supports the suggestion that dopaminergic nerve endings degenerate during manganese intoxication. The [11C]-l-dopa decarboxylation was not significantly altered indicating a sparing of [11C]-l-dopa decarboxylation during manganese poisoning. A transient decrease of [11C]-raclopride binding occurred but at the end of the study D2-receptor binding had returned to starting values. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the manganese accumulated in the globus pallidus, putamen and caudate nucleus. There were also suggestions of gliosis/edema in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. MRI might be useful to follow manganese intoxication in humans as long as the scan is made within a few months of exposure to manganese, i. e. before a reversal of the manganese accumulation.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Auditory brainstem responses ; Evoked potentials ; Magnetic fields
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of magnetic fields on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) was examined under two conditions. The first involved recording ABRs before and immediately after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ABRs were then recorded as the static magnetic field was increased stepwise to 2T. No significant changes in ABR latencies were noted under either condition. These results indicate that MRI has no measurable effect on the transmission latencies of auditory brainstem neural pathways.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Liver ; Topographic anatomy ; Oblique sections
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les auteurs poursuivent une étude anatomique du foie appliquée à l'IRM, basée sur la confrontation de coupes cadavériques et de coupes en résonance magnétique. Cette étude concerne ici les coupes obliques par rapport à un plan sagittal ou frontal dont l'orientation est déterminée suivant des repères visibles sur les coupes transversales. Des coupes obliques ont été effectuées sur 10 cadavres, selon une méthode originale. Des coupes transversales jointives du tronc en congélation ont d'abord été réalisées et deux repères ont été reconnus sur ces coupes: la direction de la veine hépatique moyenne et l'orientation de la division du tronc de la veine porte. Les coupes transversales ont été ensuite empilées. Le bloc, ainsi reconstitué, a été à nouveau congelé puis débité en coupes obliques jointives, orientées soit selon le plan de la veine hépatique moyenne (coupes sagittales-obliques) soit selon le plan de la division du tronc de la veine porte (coupes frontalesobliques). Des coupes obliques en résonance magnétique ont été effectuées chez 15 volontaires sains, en général selon les mêmes repères veineux et parfois selon d'autres repères visibles sur les coupes transversales. Les coupes obliques en résonance magnétique peuvent être réalisées dans le plan de n'importe quel élément anatomique repéré sur les coupes transversales, pour préciser sa disposition. Les coupes basées sur des repères identiques mais orientés différemment d'un sujet à l'autre, doivent permettre de reconnaître l'anatomie individuelle du foie exploré. Les coupes frontales-obliques montrent bien l'orientation du tronc de la veine porte et les confluents des veines hépatiques avec la veine cave. Les coupes sagittales-obliques sont surtout intéressantes pour explorer la partie la moins épaisse du foie gauche et sans doute le lobe caudé. En outre, les coupes obliques font découvrir sous des aspects inhabituels certains viscères voisins du foie, en particulier le pancréas. Grâce aux coupes obliques, le trajet des veines qui participent à la formation du tronc de la veine porte peut être suivi à distance du foie. Les nouvelles techniques d'IRM, en réduisant considérablement certains artéfacts propres à l'exploration de l'abdomen, devraient permettre de tirer le meilleur parti possible des coupes obliques.
    Notes: Summary The authors have appplied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the anatomic study of the liver by comparing cadaveric sections with those obtained with MRI. This study deals with sections oblique in relation to a sagittal or frontal plane, whose orientation is determined from landmarks visible on transverse sections. Oblique sections were made in 10 cadavers using an original method. First, adjacent transverse sections were made of the frozen trunk and two landmarks were located in these sections: the course of the middle hepatic v. and the direction of the division of the portal venous trunk. The transverse sections were then stacked and the block so reconstituted was refrozen and then cut in adjacent oblique sections oriented either along the plane of the middle hepatic v. (sagittal oblique sections) or along the plane of division of the portal venous trunk (frontal oblique sections). Oblique MRI sections were made in 15 healthy volunteers, mainly based on the same venous landmarks but sometimes on other landmarks visible on the transverse sections. Oblique MRI sections can be made in the plane of any anatomic structure located in the transverse sections in order to define its position. Sections based on identical landmarks differently oriented in different subjects allow for definition of the individual anatomy of the liver investigated. The frontal oblique sections clearly show the course of the trunk of the portal v. and the junctions of the hepatic vv. with the inferior vena cava. The sagittal oblique sections are particularly useful for investigating the thinnest part of the left side of the liver and also the caudate lobe. Moreover, these oblique sections reveal certain organs adjacent to the liver, notably the pancreas, from unusual angles. The oblique sections also make it possible to follow the curse of the veins participating in formation of the portal trunk remote from the liver. The new MRI techniques considerably decrease certain artifacts associated with study of the abdomen and should allow the most profitable use of oblique sections.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1615-2573
    Keywords: Unroofed coronary sinus syndrome ; Transesophageal echocardiography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Carbon monoxide ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intracranial abnormalities by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning have been described in two cases. Edematous bilateral lesions have been demonstrated in the globus pallidus. Findings correspond with the pathological changes described in literature. In our experience MIR is a more sensitive examination compared to serial computed tomography (CT) in acute CO poisoning.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Normal anatomy ; Odontoid process ; Cervical spine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to analyse the normal signal intensity of the medullary space of the odontoid process (dens) relative to age, the craniovertebral junction of 33 asymptomatic volunteers in six age groups was examined by means of magnetic resonance imaging. To avoid partial-volume effects 3-mm slices were used in sagittal and axial planes. The signal intensities relative to cerebral white matter varied from 0.51 to 1.23 in the sagittal plane and 0.56 to 1.51 in the axial plane. The signal intensities relative to muscle varied from 0.76 to 2.40 in the sagittal plane and 0.96 to 2.30 in the axial plane. The signal intensities relative to fat varied from 0.22 to 0.62 in the sagittal plane and 0.23 to 0.68 in the axial plane. No correlation with age of the volunteers was found. The normal medulla of the dens may exhibit a low signal intensity on T1-weighted images irrespective of age.
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  • 35
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    Skeletal radiology 21 (1992), S. 437-444 
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Sesamoids ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The hallux sesamoids are vulnerable to signifycant injury and weight-bearing stress in both the athlete and the nonathlete. Unfortunately, they are often dismissed as inconsequential accessory bones. The historical significance, embryology, anatomy, and physiology of the sesamoids and the salient features of both traumatic and nontraumatic pathologic conditions affecting these structures are presented. Because the sesamoids can be responsible for prolonged disabling foot pain and discomfort, it is important for both clinician and radiologist to pay attention to these bones and recognize the early signs of abnormality.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Degenerative disc disease ; Marrow scintigraphy ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient is presented in whom a focal reduction in marrow activity in the lumbar spine on both leucocyte and nanocolloid marrow scintigraphy was subsequently shown to be due to fatty infiltration of marrow in association with disc degeneration. Degenerative disease in the lumbar spine has not been previously described as a cause of abnormal bone marrow distribution by such means and needs to distinguished from a more serious pathology, such as malignant infiltration and vertebral infection, which it may mimic. In a retrospective review of 33 nanocolloid bone marrow and 117 leucocyte scintigrams, 8 showed a degree of reduced marrow activity in the lumbar spine consistent with that caused by degenerative changes.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Lipodystrophy ; Adipose tissue ; Diabetes mellitus ; Scintigraphy ; Bone marrow ; Gd-DTPA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare genetic disease characterized by the absence of body fat from birth. Focal bone lesions have also been reported, but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. To characterize skeletal abnormalities further in 3 patients with CGL, we employed whole-body radiographic skeletal surveys, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, including gadolinium enhancement), and triple phase technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy. Radiographs showed numerous focal lesions within the long bones, as described in other reports. MRI showed that the entire marrow space of the long bones was abnormal and was characterized, at least in part, by the absence of marrow fat. Prolonged T1 and T2 times and marked gadolinium enhancement were observed in radiographically normal-appearing long bone. Radiographically lytic lesions occasionally demonstrated fluid-fluid levels on MRI and enhanced peripherally after gadolinium infusion. Bone scintigraphy findings such as periarticular hyperemia were relative subtle. We conclude that the appendicular skeleton of patients with CGL is diffusely abnormal and is predisposed to focal osteolysis and cyst formation.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Muscle strength ; Trunk muscles ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A group of 12 sedentary medical students (1 man and 11 women aged 21–27 years) participated in a strength training programme for the trunk muscles lasting 18 weeks. The maximal isometric flexion and extension forces of the trunk muscles were measured before the training and at 18 weeks by dynamometer. The cross-sectional area of the back muscles, i.e. erector spinae, multifidus and psoas muscles, was measured from magnetic resonance images (spin echo sequence TR/TE 1500/80, slice thickness 10 mm) obtained at the L4–L5 disc level before the training, at 11 and 18 weeks. During training, no significant change in the body mass or body fat content was found. Muscle forces or muscle cross-sectional area were not related to body mass. There was a significant increase in both trunk muscle cross-sectional area (psoas muscle P〈0.001 and back muscles P〈0.01) and trunk muscle forces (flexion and extension forces P〈0.01) during the training but no direct association between the muscle cross-sectional area and strength of the flexors and extensors was detected before or after the training.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1573-6792
    Keywords: Brain ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; HMPAO Single photon emission computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ; Cerebral infarction ; Markers ; Image matching
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Different structural as well as functional imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in the investigation of patients suffering from an ischemic stroke. Available imaging procedures usually provide complementary data, but the images can not easily be compared due to differences in patient positioning, angulation, and slice thickness. We studied the value of spatial integration of images from different modalities in a patient with an ischemic stroke and used skin markers to integrate the obtained information. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),99mTc HMPAO-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in a patient, presenting with a right sided hemiparesis caused by an ischemic stroke. Combination of MRI with CT demonstrated that the infarction visible on CT and MRI corresponded in size and volume. Furthermore, structural and functional images could readily be integrated, thus allowing us to obtain accurate information in this stroke patient. Different imaging modalities provide complementary information in the acute phase of cerebral infarction and multimodality matching can be of great value for improvement of our understanding of the pathophysiology and course of ischemic stroke.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1573-6792
    Keywords: Cerebral ischemia ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain edema ; Diffusion ; Rats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The present study was undertaken to characterize the formation of ischemic brain edema using diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in a rat model of focal ischemia. The extent of edema formation was measured from multislice diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images acquired at various times after ischemia. The spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and the apparent diffusion coefficient in normal and ischemic tissue were also determined. The results show that on the diffusion-weighted images the lesion was clearly visible at 30 minutes after ischemia, while on the T2-weighted images it became increasingly evident after 2–3 hours. On both types of images the hyperintense area increased in size over the first 48 hours. After 1 week the hyperintensity on the diffusion-weighted images rapidly disappeared and evolved as a hypointense lesion in the chronic phase. These results confirm the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MRI for the detection of early ischemia. The temporal course of the edema observed on T2W-images is in agreement with the reported increase of total water content occurring in this model. The increase of the lesion observed on the diffusion-weighted images during the first 2 days points to an aggravation of cytotoxic edema that parallels the changes in free water shown by the T2-weighted images. It is shown that the highly elevated T2's of the infarcted area several days after ischemia can substantially contaminate the diffusion-weighted images.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Venous angioma ; Brain tumor ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Cerebral angiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary MR study of 6 patients with concurrent venous angioma and brain tumor revealed that in 2 of the 6 cases, the draining vein of the venous angioma was located near to the tumor and was displaced by the tumor. Two of the 6 venous angiomas were too small to visualize prior to contrast enhancement, but could be detected following administration of Gd-DTPA. Angiography was required for definitive diagnosis of the venous angiomas. When a venous angioma is suspected or is detected incidentally, especially when very near a brain tumor, angiography should be considered before performing surgery to avoid surgical complications. Otherwise, ligation of the vein draining the venous angioma may lead to venous infarction.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ; Cerebral tuberculosis ; Tuberculous meningitis ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary CT and MRI findings in 35 patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and proven intracranial tuberculosis (TB) are presented. Over 90% of the patients were intravenous drug abusers and in two-thrids TB was the first manifestation of AIDS. CT was normal in one quarter, the most frequent findings being hydrocephalus (51%) and meningeal enhancement (41%), commonly seen together (31.5%). Meningeal enhancement was seen in 48% of the CT studies with intravenous contrast medium and in 3 cases studied with MRI and iv gadolinium DPTA, in 2 of which CT was negative. Parenchymal involvement was found in 37% of cases; MRI was more sensitive than CT for its detection. One quarter of the patients had ischaemic lesions, mainly in the basal ganglia. We confirm the usefulness of CT and the superiority of MRI in the diagnosis of intracranial TB and in differential diagnosis from other conditions likely to be found in these patients.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Cerebral palsy ; Congenital hemiplegia ; Spastic diplegia ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Periventricular leukomalacia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital hemiplegia exhibited unilateral lesions in the periventricular region. We conclude that MRI is more informative than CT for the evaluation of patients with CP.
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  • 44
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 62-67 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Facial nerves ; Neuroma ; Temporal bone ; Neoplasms ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Four cases of facial nerve neuroma were evaluated by computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extension of the tumor in the petrous bone or the parotid gland was well defined by MRI in all cases. CT scan was useful to demonstrate bone erosions and the relation of the tumor to inner ear structures. In cases of progressive facial palsy, CT and MRI should be combined to detect a facial neuroma and to plan the surgical approach for tumor removal and nerve grafting.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Glioma ; Tumor histology ; Tumor grade
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary MR images in 54 patients with biopsy-proven diffuse or “fibrillary” astrocytomas were analyzed and compared with the histopathologic features in order to determine which histopathologic characteristics underlie the radiographic findings in these gliomas and whether radiographic findings are more closely correlated with individual histopathologic characteristics than with histologically determined tumor grade. The MRI features studied included tumor heterogeneity, edema, mass effect, border sharpness, “anatomic invasion”, contrast enhancement, hemorrhage, and the presence of flow voids, calcium and cyst formation. The histopathologic characteristics studied included cellular atypia, mitoses, cellularity, endothelial proliferation, necrosis and tumor grade. Edema (P〈0.01), flow voids (P=0.02) and contrast enhancement (P〈0.01) demonstrated a direct correlation with tumor grade, but edema (P〈0.01) and contrast enhancement (P〈0.01) also demonstrated a significant correlation to tumor cellularity. Tumor heterogeneity was associated with the presence of necrosis (P=0.01). Hemorrhage occurred only in high grade tumors, where it correlated with endothelial proliferation (P=0.04).
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Brain-stem infarction ; Persistent trigeminal artery ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Cerebral angiography ; Vertebral artery occlusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 43-year-old male with a left hemiparesis due to brain-stem infarction associated with bilateral persistent trigeminal arteries is reported. The clinicopathological and radiographic significance of persistent carotid-basilar arterial anastomones in vertebrobasilar territory ischaemic attacks is also discussed.
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  • 47
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 316-317 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: PIBI(D)S ; Trichothiodystrophy ; Central nervous system dysmyelination ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Cockayne syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary PIBI(D)S is a acronym for a very rare autosomal recessive syndrome consisting of photosensivity, mild non-congenital ichthyosis, brittle cystine-deficient hair, impaired intelligence, occasionally decreased fertility and short stature. We report a 12-year-old female patient affected by PIBI(D)S with previously unreported MRI findings of central nervous system dysmyelination.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Glioma ; Astrocytoma ; Axon ; Calcification ; CT ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We describe a 44-year-old man found to have a diffusely calcified astrocytoma originating in the left frontoparietal region and extending along the axonal fibres into the opposite cerebral hemisphere and brain stem. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated the spread of the tumour. The tumour was partially resected and histologically diagnosed as an astrocytoma. A correct preoperative diagnosis was difficult, because the lesion was very slow-growing and its widespread calcification mimicked congenital or inflammatory calcium deposits.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Glioma ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary MRI-autopsy correlation in a case of gliomatosis cerebri suggests that poor gray-white matter demarcation on MRI may be sign of neoplastic infiltration. The extent of infiltration is imperfectly assessed by current imaging modalities.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, relapsing ; Epstein-Barr virus infection, chronic ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Brain ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Trauma ; Corpus callosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirty-four children who sustained moderate to severe closed head injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight (24%) had MRI evidence of corpus callosum injury, most commonly within the posterior body and splenium. In contradistinction to reports in adults, there was no definite relationship between callosal injury and lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores, nor was there a significantly higher incidence of primary brain-stem lesions, diffuse axonal shear injury or intraventricular hemorrhage. In none of these 8 children did the initial admission computed tomography show evidence of callosal injury. Callosal injuries on MRI are not necessarily a poor prognostic finding, the majority of the 8 children showing good functional recovery.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Upper motor neurone involvement ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Single photon emission computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary MRI was performed in 21 patients and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) withN-isopropyl-p-123I iodoamphetamine in 16 patients, to visualize upper motor neurone lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal along the course of the pyramidal tract in the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in 4 of 21 patients. SPECT images were normal in 4 patients, but uptake was reduced in the cerebral cortex that includes the motor area in 11.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Cerebral blood vessels ; Hemifacial spasm ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Magnetic resonance angiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to investigate 14 patients with unilateral hemifacial spasm (HS) and 20 controls. The relationship of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves to adjacent vessels was best visualized on the contiguous flow sensitive 3D-FISP images. Reconstruction of projectional MRA was helpful to assess the complex architecture of the vertebrobasilar system. Neurovascular contact in the facial nerve root exit zone was present in 4 of 20 controls and in 12 of 14 patients, in whom it predicted the affected side. These results support previous findings of surgical and electrophysiological investigations that local irriation of the facial nerve is the most possible explanation for HS. MRI and MRA provide vascular and brain tissue diagnosis in a single non-invasive examination and should be recommended as primary neuroradiological procedure in HS.
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  • 54
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 420-422 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Gadolinium ; Temporal bone ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Neoplasms ; Facial nerves
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI provided accurate demonstration of the site and extension of a haemangioma of the petrous bone. Enhanced-MRI could allow early detection and differentiation from the other more common tumours of the geniculate ganglion area, thereby permitting the surgeon to remove the tumour, while preserving the facial nerve. CT is, however, required to display the characteristic ossification in these tumours.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Chiari I malformation ; Brainstem glioma ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Midbrain deformity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The differentiation of Chiari malformation from intrinsic brainstem neoplasm in adults can be difficult. We report three patients presenting with brainstem signs, in whom midbrain abnormality was detected on computed tomography and interpreted as evidence of intrinsic tumour. Subsequent investigation by magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of Chiari I malformation in all three cases and a syrinx in two. The association of Chiari I with deformity of the midbrain or pons has not been described previously.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Supracerebellar arachnoid cyst ; Tonsillar herniation ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A large supracerebellar arachnoid cyst was associated with herniation of the cerebellar tonsils and deformity of the cervicomedullary junction in an adult. Magnetic resonance imaging showed partial restoration of normal anatomy following surgery and clinical improvement, which helped in the formulation of a etiopathogenetic hypotheses.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Radiation-induced meningioma ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Scalp
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Radiation-induced meningiomas have a characteristic biological behavirour, so that their recognition is important as regards follow-up. We stress the importance of a scalp lesion over the meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging as a sign of previous radiotherapy.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Hydatid disease ; Spine ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hydatid disease (HD) of the cervical spine is rare. A case investigated by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. While CT shows the bone lesion better, MRI is superior in demonstrating compression of neural structures. The complementary use of CT and MRI in such cases is suggested.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Huntington's disease ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain atrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive cognitive evaluation were carried out in a series of 29 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD). A factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores provided three factors: a memory/speed-of-processing factor, a “frontal” factor, and a response inhibition factor. The memory/speed factor correlated significantly with measures of caudate atrophy, frontal atrophy, and atrophy of the left (but not the right) sylvian cistern. There were no significant correlations between the “frontal” or response inhibition factors and measures of cortical or subcortical brain atrophy. Our findings confirm that subcortical atrophy is significantly correlated with specific cognitive deficits in HD, and demonstrate that cortical atrophy also has important association with the cognitive deficits of patients with HD.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Glomus tumours ; Gadolinium ; Subtraction ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirteen patients with 14 glomus tumours have been examined by subtraction gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with T1-weighted MR sequences before and after intravenous gadolinium-DTPA. To eliminate movement between subtraction pairs, the patient remains in the tunnel of the imager during administration of the contrast medium, and the venepuncture is made into the dorsum of the foot. The effect of the subtraction process is to remove the NMR signal from the final image so that the photographic densities recorded are dependent on the vascularity of the tissue concerned, normal or abnormal. A particular advantage is the removal of fat signal: the low vascularity of adipose tissue ensures that it is recorded as of minimal density. The extent of skull base glomus tumours has been shown optimally by this technique. Subtraction can also help differentiate glomus tympanicum from glomus jugulare lesions, which may be of crucial importance when deciding the surgical approach. In addition to diagnosis, the technique is also important post-operatively, when imaging is needed to show residual or recurrent tumour and to monitor the effects of radiotherapy.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Volume measurement ; Multiple sclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ability to visualise multiple selerosis lesions in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging suggests and important role in monitoring the course of the disease. In order to help the long-term assessment of prospective treatments, a semi-automated technique for measuring lesion volume has been developed to provide a quantitative index of disease progression. Results are presented from a preliminary study with a single patient and compared to measurements taken from lesion outlines traced by a neuroradiologist, two neurologists and a technician. The semi-automated technique achieved a precision of 6% compared to a range of 12–33% for the manual tracing method. It also reduced the human interaction time from at least 60 min to 15 min.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Spinal trauma ; Spinal cord damage ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eighty-seven patients aged 16–68 years have been examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following spinal injury. The MRI findings have been correlated with length of history between trauma and investigation, extent of residual function and site of injury. They include changes at the site of injury consistent with myelomalacia in 37%, a syrinx in 40%, persistent cord compression in 32% and atrophy in 18%. An extensive syrinx can develop within 2 months of injury and it is nearly twice as common in patients with complete paralysis as in those whose paralysis was incomplete. It is suggested that investigation and management of spinal trauma should include early and repeated MRI examinations to detect sequelae at an early stage.
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