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  • Mice  (1,378)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (1,378)
  • Hindawi
  • Sage Publications
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
  • 1
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGilvray, Annabel -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S4-5. doi: 10.1038/531S4a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934524" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Aging/blood/drug effects/pathology/*psychology ; Alzheimer Disease/blood/therapy ; Animals ; Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Cognition Disorders/pathology/physiopathology/*prevention & control/*therapy ; Estrogens/pharmacology ; Female ; Hippocampus/drug effects/pathology/physiology/physiopathology ; Humans ; Inflammation Mediators/immunology ; Leukotrienes/immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Mice ; Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects ; Parkinson Disease/therapy ; Plasma/chemistry/physiology ; Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects/pathology/physiology/physiopathology ; Quinolines/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Rats ; Rejuvenation/*physiology/*psychology ; Synapses/drug effects/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-02-09
    Description: The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the past few decades by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor-binding and membrane fusion functions. S also contains the principal antigenic determinants and is the target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we present the structure of a mouse coronavirus S trimer ectodomain determined at 4.0 A resolution by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. It reveals the metastable pre-fusion architecture of S and highlights key interactions stabilizing it. The structure shares a common core with paramyxovirus F proteins, implicating mechanistic similarities and an evolutionary connection between these viral fusion proteins. The accessibility of the highly conserved fusion peptide at the periphery of the trimer indicates potential vaccinology strategies to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against coronaviruses. Finally, comparison with crystal structures of human coronavirus S domains allows rationalization of the molecular basis for species specificity based on the use of spatially contiguous but distinct domains.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Walls, Alexandra C -- Tortorici, M Alejandra -- Bosch, Berend-Jan -- Frenz, Brandon -- Rottier, Peter J M -- DiMaio, Frank -- Rey, Felix A -- Veesler, David -- GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM008268/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):114-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16988. Epub 2016 Feb 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Institut Pasteur, Unite de Virologie Structurale, 75015 Paris, France. ; CNRS UMR 3569 Virologie, 75015 Paris, France. ; Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26855426" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Cell Line ; Coronavirus Infections/immunology/virology ; *Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Murine hepatitis virus/*chemistry/immunology/*ultrastructure ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/*chemistry/immunology/*ultrastructure ; Viral Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Virus Internalization
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic 'dual RNA-seq' approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and reveal the molecular impact of bacterial riboregulators. We identify a PhoP-activated small RNA, PinT, which upon bacterial internalization temporally controls the expression of both invasion-associated effectors and virulence genes required for intracellular survival. This riboregulatory activity causes pervasive changes in coding and noncoding transcripts of the host. Interspecies correlation analysis links PinT to host cell JAK-STAT signalling, and we identify infection-specific alterations in multiple long noncoding RNAs. Our study provides a paradigm for a sensitive RNA-based analysis of intracellular bacterial pathogens and their hosts without physical separation, as well as a new discovery route for hidden functions of pathogen genes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westermann, Alexander J -- Forstner, Konrad U -- Amman, Fabian -- Barquist, Lars -- Chao, Yanjie -- Schulte, Leon N -- Muller, Lydia -- Reinhardt, Richard -- Stadler, Peter F -- Vogel, Jorg -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):496-501. doi: 10.1038/nature16547. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Wurzburg, RNA Biology Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Wurzburg, Core Unit Systems Medicine, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Leipzig, Department of Computer Science and Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, Hartelstrasse 16-18, D-04107 Leipzig, Germany. ; University of Vienna, Theoretical Biochemistry Group, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Wahringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Max Planck Genome Centre Cologne, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linne-Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Rd, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA. ; Research Centre for Infectious Diseases (ZINF), University of Wurzburg, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Proteins/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genes, Bacterial/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/*genetics ; Humans ; Janus Kinases/metabolism ; Mice ; Microbial Viability/genetics ; RNA, Bacterial/*genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/metabolism ; STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/cytology/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Virulence/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: How tissue regeneration programs are triggered by injury has received limited research attention. Here we investigate the existence of enhancer regulatory elements that are activated in regenerating tissue. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that leptin b (lepb) is highly induced in regenerating hearts and fins of zebrafish. Epigenetic profiling identified a short DNA sequence element upstream and distal to lepb that acquires open chromatin marks during regeneration and enables injury-dependent expression from minimal promoters. This element could activate expression in injured neonatal mouse tissues and was divisible into tissue-specific modules sufficient for expression in regenerating zebrafish fins or hearts. Simple enhancer-effector transgenes employing lepb-linked sequences upstream of pro- or anti-regenerative factors controlled the efficacy of regeneration in zebrafish. Our findings provide evidence for 'tissue regeneration enhancer elements' (TREEs) that trigger gene expression in injury sites and can be engineered to modulate the regenerative potential of vertebrate organs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Junsu -- Hu, Jianxin -- Karra, Ravi -- Dickson, Amy L -- Tornini, Valerie A -- Nachtrab, Gregory -- Gemberling, Matthew -- Goldman, Joseph A -- Black, Brian L -- Poss, Kenneth D -- F32 HL120494/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08 HL116485/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL089707/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074057/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL064658/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL081674/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089707/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17644. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049946" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animal Fins/injuries/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Cell Proliferation ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Heart ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Leptin/biosynthesis/genetics ; Lysine/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology ; Organ Specificity/*genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Regeneration/*genetics/*physiology ; Transgenes/genetics ; Wound Healing/*genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics/*physiology ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most extensively characterized tissue stem cells. Since the identification of HSCs by prospective isolation, complex multi-parameter flow cytometric isolation of phenotypic subsets has facilitated studies on many aspects of HSC biology, including self-renewal, differentiation, ageing, niche, and diversity. Here we demonstrate by unbiased multi-step screening, identification of a single gene, homeobox B5 (Hoxb5, also known as Hox-2.1), with expression in the bone marrow that is limited to long-term (LT)-HSCs in mice. Using a mouse single-colour tri-mCherry reporter driven by endogenous Hoxb5 regulation, we show that only the Hoxb5(+) HSCs exhibit long-term reconstitution capacity after transplantation in primary transplant recipients and, notably, in secondary recipients. Only 7-35% of various previously defined immunophenotypic HSCs are LT-HSCs. Finally, by in situ imaging of mouse bone marrow, we show that 〉94% of LT-HSCs (Hoxb5(+)) are directly attached to VE-cadherin(+) cells, implicating the perivascular space as a near-homogenous location of LT-HSCs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, James Y -- Miyanishi, Masanori -- Wang, Sean K -- Yamazaki, Satoshi -- Sinha, Rahul -- Kao, Kevin S -- Seita, Jun -- Sahoo, Debashis -- Nakauchi, Hiromitsu -- Weissman, Irving L -- F30-HL122096/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA086065/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007365/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099999/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16943.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Ludwig Center for Cancer Stem Cell Research and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/metabolism ; Biomarkers/analysis ; Bone Marrow/metabolism ; Cadherins/metabolism ; Cell Self Renewal ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Immunophenotyping ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Stem Cell Niche
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chu, Derrick M -- Aagaard, Kjersti M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):316-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17887. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics, Molecular and Cell Biology, and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Child, Preschool ; Chronic Disease ; Clostridium symbiosum/isolation & purification/physiology ; Diet/adverse effects/methods ; Feces/microbiology ; Female ; Germ-Free Life ; Growth Disorders/*diet therapy/etiology/*microbiology ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Infant ; Intestines/drug effects/*microbiology ; Liver/metabolism ; Malawi ; Malnutrition/complications/*diet therapy/*microbiology ; Mice ; Microbiota/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Milk, Human/chemistry/microbiology ; Mothers ; Oligosaccharides/analysis/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Ruminococcus/isolation & purification/physiology ; Somatomedins/biosynthesis ; Weight Gain/drug effects
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):264. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19335.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887470" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Feed/*analysis/standards ; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory/genetics/microbiology ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; Diet/standards/veterinary ; *Environment ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; *Housing, Animal ; Humans ; Lighting ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Models, Animal ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Research Design/standards
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 directs positioning of the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination in mice and humans. Prdm9 is the only mammalian speciation gene yet identified and is responsible for sterility phenotypes in male hybrids of certain mouse subspecies. To investigate PRDM9 binding and its role in fertility and meiotic recombination, we humanized the DNA-binding domain of PRDM9 in C57BL/6 mice. This change repositions DSB hotspots and completely restores fertility in male hybrids. Here we show that alteration of one Prdm9 allele impacts the behaviour of DSBs controlled by the other allele at chromosome-wide scales. These effects correlate strongly with the degree to which each PRDM9 variant binds both homologues at the DSB sites it controls. Furthermore, higher genome-wide levels of such 'symmetric' PRDM9 binding associate with increasing fertility measures, and comparisons of individual hotspots suggest binding symmetry plays a downstream role in the recombination process. These findings reveal that subspecies-specific degradation of PRDM9 binding sites by meiotic drive, which steadily increases asymmetric PRDM9 binding, has impacts beyond simply changing hotspot positions, and strongly support a direct involvement in hybrid infertility. Because such meiotic drive occurs across mammals, PRDM9 may play a wider, yet transient, role in the early stages of speciation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756437/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756437/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davies, Benjamin -- Hatton, Edouard -- Altemose, Nicolas -- Hussin, Julie G -- Pratto, Florencia -- Zhang, Gang -- Hinch, Anjali Gupta -- Moralli, Daniela -- Biggs, Daniel -- Diaz, Rebeca -- Preece, Chris -- Li, Ran -- Bitoun, Emmanuelle -- Brick, Kevin -- Green, Catherine M -- Camerini-Otero, R Daniel -- Myers, Simon R -- Donnelly, Peter -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095552/Z/11/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098387/Z/12/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):171-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16931. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 24-29 St. Giles', Oxford OX1 3LB, UK. ; Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840484" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Chromosome Pairing/genetics ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics/metabolism ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; Female ; *Genetic Speciation ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hybridization, Genetic/*genetics ; Infertility/*genetics ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Protein Binding ; *Protein Engineering ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Recombination, Genetic/genetics ; Zinc Fingers/*genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B virus encodes the regulatory HBx protein whose primary role is to promote transcription of the viral genome, which persists as an extrachromosomal DNA circle in infected cells. HBx accomplishes this task by an unusual mechanism, enhancing transcription only from extrachromosomal DNA templates. Here we show that HBx achieves this by hijacking the cellular DDB1-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase to target the 'structural maintenance of chromosomes' (Smc) complex Smc5/6 for degradation. Blocking this event inhibits the stimulatory effect of HBx both on extrachromosomal reporter genes and on hepatitis B virus transcription. Conversely, silencing the Smc5/6 complex enhances extrachromosomal reporter gene transcription in the absence of HBx, restores replication of an HBx-deficient hepatitis B virus, and rescues wild-type hepatitis B virus in a DDB1-knockdown background. The Smc5/6 complex associates with extrachromosomal reporters and the hepatitis B virus genome, suggesting a direct mechanism of transcriptional inhibition. These results uncover a novel role for the Smc5/6 complex as a restriction factor selectively blocking extrachromosomal DNA transcription. By destroying this complex, HBx relieves the inhibition to allow productive hepatitis B virus gene expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Decorsiere, Adrien -- Mueller, Henrik -- van Breugel, Pieter C -- Abdul, Fabien -- Gerossier, Laetitia -- Beran, Rudolf K -- Livingston, Christine M -- Niu, Congrong -- Fletcher, Simon P -- Hantz, Olivier -- Strubin, Michel -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):386-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17170.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University Medical Centre (C.M.U.), Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. ; CRCL, INSERM U1052, CNRS 5286, Universite de Lyon, 151, Cours A Thomas, 69424 Lyon Cedex, France. ; Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California 94404, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983541" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Cycle Proteins/*metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; DNA, Viral/genetics/metabolism ; Genes, Reporter ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Hepatitis B/virology ; Hepatitis B virus/genetics/*physiology ; Hepatocytes/virology ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Liver/metabolism/virology ; Male ; Mice ; Plasmids/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Proteolysis ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; Ubiquitin/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ; Virus Replication
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Primary cilia are solitary, generally non-motile, hair-like protrusions that extend from the surface of cells between cell divisions. Their antenna-like structure leads naturally to the assumption that they sense the surrounding environment, the most common hypothesis being sensation of mechanical force through calcium-permeable ion channels within the cilium. This Ca(2+)-responsive mechanosensor hypothesis for primary cilia has been invoked to explain a large range of biological responses, from control of left-right axis determination in embryonic development to adult progression of polycystic kidney disease and some cancers. Here we report the complete lack of mechanically induced calcium increases in primary cilia, in tissues upon which this hypothesis has been based. We developed a transgenic mouse, Arl13b-mCherry-GECO1.2, expressing a ratiometric genetically encoded calcium indicator in all primary cilia. We then measured responses to flow in primary cilia of cultured kidney epithelial cells, kidney thick ascending tubules, crown cells of the embryonic node, kinocilia of inner ear hair cells, and several cell lines. Cilia-specific Ca(2+) influxes were not observed in physiological or even highly supraphysiological levels of fluid flow. We conclude that mechanosensation, if it originates in primary cilia, is not via calcium signalling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851444/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851444/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Delling, M -- Indzhykulian, A A -- Liu, X -- Li, Y -- Xie, T -- Corey, D P -- Clapham, D E -- 5R01 DC000304/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD 18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC000304/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):656-60. doi: 10.1038/nature17426. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cardiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Image and Data Analysis Core (IDAC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/analysis/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Cilia/*metabolism ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Female ; Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner/cytology ; Kidney/cytology ; Male ; *Mechanotransduction, Cellular ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Models, Biological
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour, often inflicting devastating consequences on the developing child. Genomic studies have revealed four distinct molecular subgroups with divergent biology and clinical behaviour. An understanding of the regulatory circuitry governing the transcriptional landscapes of medulloblastoma subgroups, and how this relates to their respective developmental origins, is lacking. Here, using H3K27ac and BRD4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with tissue-matched DNA methylation and transcriptome data, we describe the active cis-regulatory landscape across 28 primary medulloblastoma specimens. Analysis of differentially regulated enhancers and super-enhancers reinforced inter-subgroup heterogeneity and revealed novel, clinically relevant insights into medulloblastoma biology. Computational reconstruction of core regulatory circuitry identified a master set of transcription factors, validated by ChIP-seq, that is responsible for subgroup divergence, and implicates candidate cells of origin for Group 4. Our integrated analysis of enhancer elements in a large series of primary tumour samples reveals insights into cis-regulatory architecture, unrecognized dependencies, and cellular origins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Charles Y -- Erkek, Serap -- Tong, Yiai -- Yin, Linlin -- Federation, Alexander J -- Zapatka, Marc -- Haldipur, Parthiv -- Kawauchi, Daisuke -- Risch, Thomas -- Warnatz, Hans-Jorg -- Worst, Barbara C -- Ju, Bensheng -- Orr, Brent A -- Zeid, Rhamy -- Polaski, Donald R -- Segura-Wang, Maia -- Waszak, Sebastian M -- Jones, David T W -- Kool, Marcel -- Hovestadt, Volker -- Buchhalter, Ivo -- Sieber, Laura -- Johann, Pascal -- Chavez, Lukas -- Groschel, Stefan -- Ryzhova, Marina -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Chen, Wenbiao -- Chizhikov, Victor V -- Millen, Kathleen J -- Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav -- Lehrach, Hans -- Yaspo, Marie-Laure -- Eils, Roland -- Lichter, Peter -- Korbel, Jan O -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Bradner, James E -- Northcott, Paul A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):57-62. doi: 10.1038/nature16546. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Molecular Physiology &Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, USA. ; Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. ; Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, 14195 Berlin, Germany. ; Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation &Cellular Therapy, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Pathology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Translational Oncology, NCT Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Neuropathology, NN Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, 125047 Moscow, Russia. ; Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and Department of Neuropathology University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Genetics Division, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology and BioQuant, University of Heidelberg, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Heidelberg, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814967" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/classification/*genetics/*pathology ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/*genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Genes, Neoplasm/genetics ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Medulloblastoma/*classification/genetics/*pathology ; Mice ; Reproducibility of Results ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Zebrafish/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lim, XiaoZhi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):26-8. doi: 10.1038/531026a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935679" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Color ; *Fluorescence ; Humans ; Mice ; Nanomedicine/methods/trends ; Nanotechnology/methods/*trends ; Neoplasms/metabolism/pathology/surgery/therapy ; Quantum Dots/*analysis/chemistry ; Staining and Labeling/methods/trends ; Television/instrumentation
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Neural activity maintains representations that bridge past and future events, often over many seconds. Network models can produce persistent and ramping activity, but the positive feedback that is critical for these slow dynamics can cause sensitivity to perturbations. Here we use electrophysiology and optogenetic perturbations in the mouse premotor cortex to probe the robustness of persistent neural representations during motor planning. We show that preparatory activity is remarkably robust to large-scale unilateral silencing: detailed neural dynamics that drive specific future movements were quickly and selectively restored by the network. Selectivity did not recover after bilateral silencing of the premotor cortex. Perturbations to one hemisphere are thus corrected by information from the other hemisphere. Corpus callosum bisections demonstrated that premotor cortex hemispheres can maintain preparatory activity independently. Redundancy across selectively coupled modules, as we observed in the premotor cortex, is a hallmark of robust control systems. Network models incorporating these principles show robustness that is consistent with data.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Nuo -- Daie, Kayvon -- Svoboda, Karel -- Druckmann, Shaul -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):459-64. doi: 10.1038/nature17643. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074502" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain Mapping ; Corpus Callosum/physiology ; Executive Function/*physiology ; Female ; Light ; Male ; Memory, Short-Term/physiology ; Mice ; Models, Neurological ; Motor Cortex/*cytology/*physiology/radiation effects ; Movement/*physiology/radiation effects ; Neurons/*physiology/radiation effects ; Optogenetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Mutations disabling the TP53 tumour suppressor gene represent the most frequent events in human cancer and typically occur through a two-hit mechanism involving a missense mutation in one allele and a 'loss of heterozygosity' deletion encompassing the other. While TP53 missense mutations can also contribute gain-of-function activities that impact tumour progression, it remains unclear whether the deletion event, which frequently includes many genes, impacts tumorigenesis beyond TP53 loss alone. Here we show that somatic heterozygous deletion of mouse chromosome 11B3, a 4-megabase region syntenic to human 17p13.1, produces a greater effect on lymphoma and leukaemia development than Trp53 deletion. Mechanistically, the effect of 11B3 loss on tumorigenesis involves co-deleted genes such as Eif5a and Alox15b (also known as Alox8), the suppression of which cooperates with Trp53 loss to produce more aggressive disease. Our results imply that the selective advantage produced by human chromosome 17p deletion reflects the combined impact of TP53 loss and the reduced dosage of linked tumour suppressor genes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836395/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836395/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Yu -- Chen, Chong -- Xu, Zhengmin -- Scuoppo, Claudio -- Rillahan, Cory D -- Gao, Jianjiong -- Spitzer, Barbara -- Bosbach, Benedikt -- Kastenhuber, Edward R -- Baslan, Timour -- Ackermann, Sarah -- Cheng, Lihua -- Wang, Qingguo -- Niu, Ting -- Schultz, Nikolaus -- Levine, Ross L -- Mills, Alea A -- Lowe, Scott W -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016042/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA190261/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17157. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Hematology and Department of Liver Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and National Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu 610041, China. ; Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Kravis Center for Molecular Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Human Oncology &Pathogenesis Program and Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Hematology &Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17/genetics ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Disease Progression ; Female ; Genes, p53/*genetics ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics/pathology ; Lymphoma/genetics/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Neoplasms/*genetics/*pathology ; Peptide Initiation Factors/genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics ; Synteny/genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/*deficiency
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the largest component of the autonomic nervous system, with neuron numbers surpassing those present in the spinal cord. The ENS has been called the 'second brain' given its autonomy, remarkable neurotransmitter diversity and complex cytoarchitecture. Defects in ENS development are responsible for many human disorders including Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). HSCR is caused by the developmental failure of ENS progenitors to migrate into the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the distal colon. Human ENS development remains poorly understood owing to the lack of an easily accessible model system. Here we demonstrate the efficient derivation and isolation of ENS progenitors from human pluripotent stem (PS) cells, and their further differentiation into functional enteric neurons. ENS precursors derived in vitro are capable of targeted migration in the developing chick embryo and extensive colonization of the adult mouse colon. The in vivo engraftment and migration of human PS-cell-derived ENS precursors rescue disease-related mortality in HSCR mice (Ednrb(s-l/s-l)), although the mechanism of action remains unclear. Finally, EDNRB-null mutant ENS precursors enable modelling of HSCR-related migration defects, and the identification of pepstatin A as a candidate therapeutic target. Our study establishes the first, to our knowledge, human PS-cell-based platform for the study of human ENS development, and presents cell- and drug-based strategies for the treatment of HSCR.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846424/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846424/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fattahi, Faranak -- Steinbeck, Julius A -- Kriks, Sonja -- Tchieu, Jason -- Zimmer, Bastian -- Kishinevsky, Sarah -- Zeltner, Nadja -- Mica, Yvonne -- El-Nachef, Wael -- Zhao, Huiyong -- de Stanchina, Elisa -- Gershon, Michael D -- Grikscheit, Tracy C -- Chen, Shuibing -- Studer, Lorenz -- DP2 DK098093-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- NS15547/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS015547/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):105-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16951. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Center for Stem Cell Biology, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Molecular Pharmacology Program, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Pediatric Surgery, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863197" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; *Cell Lineage ; Cell Movement ; Cell Separation ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods ; Chick Embryo ; Colon/drug effects/pathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Enteric Nervous System/*pathology ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects/pathology ; Hirschsprung Disease/*drug therapy/*pathology/therapy ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Neurons/drug effects/*pathology ; Pepstatins/metabolism ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology ; Receptor, Endothelin B/metabolism ; Signal Transduction
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbott, Alison -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):294-7. doi: 10.1038/531294a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983522" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease/*etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Amyloid/administration & dosage/adverse effects/chemistry/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/administration & dosage/adverse ; effects/chemistry/metabolism ; Animals ; Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/epidemiology/etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Drug Contamination ; Great Britain/epidemiology ; Growth Hormone/administration & dosage ; Humans ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; Parkinson Disease/etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Prions/administration & dosage/adverse effects/chemistry/metabolism ; alpha-Synuclein/administration & dosage/adverse effects/chemistry/metabolism ; tau Proteins/metabolism
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Circadian clocks are fundamental to the biology of most eukaryotes, coordinating behaviour and physiology to resonate with the environmental cycle of day and night through complex networks of clock-controlled genes. A fundamental knowledge gap exists, however, between circadian gene expression cycles and the biochemical mechanisms that ultimately facilitate circadian regulation of cell biology. Here we report circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions, [Mg(2+)]i, which act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga that diverged from each other more than 1 billion years ago. Given the essential role of Mg(2+) as a cofactor for ATP, a functional consequence of [Mg(2+)]i oscillations is dynamic regulation of cellular energy expenditure over the daily cycle. Mechanistically, we find that these rhythms provide bilateral feedback linking rhythmic metabolism to clock-controlled gene expression. The global regulation of nucleotide triphosphate turnover by intracellular Mg(2+) availability has potential to impact upon many of the cell's more than 600 MgATP-dependent enzymes and every cellular system where MgNTP hydrolysis becomes rate limiting. Indeed, we find that circadian control of translation by mTOR is regulated through [Mg(2+)]i oscillations. It will now be important to identify which additional biological processes are subject to this form of regulation in tissues of multicellular organisms such as plants and humans, in the context of health and disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feeney, Kevin A -- Hansen, Louise L -- Putker, Marrit -- Olivares-Yanez, Consuelo -- Day, Jason -- Eades, Lorna J -- Larrondo, Luis F -- Hoyle, Nathaniel P -- O'Neill, John S -- van Ooijen, Gerben -- 093734/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_1201/4/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):375-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17407. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, UK. ; Millennium Nucleus for Fungal Integrative and Synthetic Biology, Departamento de Genetica Molecular y Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile. ; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. ; School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Chlorophyta/cytology/metabolism ; Circadian Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics/*physiology ; *Energy Metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Intracellular Space/metabolism ; Magnesium/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eisenstein, Michael -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):401-3. doi: 10.1038/531401a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biosensing Techniques/methods ; Biotechnology/economics/standards/*trends ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics ; *Cell Survival ; Cell-Free System ; DNA/analysis/chemical synthesis/genetics ; Escherichia coli/genetics/metabolism ; Gout/diagnosis/prevention & control ; Humans ; Hydrocodone/metabolism ; Mice ; Obesity/diagnosis/prevention & control ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Synthetic Biology/economics/standards/*trends ; Yeasts/genetics/metabolism
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fibre have a crucial involvement in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are notably reduced in the Western diet (high in fat and simple carbohydrates, low in fibre) compared with a more traditional diet. Here we show that changes in the microbiota of mice consuming a low-MAC diet and harbouring a human microbiota are largely reversible within a single generation. However, over several generations, a low-MAC diet results in a progressive loss of diversity, which is not recoverable after the reintroduction of dietary MACs. To restore the microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa in combination with dietary MAC consumption. Our data illustrate that taxa driven to low abundance when dietary MACs are scarce are inefficiently transferred to the next generation, and are at increased risk of becoming extinct within an isolated population. As more diseases are linked to the Western microbiota and the microbiota is targeted therapeutically, microbiota reprogramming may need to involve strategies that incorporate dietary MACs as well as taxa not currently present in the Western gut.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sonnenburg, Erica D -- Smits, Samuel A -- Tikhonov, Mikhail -- Higginbottom, Steven K -- Wingreen, Ned S -- Sonnenburg, Justin L -- R01-DK085025/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16504.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762459" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bacteroidetes/drug effects ; Diet/*adverse effects ; Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage ; Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fecal Microbiota Transplantation ; Female ; Fermentation/drug effects ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects ; Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects/microbiology ; Germ-Free Life ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Pedigree
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anderson, Mark A -- Burda, Joshua E -- Ren, Yilong -- Ao, Yan -- O'Shea, Timothy M -- Kawaguchi, Riki -- Coppola, Giovanni -- Khakh, Baljit S -- Deming, Timothy J -- Sofroniew, Michael V -- MH099559A/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH104069/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS057624/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS060677/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS084030/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS062691/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):195-200. doi: 10.1038/nature17623. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1763, USA. ; Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1761, USA. ; Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1751, USA. ; Departments of Bioengineering, Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1600, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027288" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*pathology ; Axons/*physiology ; Central Nervous System/cytology/*pathology/*physiology ; Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans/biosynthesis ; Cicatrix/*pathology/prevention & control ; Female ; Genomics ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; *Nerve Regeneration ; Reproducibility of Results ; Spinal Cord Injuries/genetics/pathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Ralpha-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Ralpha signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gerbe, Francois -- Sidot, Emmanuelle -- Smyth, Danielle J -- Ohmoto, Makoto -- Matsumoto, Ichiro -- Dardalhon, Valerie -- Cesses, Pierre -- Garnier, Laure -- Pouzolles, Marie -- Brulin, Benedicte -- Bruschi, Marco -- Harcus, Yvonne -- Zimmermann, Valerie S -- Taylor, Naomi -- Maizels, Rick M -- Jay, Philippe -- 106122/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- P30DC011735/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):226-30. doi: 10.1038/nature16527.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNRS, UMR-5203, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, F-34094 Montpellier, France. ; INSERM, U1191, F-34094 Montpellier, France. ; Universite de Montpellier, F-34000 Montpellier, France. ; Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences and Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. ; Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Institut de Genetique Moleculaire de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5535, F-34293 Montpellier, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762460" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Proliferation ; Feedback, Physiological ; Female ; Goblet Cells/cytology/immunology ; Immunity, Mucosal/*immunology ; Interleukin-13/immunology ; Interleukin-17/immunology/metabolism ; Intestinal Mucosa/*cytology/*immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Nippostrongylus/*immunology ; Octamer Transcription Factors/deficiency ; Parasites/*immunology ; Receptors, Interleukin-4/immunology ; Signal Transduction/immunology ; Stem Cells/cytology/immunology ; Strongylida Infections/immunology ; Th2 Cells/cytology/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which sustain production of all blood cell lineages, rely on glycolysis for ATP production, yet little attention has been paid to the role of mitochondria. Here we show in mice that the short isoform of a critical regulator of HSCs, Prdm16 (refs 4, 5), induces mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a protein involved in mitochondrial fusion and in tethering of mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. Overexpression and deletion studies, including single-cell transplantation assays, revealed that Mfn2 is specifically required for the maintenance of HSCs with extensive lymphoid potential, but not, or less so, for the maintenance of myeloid-dominant HSCs. Mfn2 increased buffering of intracellular Ca(2+), an effect mediated through its endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria tethering activity, thereby negatively regulating nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (Nfat). Nfat inhibition rescued the effects of Mfn2 deletion in HSCs, demonstrating that negative regulation of Nfat is the prime downstream mechanism of Mfn2 in the maintenance of HSCs with extensive lymphoid potential. Mitochondria therefore have an important role in HSCs. These findings provide a mechanism underlying clonal heterogeneity among HSCs and may lead to the design of approaches to bias HSC differentiation into desired lineages after transplantation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Luchsinger, Larry L -- de Almeida, Mariana Justino -- Corrigan, David J -- Mumau, Melanie -- Snoeck, Hans-Willem -- 1S10OD020056-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- 1S10RR027050-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA196045/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG029262/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA167286/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):528-31. doi: 10.1038/nature16500. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789249" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Lineage ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism ; Female ; Fibroblasts ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/*metabolism ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Lymphocytes/*cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myeloid Cells/cytology ; NFATC Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP-TRPV1). Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase-Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stanley, Sarah A -- Kelly, Leah -- Latcha, Kaamashri N -- Schmidt, Sarah F -- Yu, Xiaofei -- Nectow, Alexander R -- Sauer, Jeremy -- Dyke, Jonathan P -- Dordick, Jonathan S -- Friedman, Jeffrey M -- GM067545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095654/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH105941/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH105941/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):647-50. doi: 10.1038/nature17183. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Chemical &Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology &Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007848" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Glucose/*metabolism ; Eating/*physiology ; Ferritins/genetics/metabolism ; Glucagon/blood ; Glucokinase/metabolism ; Homeostasis ; Hypoglycemia/metabolism ; Insulin/blood ; Integrases/metabolism ; *Magnetic Fields ; Mice ; Neural Inhibition ; Neurons/*physiology ; Pancreatic Hormones/metabolism ; *Radio Waves ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; TRPV Cation Channels/genetics/metabolism ; Time Factors ; Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus/*cytology/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: Inhibitory neurons regulate the adaptation of neural circuits to sensory experience, but the molecular mechanisms by which experience controls the connectivity between different types of inhibitory neuron to regulate cortical plasticity are largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of dark-housed mice to light induces a gene program in cortical vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons that is markedly distinct from that induced in excitatory neurons and other subtypes of inhibitory neuron. We identify Igf1 as one of several activity-regulated genes that are specific to VIP neurons, and demonstrate that IGF1 functions cell-autonomously in VIP neurons to increase inhibitory synaptic input onto these neurons. Our findings further suggest that in cortical VIP neurons, experience-dependent gene transcription regulates visual acuity by activating the expression of IGF1, thus promoting the inhibition of disinhibitory neurons and affecting inhibition onto cortical pyramidal neurons.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823817/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823817/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mardinly, A R -- Spiegel, I -- Patrizi, A -- Centofante, E -- Bazinet, J E -- Tzeng, C P -- Mandel-Brehm, C -- Harmin, D A -- Adesnik, H -- Fagiolini, M -- Greenberg, M E -- P01 NS047572/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS028829/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028829/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):371-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17187. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California Berkeley, 205 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; FM Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 3 Blackfan Circle, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958833" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Neural Inhibition ; Neural Pathways ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/cytology/*metabolism/secretion ; Pyramidal Cells/metabolism ; Synapses/metabolism ; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/*metabolism ; Vision, Ocular/physiology ; Visual Cortex/*cytology/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, Jennifer -- Cunha, Larissa D -- Park, Sunmin -- Yang, Mao -- Lu, Qun -- Orchard, Robert -- Li, Quan-Zhen -- Yan, Mei -- Janke, Laura -- Guy, Cliff -- Linkermann, Andreas -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Green, Douglas R -- 1ZIAES10328601/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI040646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI40646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):115-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17950. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel 24105, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096368" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism ; Autoantibodies/blood ; *Autophagy/genetics ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/blood ; Inflammation/blood/genetics/*pathology ; Interleukin-10/biosynthesis ; Kidney/metabolism/pathology ; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood/genetics/*immunology/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Phagocytes/cytology/physiology ; Phagosomes/physiology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-01-14
    Description: The myelin sheaths wrapped around axons by oligodendrocytes are crucial for brain function. In ischaemia myelin is damaged in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, abolishing action potential propagation. This has been attributed to glutamate release activating Ca(2+)-permeable N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Surprisingly, we now show that NMDA does not raise the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in mature oligodendrocytes and that, although ischaemia evokes a glutamate-triggered membrane current, this is generated by a rise of extracellular [K(+)] and decrease of membrane K(+) conductance. Nevertheless, ischaemia raises oligodendrocyte [Ca(2+)]i, [Mg(2+)]i and [H(+)]i, and buffering intracellular pH reduces the [Ca(2+)]i and [Mg(2+)]i increases, showing that these are evoked by the rise of [H(+)]i. The H(+)-gated [Ca(2+)]i elevation is mediated by channels with characteristics of TRPA1, being inhibited by ruthenium red, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, HC-030031, A967079 or TRPA1 knockout. TRPA1 block reduces myelin damage in ischaemia. These data suggest that TRPA1-containing ion channels could be a therapeutic target in white matter ischaemia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4733665/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4733665/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hamilton, Nicola B -- Kolodziejczyk, Karolina -- Kougioumtzidou, Eleni -- Attwell, David -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16519. Epub 2016 Jan 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Physiology &Pharmacology, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760212" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain Ischemia/*metabolism/*pathology ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling/drug effects ; Electric Conductivity ; Female ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Magnesium/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism/pathology ; Myelin Sheath/drug effects/*metabolism/*pathology ; N-Methylaspartate/metabolism/pharmacology ; Oligodendroglia/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Potassium/metabolism ; *Protons ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Stroke/metabolism/pathology ; Transient Receptor Potential Channels/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; White Matter/metabolism/pathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Asymmetric cell division, the partitioning of cellular components in response to polarizing cues during mitosis, has roles in differentiation and development. It is important for the self-renewal of fertilized zygotes in Caenorhabditis elegans and neuroblasts in Drosophila, and in the development of mammalian nervous and digestive systems. T lymphocytes, upon activation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), can undergo asymmetric cell division, wherein the daughter cell proximal to the APC is more likely to differentiate into an effector-like T cell and the distal daughter is more likely to differentiate into a memory-like T cell. Upon activation and before cell division, expression of the transcription factor c-Myc drives metabolic reprogramming, necessary for the subsequent proliferative burst. Here we find that during the first division of an activated T cell in mice, c-Myc can sort asymmetrically. Asymmetric distribution of amino acid transporters, amino acid content, and activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is correlated with c-Myc expression, and both amino acids and mTORC1 activity sustain the differences in c-Myc expression in one daughter cell compared to the other. Asymmetric c-Myc levels in daughter T cells affect proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and these effects are altered by experimental manipulation of mTORC1 activity or c-Myc expression. Therefore, metabolic signalling pathways cooperate with transcription programs to maintain differential cell fates following asymmetric T-cell division.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851250/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851250/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Verbist, Katherine C -- Guy, Cliff S -- Milasta, Sandra -- Liedmann, Swantje -- Kaminski, Marcin M -- Wang, Ruoning -- Green, Douglas R -- R01 GM096208/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM052735/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):389-93. doi: 10.1038/nature17442. Epub 2016 Apr 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Disease, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27064903" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Transport Systems/metabolism ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*cytology/*metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; *Cell Division ; *Cell Polarity/genetics ; Female ; *Lymphocyte Activation ; Male ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Lung metastasis is the lethal determinant in many cancers and a number of lines of evidence point to monocytes and macrophages having key roles in its development. Yet little is known about the immediate fate of incoming tumour cells as they colonize this tissue, and even less known about how they make first contact with the immune system. Primary tumours liberate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) into the blood and we have developed a stable intravital two-photon lung imaging model in mice for direct observation of the arrival of CTCs and subsequent host interaction. Here we show dynamic generation of tumour microparticles in shear flow in the capillaries within minutes of CTC entry. Rather than dispersing under flow, many of these microparticles remain attached to the lung vasculature or independently migrate along the inner walls of vessels. Using fluorescent lineage reporters and flow cytometry, we observed 'waves' of distinct myeloid cell subsets that load differentially and sequentially with this CTC-derived material. Many of these tumour-ingesting myeloid cells collectively accumulated in the lung interstitium along with the successful metastatic cells and, as previously understood, promote the development of successful metastases from surviving tumour cells. Although the numbers of these cells rise globally in the lung with metastatic exposure and ingesting myeloid cells undergo phenotypic changes associated with microparticle ingestion, a consistently sparse population of resident conventional dendritic cells, among the last cells to interact with CTCs, confer anti-metastatic protection. This work reveals that CTC fragmentation generates immune-interacting intermediates, and defines a competitive relationship between phagocyte populations for tumour loading during metastatic cell seeding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Headley, Mark B -- Bins, Adriaan -- Nip, Alyssa -- Roberts, Edward W -- Looney, Mark R -- Gerard, Audrey -- Krummel, Matthew F -- P01 HL024136/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA167601/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21CA167601/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA163123/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):513-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16985. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, HSW512, San Francisco, California 94143-0511, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef, 91105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSW512, California 94143-0511, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Capillaries/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage ; *Cell Movement ; Dendritic Cells/cytology/immunology ; Female ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Humans ; Lung/blood supply/cytology/*immunology/*pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/*immunology/pathology/*secondary ; Male ; Melanoma, Experimental/immunology/pathology ; Mice ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Myeloid Cells/cytology ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*immunology/*pathology ; Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/pathology
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ward, Alyssa -- Baldwin, Thomas O -- Antin, Parker B -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ; University of California, Riverside, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; *Learning ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic/genetics ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Research/*standards ; United States
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 31
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Owens, Brian -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S71-2. doi: 10.1038/533S71a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167398" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Academies and Institutes/economics ; *Access to Information ; Animals ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Industry/economics/methods ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Mice ; Neurosciences/economics/manpower/*methods/organization & administration ; Patents as Topic ; Public Sector/economics ; Public-Private Sector Partnerships ; Quebec
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: Endothelial cells (ECs) are plastic cells that can switch between growth states with different bioenergetic and biosynthetic requirements. Although quiescent in most healthy tissues, ECs divide and migrate rapidly upon proangiogenic stimulation. Adjusting endothelial metabolism to the growth state is central to normal vessel growth and function, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report that the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor FOXO1 is an essential regulator of vascular growth that couples metabolic and proliferative activities in ECs. Endothelial-restricted deletion of FOXO1 in mice induces a profound increase in EC proliferation that interferes with coordinated sprouting, thereby causing hyperplasia and vessel enlargement. Conversely, forced expression of FOXO1 restricts vascular expansion and leads to vessel thinning and hypobranching. We find that FOXO1 acts as a gatekeeper of endothelial quiescence, which decelerates metabolic activity by reducing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Mechanistically, FOXO1 suppresses signalling by MYC (also known as c-MYC), a powerful driver of anabolic metabolism and growth. MYC ablation impairs glycolysis, mitochondrial function and proliferation of ECs while its EC-specific overexpression fuels these processes. Moreover, restoration of MYC signalling in FOXO1-overexpressing endothelium normalizes metabolic activity and branching behaviour. Our findings identify FOXO1 as a critical rheostat of vascular expansion and define the FOXO1-MYC transcriptional network as a novel metabolic checkpoint during endothelial growth and proliferation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilhelm, Kerstin -- Happel, Katharina -- Eelen, Guy -- Schoors, Sandra -- Oellerich, Mark F -- Lim, Radiance -- Zimmermann, Barbara -- Aspalter, Irene M -- Franco, Claudio A -- Boettger, Thomas -- Braun, Thomas -- Fruttiger, Marcus -- Rajewsky, Klaus -- Keller, Charles -- Bruning, Jens C -- Gerhardt, Holger -- Carmeliet, Peter -- Potente, Michael -- K08CA090438/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):216-20. doi: 10.1038/nature16498. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Angiogenesis &Metabolism Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Vascular Biology Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Vascular Morphogenesis Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon 1649-028, Portugal. ; Department of Cardiac Development and Remodeling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK. ; Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), D-13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Children's Cancer Therapy Development Institute, Beaverton, Oregon 97005, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD) and Center of Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine (CEDP), University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany. ; Vascular Patterning Laboratory, Vesalius Research Center, VIB and University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, D-13347 Berlin, Germany. ; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), D-10117 Berlin, Germany. ; International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Frankfurt Rhine-Main, D-13347 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Respiration ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: The bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system allows sequence-specific gene editing in many organisms and holds promise as a tool to generate models of human diseases, for example, in human pluripotent stem cells. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with high efficiency, which are typically repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) resulting in nonspecific insertions, deletions or other mutations (indels). DSBs may also be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using a DNA repair template, such as an introduced single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotide (ssODN), allowing knock-in of specific mutations. Although CRISPR/Cas9 is used extensively to engineer gene knockouts through NHEJ, editing by HDR remains inefficient and can be corrupted by additional indels, preventing its widespread use for modelling genetic disorders through introducing disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, targeted mutational knock-in at single alleles to model diseases caused by heterozygous mutations has not been reported. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing framework that allows selective introduction of mono- and bi-allelic sequence changes with high efficiency and accuracy. We show that HDR accuracy is increased dramatically by incorporating silent CRISPR/Cas-blocking mutations along with pathogenic mutations, and establish a method termed 'CORRECT' for scarless genome editing. By characterizing and exploiting a stereotyped inverse relationship between a mutation's incorporation rate and its distance to the DSB, we achieve predictable control of zygosity. Homozygous introduction requires a guide RNA targeting close to the intended mutation, whereas heterozygous introduction can be accomplished by distance-dependent suboptimal mutation incorporation or by use of mixed repair templates. Using this approach, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells with heterozygous and homozygous dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease-causing mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP(Swe)) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1(M146V)) and derived cortical neurons, which displayed genotype-dependent disease-associated phenotypes. Our findings enable efficient introduction of specific sequence changes with CRISPR/Cas9, facilitating study of human disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paquet, Dominik -- Kwart, Dylan -- Chen, Antonia -- Sproul, Andrew -- Jacob, Samson -- Teo, Shaun -- Olsen, Kimberly Moore -- Gregg, Andrew -- Noggle, Scott -- Tessier-Lavigne, Marc -- 8 UL1 TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):125-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17664. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, The Rockefeller University and Sloan-Kettering Institute Tri-institutional MD-PhD Program, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Age of Onset ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/genetics ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics/secretion ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Cleavage ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Female ; Genes, Dominant/genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; *Heterozygote ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Presenilins/genetics ; RNA, Guide/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Substrate Specificity ; Templates, Genetic
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  • 34
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willyard, Cassandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):166-8. doi: 10.1038/532166a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075079" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/economics/therapeutic use ; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics/*therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*drug effects/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Humans ; Immunotherapy, Adoptive/economics/trends ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics/*methods/trends ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/genetics/pathology ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/chemically induced/genetics/prevention & control ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Selection, Genetic/*drug effects/genetics ; Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Itkin, Tomer -- Gur-Cohen, Shiri -- Spencer, Joel A -- Schajnovitz, Amir -- Ramasamy, Saravana K -- Kusumbe, Anjali P -- Ledergor, Guy -- Jung, Yookyung -- Milo, Idan -- Poulos, Michael G -- Kalinkovich, Alexander -- Ludin, Aya -- Kollet, Orit -- Shakhar, Guy -- Butler, Jason M -- Rafii, Shahin -- Adams, Ralf H -- Scadden, David T -- Lin, Charles P -- Lapidot, Tsvee -- EB017274/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EB017274/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):323-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17624. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Center for Regenerative Medicine and Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis and Faculty of Medicine, University of Munster, D-48149 Munster, Germany. ; Internal Medicine Department, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv 64239, Israel. ; Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074509" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Ly/metabolism ; Arteries/cytology/physiology ; Blood Vessels/*cytology/*physiology ; Bone Marrow/*blood supply ; Bone Marrow Cells/cytology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Movement ; Cell Self Renewal ; Cell Survival ; Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism ; Endothelial Cells/physiology ; Female ; *Hematopoiesis ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology ; Leukocytes/cytology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nestin/metabolism ; Pericytes/physiology ; Permeability ; Plasma/metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jackman, Skyler L -- Turecek, Josef -- Belinsky, Justine E -- Regehr, Wade G -- NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS072030/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):88-91. doi: 10.1038/nature16507.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/metabolism/secretion ; Neurotransmitter Agents/*secretion ; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism ; Synapses/*metabolism/secretion ; *Synaptic Transmission ; Synaptotagmins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: CD8(+) T cells have a central role in antitumour immunity, but their activity is suppressed in the tumour microenvironment. Reactivating the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells is of great clinical interest in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a new mechanism by which the antitumour response of mouse CD8(+) T cells can be potentiated by modulating cholesterol metabolism. Inhibiting cholesterol esterification in T cells by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT1, a key cholesterol esterification enzyme, led to potentiated effector function and enhanced proliferation of CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells. This is due to the increase in the plasma membrane cholesterol level of CD8(+) T cells, which causes enhanced T-cell receptor clustering and signalling as well as more efficient formation of the immunological synapse. ACAT1-deficient CD8(+) T cells were better than wild-type CD8(+) T cells at controlling melanoma growth and metastasis in mice. We used the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe, which was previously tested in clinical trials for treating atherosclerosis and showed a good human safety profile, to treat melanoma in mice and observed a good antitumour effect. A combined therapy of avasimibe plus an anti-PD-1 antibody showed better efficacy than monotherapies in controlling tumour progression. ACAT1, an established target for atherosclerosis, is therefore also a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Wei -- Bai, Yibing -- Xiong, Ying -- Zhang, Jin -- Chen, Shuokai -- Zheng, Xiaojun -- Meng, Xiangbo -- Li, Lunyi -- Wang, Jing -- Xu, Chenguang -- Yan, Chengsong -- Wang, Lijuan -- Chang, Catharine C Y -- Chang, Ta-Yuan -- Zhang, Ti -- Zhou, Penghui -- Song, Bao-Liang -- Liu, Wanli -- Sun, Shao-cong -- Liu, Xiaolong -- Li, Bo-liang -- Xu, Chenqi -- HL 60306./HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL060306/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17412. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Haven 03755, USA. ; Rheumatology and Immunology Department of ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072, China. ; Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ;