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  • Models, Biological  (232)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (232)
  • Hindawi
  • Sage Publications
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (= Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes) or is a clade inside Deuterostomia. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long-branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cannon, Johanna Taylor -- Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli -- Smith, Julian 3rd -- Ronquist, Fredrik -- Jondelius, Ulf -- Hejnol, Andreas -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):89-93. doi: 10.1038/nature16520.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, PO Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormohlensgate 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway. ; Department of Biology, Winthrop University, 701 Oakland Avenue, Rock Hill, South Carolina 29733, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842059" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Structures/anatomy & histology ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*classification/genetics ; Bayes Theorem ; Genes ; Likelihood Functions ; Male ; Models, Biological ; *Phylogeny ; Transcriptome
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: The origin of eukaryotes stands as a major conundrum in biology. Current evidence indicates that the last eukaryotic common ancestor already possessed many eukaryotic hallmarks, including a complex subcellular organization. In addition, the lack of evolutionary intermediates challenges the elucidation of the relative order of emergence of eukaryotic traits. Mitochondria are ubiquitous organelles derived from an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont. Different hypotheses disagree on whether mitochondria were acquired early or late during eukaryogenesis. Similarly, the nature and complexity of the receiving host are debated, with models ranging from a simple prokaryotic host to an already complex proto-eukaryote. Most competing scenarios can be roughly grouped into either mito-early, which consider the driving force of eukaryogenesis to be mitochondrial endosymbiosis into a simple host, or mito-late, which postulate that a significant complexity predated mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Here we provide evidence for late mitochondrial endosymbiosis. We use phylogenomics to directly test whether proto-mitochondrial proteins were acquired earlier or later than other proteins of the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We find that last eukaryotic common ancestor protein families of alphaproteobacterial ancestry and of mitochondrial localization show the shortest phylogenetic distances to their closest prokaryotic relatives, compared with proteins of different prokaryotic origin or cellular localization. Altogether, our results shed new light on a long-standing question and provide compelling support for the late acquisition of mitochondria into a host that already had a proteome of chimaeric phylogenetic origin. We argue that mitochondrial endosymbiosis was one of the ultimate steps in eukaryogenesis and that it provided the definitive selective advantage to mitochondria-bearing eukaryotes over less complex forms.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780264/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780264/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pittis, Alexandros A -- Gabaldon, Toni -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):101-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16941. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Carrer del Dr Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; Departament of Ciencies Experimentals I de La Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Passeig de Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Eukaryotic Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Genes, Bacterial/*genetics ; Genes, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Genomics ; Mitochondria/*genetics/metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Models, Biological ; *Phylogeny ; Prokaryotic Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Symbiosis/*genetics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Primary cilia are solitary, generally non-motile, hair-like protrusions that extend from the surface of cells between cell divisions. Their antenna-like structure leads naturally to the assumption that they sense the surrounding environment, the most common hypothesis being sensation of mechanical force through calcium-permeable ion channels within the cilium. This Ca(2+)-responsive mechanosensor hypothesis for primary cilia has been invoked to explain a large range of biological responses, from control of left-right axis determination in embryonic development to adult progression of polycystic kidney disease and some cancers. Here we report the complete lack of mechanically induced calcium increases in primary cilia, in tissues upon which this hypothesis has been based. We developed a transgenic mouse, Arl13b-mCherry-GECO1.2, expressing a ratiometric genetically encoded calcium indicator in all primary cilia. We then measured responses to flow in primary cilia of cultured kidney epithelial cells, kidney thick ascending tubules, crown cells of the embryonic node, kinocilia of inner ear hair cells, and several cell lines. Cilia-specific Ca(2+) influxes were not observed in physiological or even highly supraphysiological levels of fluid flow. We conclude that mechanosensation, if it originates in primary cilia, is not via calcium signalling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851444/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851444/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Delling, M -- Indzhykulian, A A -- Liu, X -- Li, Y -- Xie, T -- Corey, D P -- Clapham, D E -- 5R01 DC000304/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD 18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC000304/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):656-60. doi: 10.1038/nature17426. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cardiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Image and Data Analysis Core (IDAC), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/analysis/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Cilia/*metabolism ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Female ; Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner/cytology ; Kidney/cytology ; Male ; *Mechanotransduction, Cellular ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Models, Biological
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baker, Monya -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):151. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961635" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*methods/*standards ; Models, Biological ; *Probability ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Research Design ; Research Personnel/*education ; Statistics as Topic/*methods/*standards ; Uncertainty
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bender, Eric -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S62-4. doi: 10.1038/533S62a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis ; *Awards and Prizes ; Biomedical Research/economics/*manpower/*methods ; Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis/pathology ; *Competitive Behavior ; Cooperative Behavior ; Crowdsourcing/economics/*methods ; Datasets as Topic ; Drug Industry/economics/methods ; Humans ; Information Dissemination ; *Interdisciplinary Communication ; Internet/utilization ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation ; Prognosis ; Reproducibility of Results ; Smartphone/utilization ; Statistics as Topic ; Systems Biology/manpower/methods ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schiermeier, Quirin -- Abbott, Alison -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):18. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19672.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078546" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/*anatomy & histology/cytology/*physiology ; Computer Simulation ; *Computers ; Humans ; Models, Biological ; Neurosciences/*methods/trends ; *Software
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Animals are grouped into ~35 'phyla' based upon the notion of distinct body plans. Morphological and molecular analyses have revealed that a stage in the middle of development--known as the phylotypic period--is conserved among species within some phyla. Although these analyses provide evidence for their existence, phyla have also been criticized as lacking an objective definition, and consequently based on arbitrary groupings of animals. Here we compare the developmental transcriptomes of ten species, each annotated to a different phylum, with a wide range of life histories and embryonic forms. We find that in all ten species, development comprises the coupling of early and late phases of conserved gene expression. These phases are linked by a divergent 'mid-developmental transition' that uses species-specific suites of signalling pathways and transcription factors. This mid-developmental transition overlaps with the phylotypic period that has been defined previously for three of the ten phyla, suggesting that transcriptional circuits and signalling mechanisms active during this transition are crucial for defining the phyletic body plan and that the mid-developmental transition may be used to define phylotypic periods in other phyla. Placing these observations alongside the reported conservation of mid-development within phyla, we propose that a phylum may be defined as a collection of species whose gene expression at the mid-developmental transition is both highly conserved among them, yet divergent relative to other species.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817236/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817236/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levin, Michal -- Anavy, Leon -- Cole, Alison G -- Winter, Eitan -- Mostov, Natalia -- Khair, Sally -- Senderovich, Naftalie -- Kovalev, Ekaterina -- Silver, David H -- Feder, Martin -- Fernandez-Valverde, Selene L -- Nakanishi, Nagayasu -- Simmons, David -- Simakov, Oleg -- Larsson, Tomas -- Liu, Shang-Yun -- Jerafi-Vider, Ayelet -- Yaniv, Karina -- Ryan, Joseph F -- Martindale, Mark Q -- Rink, Jochen C -- Arendt, Detlev -- Degnan, Sandie M -- Degnan, Bernard M -- Hashimshony, Tamar -- Yanai, Itai -- 310927/European Research Council/International -- R01 GM093116/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):637-41. doi: 10.1038/nature16994. Epub 2016 Feb 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Technion - Israel Institute of Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. ; Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 N Ocean Shore Blvd, St Augustine, Florida 32080-8610 USA. ; Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886793" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Body Patterning/genetics ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; *Embryonic Development/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Genes, Developmental/genetics ; Models, Biological ; Phenotype ; *Phylogeny ; Species Specificity ; Transcriptome/genetics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Lymphoid tissue is a key reservoir established by HIV-1 during acute infection. It is a site associated with viral production, storage of viral particles in immune complexes, and viral persistence. Although combinations of antiretroviral drugs usually suppress viral replication and reduce viral RNA to undetectable levels in blood, it is unclear whether treatment fully suppresses viral replication in lymphoid tissue reservoirs. Here we show that virus evolution and trafficking between tissue compartments continues in patients with undetectable levels of virus in their bloodstream. We present a spatial and dynamic model of persistent viral replication and spread that indicates why the development of drug resistance is not a foregone conclusion under conditions in which drug concentrations are insufficient to completely block virus replication. These data provide new insights into the evolutionary and infection dynamics of the virus population within the host, revealing that HIV-1 can continue to replicate and replenish the viral reservoir despite potent antiretroviral therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramon -- Fryer, Helen R -- Bedford, Trevor -- Kim, Eun-Young -- Archer, John -- Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L -- Chung, Yoon-Seok -- Penugonda, Sudhir -- Chipman, Jeffrey G -- Fletcher, Courtney V -- Schacker, Timothy W -- Malim, Michael H -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Haase, Ashley T -- McLean, Angela R -- Wolinsky, Steven M -- AI1074340/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DA033773/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- G1000196/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM110749/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA033773/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):51-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16933. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60011, USA. ; Institute for Emerging Infections, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK. ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairao, Portugal. ; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; Division of AIDS, Center for Immunology and Pathology, Korea National Institutes of Health, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 28159, South Korea. ; Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Antiviral Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Pharmacy, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA. ; Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London SE21 7DN, UK. ; Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814962" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Carrier State/blood/*drug therapy/*virology ; Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects ; HIV Infections/blood/*drug therapy/*virology ; HIV-1/drug effects/genetics/*growth & development/isolation & purification ; Haplotypes/drug effects ; Humans ; Lymph Nodes/drug effects/virology ; Models, Biological ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Selection, Genetic/drug effects ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spatio-Temporal Analysis ; Time Factors ; *Viral Load/drug effects ; *Virus Replication/drug effects
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: The p53 pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor is mutated or functionally altered in most cancers. In epithelial tumours induced by 'high-risk' mucosal human papilloma viruses, including human cervical carcinoma and a growing number of head-and-neck cancers, p53 is degraded by the viral oncoprotein E6 (ref. 2). In this process, E6 binds to a short leucine (L)-rich LxxLL consensus sequence within the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP. Subsequently, the E6/E6AP heterodimer recruits and degrades p53 (ref. 4). Neither E6 nor E6AP are separately able to recruit p53 (refs 3, 5), and the precise mode of assembly of E6, E6AP and p53 is unknown. Here we solve the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising full-length human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) E6, the LxxLL motif of E6AP and the core domain of p53. The LxxLL motif of E6AP renders the conformation of E6 competent for interaction with p53 by structuring a p53-binding cleft on E6. Mutagenesis of critical positions at the E6-p53 interface disrupts p53 degradation. The E6-binding site of p53 is distal from previously described DNA- and protein-binding surfaces of the core domain. This suggests that, in principle, E6 may avoid competition with cellular factors by targeting both free and bound p53 molecules. The E6/E6AP/p53 complex represents a prototype of viral hijacking of both the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway and the p53 tumour suppressor pathway. The present structure provides a framework for the design of inhibitory therapeutic strategies against oncogenesis mediated by human papilloma virus.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez-Zapien, Denise -- Ruiz, Francesc Xavier -- Poirson, Juline -- Mitschler, Andre -- Ramirez, Juan -- Forster, Anne -- Cousido-Siah, Alexandra -- Masson, Murielle -- Vande Pol, Scott -- Podjarny, Alberto -- Trave, Gilles -- Zanier, Katia -- R01CA134737/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):541-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16481. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Equipe labellisee Ligue, Biotechnologie et signalisation cellulaire UMR 7242, Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sebastien Brant, BP 10413, F-67412 Illkirch, France. ; Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC)/INSERM U964/CNRS UMR 7104/Universite de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, F-67404 Illkirch, France. ; Department of Pathology, University of Virginia, PO Box 800904, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908-0904, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Human papillomavirus 16/chemistry/*metabolism/pathogenicity ; Humans ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Oncogene Proteins, Viral/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; *Proteolysis ; Repressor Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*chemistry
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator-prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus 'more microbes, fewer viruses'.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knowles, B -- Silveira, C B -- Bailey, B A -- Barott, K -- Cantu, V A -- Cobian-Guemes, A G -- Coutinho, F H -- Dinsdale, E A -- Felts, B -- Furby, K A -- George, E E -- Green, K T -- Gregoracci, G B -- Haas, A F -- Haggerty, J M -- Hester, E R -- Hisakawa, N -- Kelly, L W -- Lim, Y W -- Little, M -- Luque, A -- McDole-Somera, T -- McNair, K -- de Oliveira, L S -- Quistad, S D -- Robinett, N L -- Sala, E -- Salamon, P -- Sanchez, S E -- Sandin, S -- Silva, G G Z -- Smith, J -- Sullivan, C -- Thompson, C -- Vermeij, M J A -- Youle, M -- Young, C -- Zgliczynski, B -- Brainard, R -- Edwards, R A -- Nulton, J -- Thompson, F -- Rohwer, F -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):466-70. doi: 10.1038/nature17193. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-599, Brazil. ; Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 46-007 Lilipuna Road, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744, USA. ; Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Rainbow Rock, Ocean View, Hawaii 96737, USA. ; Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Centre for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics, 6525HP Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Viral Information Institute, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 8622 Kennel Way, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Biology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Marine Sciences Department, Sao Paulo Federal University - Baixada Santista, Av. Alm. Saldanha da Gama, 89, Santos, Sao Paulo 11030-400, Brazil. ; National Geographic Society, 1145 17th St NW, Washington D.C. 20036, USA. ; CARMABI Foundation, Piscaderabaai z/n, Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. ; Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa/physiology/*virology ; Bacteriophages/pathogenicity/physiology ; Coral Reefs ; *Ecosystem ; Genes, Viral/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Lysogeny ; Models, Biological ; Virulence/genetics ; Viruses/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey. They were then considered deuterostomes. Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs (=Xenacoelomorpha) as sister to all other Bilateria (=Nephrozoa), or placed Xenacoelomorpha inside Deuterostomia with Ambulacraria (Hemichordata + Echinodermata). Here we describe four new species of Xenoturbella and reassess those hypotheses. A large species (〉20 cm long) was found at cold-water hydrocarbon seeps at 2,890 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California (Mexico). A second large species (~10 cm long) also occurred at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California. The third large species (~15 cm long) was found at ~3,700 m depth near a newly discovered carbonate-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Gulf of California. Finally, a small species (~2.5 cm long), found near a whale carcass at 631 m depth in Monterey Submarine Canyon (California), resembles the two nominal species from Sweden. Analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes places the three larger species as a sister clade to the smaller Atlantic and Pacific species. Phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomic sequences support placement of Xenacoelomorpha as sister to Nephrozoa or Protostomia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rouse, Greg W -- Wilson, Nerida G -- Carvajal, Jose I -- Vrijenhoek, Robert C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):94-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia 6986, Australia. ; School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Monterey Bay Aquarium and Research Institute, Moss Landing, California 95039, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842060" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*classification/genetics ; Atlantic Ocean ; Bayes Theorem ; California ; Female ; Genes ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Hydrothermal Vents ; Likelihood Functions ; Male ; Mexico ; Models, Biological ; Pacific Ocean ; *Phylogeny ; Species Specificity ; Sweden ; Transcriptome/genetics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Description: Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on population management in a range of harvested species where trends towards earlier maturation have been observed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barson, Nicola J -- Aykanat, Tutku -- Hindar, Kjetil -- Baranski, Matthew -- Bolstad, Geir H -- Fiske, Peder -- Jacq, Celeste -- Jensen, Arne J -- Johnston, Susan E -- Karlsson, Sten -- Kent, Matthew -- Moen, Thomas -- Niemela, Eero -- Nome, Torfinn -- Naesje, Tor F -- Orell, Panu -- Romakkaniemi, Atso -- Saegrov, Harald -- Urdal, Kurt -- Erkinaro, Jaakko -- Lien, Sigbjorn -- Primmer, Craig R -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):405-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16062. Epub 2015 Nov 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Integrative Genetics (CIGENE), Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-1432 As, Norway. ; Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014, Finland. ; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), NO-7485 Trondheim, Norway. ; Nofima - Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, NO-1431 As, Norway. ; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK. ; AquaGen, NO-7462 Trondheim, Norway. ; Natural Resources Institute Finland, Oulu, FI-90014, Finland. ; Radgivende Biologer, NO-5003 Bergen, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26536110" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Body Size/*genetics ; Female ; Fish Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Growth/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Phenotype ; Reproduction/genetics/physiology ; Salmo salar/*genetics ; *Sex Characteristics ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-12-04
    Description: Overflow metabolism refers to the seemingly wasteful strategy in which cells use fermentation instead of the more efficient respiration to generate energy, despite the availability of oxygen. Known as the Warburg effect in the context of cancer growth, this phenomenon occurs ubiquitously for fast-growing cells, including bacteria, fungi and mammalian cells, but its origin has remained unclear despite decades of research. Here we study metabolic overflow in Escherichia coli, and show that it is a global physiological response used to cope with changing proteomic demands of energy biogenesis and biomass synthesis under different growth conditions. A simple model of proteomic resource allocation can quantitatively account for all of the observed behaviours, and accurately predict responses to new perturbations. The key hypothesis of the model, that the proteome cost of energy biogenesis by respiration exceeds that by fermentation, is quantitatively confirmed by direct measurement of protein abundances via quantitative mass spectrometry.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Basan, Markus -- Hui, Sheng -- Okano, Hiroyuki -- Zhang, Zhongge -- Shen, Yang -- Williamson, James R -- Hwa, Terence -- R01-GM109069/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 3;528(7580):99-104. doi: 10.1038/nature15765.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0374, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Section of Molecular Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Department of Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632588" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetic Acid/metabolism ; Biomass ; Cell Respiration ; Energy Metabolism ; Escherichia coli/growth & development/*metabolism ; Escherichia coli Proteins/*metabolism ; Fermentation ; Mass Spectrometry ; Models, Biological ; Neoplasms/metabolism/pathology ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Proteome/*metabolism ; Proteomics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-01-28
    Description: The origin of mutations is central to understanding evolution and of key relevance to health. Variation occurs non-randomly across the genome, and mechanisms for this remain to be defined. Here we report that the 5' ends of Okazaki fragments have significantly increased levels of nucleotide substitution, indicating a replicative origin for such mutations. Using a novel method, emRiboSeq, we map the genome-wide contribution of polymerases, and show that despite Okazaki fragment processing, DNA synthesized by error-prone polymerase-alpha (Pol-alpha) is retained in vivo, comprising approximately 1.5% of the mature genome. We propose that DNA-binding proteins that rapidly re-associate post-replication act as partial barriers to Pol-delta-mediated displacement of Pol-alpha-synthesized DNA, resulting in incorporation of such Pol-alpha tracts and increased mutation rates at specific sites. We observe a mutational cost to chromatin and regulatory protein binding, resulting in mutation hotspots at regulatory elements, with signatures of this process detectable in both yeast and humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4374164/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4374164/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reijns, Martin A M -- Kemp, Harriet -- Ding, James -- de Proce, Sophie Marion -- Jackson, Andrew P -- Taylor, Martin S -- MC_PC_U127580972/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_PC_U127597124/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127597124/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 26;518(7540):502-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14183. Epub 2015 Jan 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical and Developmental Genetics, MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Biomedical Systems Analysis, MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624100" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Chromatin/chemistry/metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; DNA/*biosynthesis/*genetics ; DNA Polymerase I/metabolism ; DNA Polymerase III/metabolism ; DNA Replication/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; Models, Biological ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Protein Binding ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-04-16
    Description: CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats coupled with CRISPR-associated proteins) is a bacterial immunity system that protects against invading phages or plasmids. In the process of CRISPR adaptation, short pieces of DNA ('spacers') are acquired from foreign elements and integrated into the CRISPR array. So far, it has remained a mystery how spacers are preferentially acquired from the foreign DNA while the self chromosome is avoided. Here we show that spacer acquisition is replication-dependent, and that DNA breaks formed at stalled replication forks promote spacer acquisition. Chromosomal hotspots of spacer acquisition were confined by Chi sites, which are sequence octamers highly enriched on the bacterial chromosome, suggesting that these sites limit spacer acquisition from self DNA. We further show that the avoidance of self is mediated by the RecBCD double-stranded DNA break repair complex. Our results suggest that, in Escherichia coli, acquisition of new spacers largely depends on RecBCD-mediated processing of double-stranded DNA breaks occurring primarily at replication forks, and that the preference for foreign DNA is achieved through the higher density of Chi sites on the self chromosome, in combination with the higher number of forks on the foreign DNA. This model explains the strong preference to acquire spacers both from high copy plasmids and from phages.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561520/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561520/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levy, Asaf -- Goren, Moran G -- Yosef, Ido -- Auster, Oren -- Manor, Miriam -- Amitai, Gil -- Edgar, Rotem -- Qimron, Udi -- Sorek, Rotem -- 260432/European Research Council/International -- 336079/European Research Council/International -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):505-10. doi: 10.1038/nature14302. Epub 2015 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874675" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptation, Physiological ; Bacteriophages/*genetics ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/*genetics ; Consensus Sequence/genetics ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Repair ; DNA Replication/genetics ; DNA, Bacterial/*genetics ; DNA, Viral/*genetics ; Escherichia coli/*genetics ; Exodeoxyribonuclease V/metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Plasmids/*genetics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: During bacterial growth, a cell approximately doubles in size before division, after which it splits into two daughter cells. This process is subjected to the inherent perturbations of cellular noise and thus requires regulation for cell-size homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying the control and dynamics of cell size remain poorly understood owing to the difficulty in sizing individual bacteria over long periods of time in a high-throughput manner. Here we measure and analyse long-term, single-cell growth and division across different Escherichia coli strains and growth conditions. We show that a subset of cells in a population exhibit transient oscillations in cell size with periods that stretch across several (more than ten) generations. Our analysis reveals that a simple law governing cell-size control-a noisy linear map-explains the origins of these cell-size oscillations across all strains. This noisy linear map implements a negative feedback on cell-size control: a cell with a larger initial size tends to divide earlier, whereas one with a smaller initial size tends to divide later. Combining simulations of cell growth and division with experimental data, we demonstrate that this noisy linear map generates transient oscillations, not just in cell size, but also in constitutive gene expression. Our work provides new insights into the dynamics of bacterial cell-size regulation with implications for the physiological processes involved.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tanouchi, Yu -- Pai, Anand -- Park, Heungwon -- Huang, Shuqiang -- Stamatov, Rumen -- Buchler, Nicolas E -- You, Lingchong -- DP2 OD008654/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP2 OD008654-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01GM098642/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM110494/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 16;523(7560):357-60. doi: 10.1038/nature14562. Epub 2015 Jun 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; 1] Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA [2] Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; 1] Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA [2] Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA [3] Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA [2] Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cell Division/genetics ; Cell Size ; Computer Simulation ; Escherichia coli/classification/*cytology/*genetics/growth & development ; *Feedback, Physiological ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Models, Biological ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Time Factors
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Earlier spring leaf unfolding is a frequently observed response of plants to climate warming. Many deciduous tree species require chilling for dormancy release, and warming-related reductions in chilling may counteract the advance of leaf unfolding in response to warming. Empirical evidence for this, however, is limited to saplings or twigs in climate-controlled chambers. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, here we show that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance of leaf unfolding per degrees C warming) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 +/- 1.8 days degrees C(-1) during 1980-1994 to 2.3 +/- 1.6 days degrees C(-1) during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also have a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates occur too early in the season. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining ST, but also suggest that the predicted strong winter warming in the future may further reduce ST and therefore result in a slowdown in the advance of tree spring phenology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fu, Yongshuo H -- Zhao, Hongfang -- Piao, Shilong -- Peaucelle, Marc -- Peng, Shushi -- Zhou, Guiyun -- Ciais, Philippe -- Huang, Mengtian -- Menzel, Annette -- Penuelas, Josep -- Song, Yang -- Vitasse, Yann -- Zeng, Zhenzhong -- Janssens, Ivan A -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15402. Epub 2015 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Centre of Excellence PLECO (Plant and Vegetation Ecology), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. ; Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology and Biodiversity, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Center for Excellence in Tibetan Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. ; Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91190, France. ; School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China. ; Ecoclimatology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising 85354, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Munchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany. ; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; University of Neuchatel, Institute of Geography, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Neuchatel 2000, Switzerland. ; WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Group Mountain Ecosystems, Davos 7260, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416746" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; Europe ; *Global Warming ; Models, Biological ; Photoperiod ; Plant Leaves/*growth & development ; *Seasons ; Time Factors ; Trees/*growth & development
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-03-13
    Description: Initiation of cellular DNA replication is tightly controlled to sustain genomic integrity. In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset. Here we describe the crystal structure of Drosophila ORC at 3.5 A resolution, showing that the 270 kilodalton initiator core complex comprises a two-layered notched ring in which a collar of winged-helix domains from the Orc1-5 subunits sits atop a layer of AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) folds. Although canonical inter-AAA+ domain interactions exist between four of the six ORC subunits, unanticipated features are also evident. These include highly interdigitated domain-swapping interactions between the winged-helix folds and AAA+ modules of neighbouring protomers, and a quasi-spiral arrangement of DNA binding elements that circumnavigate an approximately 20 A wide channel in the centre of the complex. Comparative analyses indicate that ORC encircles DNA, using its winged-helix domain face to engage the mini-chromosome maintenance 2-7 (MCM2-7) complex during replicative helicase loading; however, an observed out-of-plane rotation of more than 90 degrees for the Orc1 AAA+ domain disrupts interactions with catalytic amino acids in Orc4, narrowing and sealing off entry into the central channel. Prima facie, our data indicate that Drosophila ORC can switch between active and autoinhibited conformations, suggesting a novel means for cell cycle and/or developmental control of ORC functions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368505/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368505/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bleichert, Franziska -- Botchan, Michael R -- Berger, James M -- CA R37-30490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM071747/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM071747/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 19;519(7543):321-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14239. Epub 2015 Mar 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762138" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Archaeal Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA/chemistry/metabolism ; DNA Replication ; Drosophila melanogaster/*chemistry ; Eukaryotic Cells/*chemistry ; Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Origin Recognition Complex/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Rotation
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2015-01-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cressey, Daniel -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 15;517(7534):255-6. doi: 10.1038/517255a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic ; Ecology/*methods ; *Ecosystem ; Humans ; Laboratories ; Models, Biological ; Pacific Ocean ; Polynesia ; *Research ; *Tropical Climate ; *User-Computer Interface
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-03-13
    Description: Stochastic processes in cells are associated with fluctuations in mRNA, protein production and degradation, noisy partition of cellular components at division, and other cell processes. Variability within a clonal population of cells originates from such stochastic processes, which may be amplified or reduced by deterministic factors. Cell-to-cell variability, such as that seen in the heterogeneous response of bacteria to antibiotics, or of cancer cells to treatment, is understood as the inevitable consequence of stochasticity. Variability in cell-cycle duration was observed long ago; however, its sources are still unknown. A central question is whether the variance of the observed distribution originates from stochastic processes, or whether it arises mostly from a deterministic process that only appears to be random. A surprising feature of cell-cycle-duration inheritance is that it seems to be lost within one generation but to be still present in the next generation, generating poor correlation between mother and daughter cells but high correlation between cousin cells. This observation suggests the existence of underlying deterministic factors that determine the main part of cell-to-cell variability. We developed an experimental system that precisely measures the cell-cycle duration of thousands of mammalian cells along several generations and a mathematical framework that allows discrimination between stochastic and deterministic processes in lineages of cells. We show that the inter- and intra-generation correlations reveal complex inheritance of the cell-cycle duration. Finally, we build a deterministic nonlinear toy model for cell-cycle inheritance that reproduces the main features of our data. Our approach constitutes a general method to identify deterministic variability in lineages of cells or organisms, which may help to predict and, eventually, reduce cell-to-cell heterogeneity in various systems, such as cancer cells under treatment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sandler, Oded -- Mizrahi, Sivan Pearl -- Weiss, Noga -- Agam, Oded -- Simon, Itamar -- Balaban, Nathalie Q -- England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 26;519(7544):468-71. doi: 10.1038/nature14318. Epub 2015 Mar 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, IMRIC, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. ; 1] Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, IMRIC, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel [2] Racah Institute of Physics, Edmond J. Safra Campus, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. ; Racah Institute of Physics, Edmond J. Safra Campus, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762143" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Cell Cycle/drug effects/*genetics ; Cell Division/drug effects/genetics ; Cell Line ; *Cell Lineage ; Mammals ; Models, Biological ; Stochastic Processes ; Time Factors
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2015-04-24
    Description: It has been more than 30 years since the publication of the new head hypothesis, which proposed that the vertebrate head is an evolutionary novelty resulting from the emergence of neural crest and cranial placodes. Neural crest generates the skull and associated connective tissues, whereas placodes produce sensory organs. However, neither crest nor placodes produce head muscles, which are a crucial component of the complex vertebrate head. We discuss emerging evidence for a surprising link between the evolution of head muscles and chambered hearts - both systems arise from a common pool of mesoderm progenitor cells within the cardiopharyngeal field of vertebrate embryos. We consider the origin of this field in non-vertebrate chordates and its evolution in vertebrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diogo, Rui -- Kelly, Robert G -- Christiaen, Lionel -- Levine, Michael -- Ziermann, Janine M -- Molnar, Julia L -- Noden, Drew M -- Tzahor, Eldad -- NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM096032/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HL108643/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):466-73. doi: 10.1038/nature14435.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC 20059, USA. ; Aix Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille UMR 7288, 13288 Marseille, France. ; Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, New York 10003, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. ; Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Branchial Region/anatomy & histology/cytology/*embryology ; Head/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Heart/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Mesoderm/cytology ; Models, Biological ; Muscles/anatomy & histology/cytology/embryology ; Neural Crest/cytology ; Vertebrates/*anatomy & histology/*embryology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Multicellular assemblages of microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature, and the proximity afforded by aggregation is thought to permit intercellular metabolic coupling that can accommodate otherwise unfavourable reactions. Consortia of methane-oxidizing archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria are a well-known environmental example of microbial co-aggregation; however, the coupling mechanisms between these paired organisms is not well understood, despite the attention given them because of the global significance of anaerobic methane oxidation. Here we examined the influence of interspecies spatial positioning as it relates to biosynthetic activity within structurally diverse uncultured methane-oxidizing consortia by measuring stable isotope incorporation for individual archaeal and bacterial cells to constrain their potential metabolic interactions. In contrast to conventional models of syntrophy based on the passage of molecular intermediates, cellular activities were found to be independent of both species intermixing and distance between syntrophic partners within consortia. A generalized model of electric conductivity between co-associated archaea and bacteria best fit the empirical data. Combined with the detection of large multi-haem cytochromes in the genomes of methanotrophic archaea and the demonstration of redox-dependent staining of the matrix between cells in consortia, these results provide evidence for syntrophic coupling through direct electron transfer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGlynn, Shawn E -- Chadwick, Grayson L -- Kempes, Christopher P -- Orphan, Victoria J -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):531-5. doi: 10.1038/nature15512. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; Exobiology Branch, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA. ; Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; SETI Institute, Mountain View, California 94034, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375009" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaerobiosis ; Archaea/cytology/*metabolism ; Cytochromes/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Deltaproteobacteria/cytology/*metabolism ; Diffusion ; Electron Transport ; Genome, Archaeal/genetics ; Genome, Bacterial/genetics ; Heme/metabolism ; Methane/*metabolism ; Microbiota/physiology ; Models, Biological ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Single-Cell Analysis ; Sulfates/metabolism ; *Symbiosis
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: In all domains of life, DNA synthesis occurs bidirectionally from replication origins. Despite variable rates of replication fork progression, fork convergence often occurs at specific sites. Escherichia coli sets a 'replication fork trap' that allows the first arriving fork to enter but not to leave the terminus region. The trap is set by oppositely oriented Tus-bound Ter sites that block forks on approach from only one direction. However, the efficiency of fork blockage by Tus-Ter does not exceed 50% in vivo despite its apparent ability to almost permanently arrest replication forks in vitro. Here we use data from single-molecule DNA replication assays and structural studies to show that both polarity and fork-arrest efficiency are determined by a competition between rates of Tus displacement and rearrangement of Tus-Ter interactions that leads to blockage of slower moving replisomes by two distinct mechanisms. To our knowledge this is the first example where intrinsic differences in rates of individual replisomes have different biological outcomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Elshenawy, Mohamed M -- Jergic, Slobodan -- Xu, Zhi-Qiang -- Sobhy, Mohamed A -- Takahashi, Masateru -- Oakley, Aaron J -- Dixon, Nicholas E -- Hamdan, Samir M -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):394-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14866. Epub 2015 Aug 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia. ; Centre for Medical &Molecular Bioscience, Illawarra Health &Medical Research Institute and University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322585" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Binding, Competitive ; Chromosomes, Bacterial/genetics/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; *DNA Replication ; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/chemistry/*metabolism ; Escherichia coli/*genetics/metabolism ; Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Kinetics ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Movement ; Multienzyme Complexes/chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Surface Plasmon Resonance ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2015-12-25
    Description: Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kunstler, Georges -- Falster, Daniel -- Coomes, David A -- Hui, Francis -- Kooyman, Robert M -- Laughlin, Daniel C -- Poorter, Lourens -- Vanderwel, Mark -- Vieilledent, Ghislain -- Wright, S Joseph -- Aiba, Masahiro -- Baraloto, Christopher -- Caspersen, John -- Cornelissen, J Hans C -- Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie -- Hanewinkel, Marc -- Herault, Bruno -- Kattge, Jens -- Kurokawa, Hiroko -- Onoda, Yusuke -- Penuelas, Josep -- Poorter, Hendrik -- Uriarte, Maria -- Richardson, Sarah -- Ruiz-Benito, Paloma -- Sun, I-Fang -- Stahl, Goran -- Swenson, Nathan G -- Thompson, Jill -- Westerlund, Bertil -- Wirth, Christian -- Zavala, Miguel A -- Zeng, Hongcheng -- Zimmerman, Jess K -- Zimmermann, Niklaus E -- Westoby, Mark -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):204-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16476. Epub 2015 Dec 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Irstea, UR EMGR, 2 rue de la Papeterie BP-76, F-38402, St-Martin-d'Heres, France. ; Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38402 Grenoble, France. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia. ; Forest Ecology and Conservation Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK. ; Mathematical Sciences Institute, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia. ; National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney 2000, New South Wales, Australia. ; Environmental Research Institute, School of Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand. ; Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Pkwy, Regina SK S4S 0A2, Canada. ; Cirad, UPR BSEF, F-34398 Montpellier, France. ; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Republic of Panama. ; Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. ; INRA, UMR Ecologie des Forets de Guyane, BP 709, 97387 Kourou Cedex, France. ; International Center for Tropical Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, USA. ; Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B3, Canada. ; Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Landscape Dynamics Unit, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland. ; Systems Ecology, Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands. ; Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Forest Resources and Management Unit, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland. ; University of Freiburg, Chair of Forestry Economics and Planning, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany. ; Cirad, UMR Ecologie des Forets de Guyane, Campus Agronomique, BP 701, 97387 Kourou, France. ; Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knoll Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. ; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan. ; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain. ; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Valles, 08193 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Plant Sciences (IBG-2), Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, D-52425 Julich, Germany. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand. ; Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. ; Forest Ecology and Restoration Group, Department of Life Sciences, Science Building, University of Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28805 Alcala de Henares (Madrid), Spain. ; Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan. ; Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Skogsmarksgrand, 901 83 Umea, Sweden. ; Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA. ; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB, UK. ; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus PO Box 70377 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377, USA. ; Institute for Systematic, Botany and Functional Biodiversity, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 21 04103 Leipzig, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700807" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Forests ; Internationality ; Models, Biological ; *Phenotype ; Plant Leaves/physiology ; Trees/*anatomy & histology/growth & development/*physiology ; Wood/analysis
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-07-30
    Description: DNA replication in eukaryotes is strictly regulated by several mechanisms. A central step in this replication is the assembly of the heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) helicase complex at replication origins during G1 phase as an inactive double hexamer. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy, we report a near-atomic structure of the MCM2-7 double hexamer purified from yeast G1 chromatin. Our structure shows that two single hexamers, arranged in a tilted and twisted fashion through interdigitated amino-terminal domain interactions, form a kinked central channel. Four constricted rings consisting of conserved interior beta-hairpins from the two single hexamers create a narrow passageway that tightly fits duplex DNA. This narrow passageway, reinforced by the offset of the two single hexamers at the double hexamer interface, is flanked by two pairs of gate-forming subunits, MCM2 and MCM5. These unusual features of the twisted and tilted single hexamers suggest a concerted mechanism for the melting of origin DNA that requires structural deformation of the intervening DNA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Ningning -- Zhai, Yuanliang -- Zhang, Yixiao -- Li, Wanqiu -- Yang, Maojun -- Lei, Jianlin -- Tye, Bik-Kwoon -- Gao, Ning -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 13;524(7564):186-91. doi: 10.1038/nature14685. Epub 2015 Jul 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; 1] Division of Life Science, Hong Kong Universityof Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China [2] Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. ; 1] Division of Life Science, Hong Kong Universityof Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China [2] Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26222030" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Chromatin/chemistry ; Conserved Sequence ; *Cryoelectron Microscopy ; DNA/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/chemistry/ultrastructure ; G1 Phase ; Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Multienzyme Complexes/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Nucleic Acid Denaturation ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/*chemistry/metabolism ; Replication Origin ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2015-04-04
    Description: Human activities, especially conversion and degradation of habitats, are causing global biodiversity declines. How local ecological assemblages are responding is less clear--a concern given their importance for many ecosystem functions and services. We analysed a terrestrial assemblage database of unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and related changes. Here we show that in the worst-affected habitats, these pressures reduce within-sample species richness by an average of 76.5%, total abundance by 39.5% and rarefaction-based richness by 40.3%. We estimate that, globally, these pressures have already slightly reduced average within-sample richness (by 13.6%), total abundance (10.7%) and rarefaction-based richness (8.1%), with changes showing marked spatial variation. Rapid further losses are predicted under a business-as-usual land-use scenario; within-sample richness is projected to fall by a further 3.4% globally by 2100, with losses concentrated in biodiverse but economically poor countries. Strong mitigation can deliver much more positive biodiversity changes (up to a 1.9% average increase) that are less strongly related to countries' socioeconomic status.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Newbold, Tim -- Hudson, Lawrence N -- Hill, Samantha L L -- Contu, Sara -- Lysenko, Igor -- Senior, Rebecca A -- Borger, Luca -- Bennett, Dominic J -- Choimes, Argyrios -- Collen, Ben -- Day, Julie -- De Palma, Adriana -- Diaz, Sandra -- Echeverria-Londono, Susy -- Edgar, Melanie J -- Feldman, Anat -- Garon, Morgan -- Harrison, Michelle L K -- Alhusseini, Tamera -- Ingram, Daniel J -- Itescu, Yuval -- Kattge, Jens -- Kemp, Victoria -- Kirkpatrick, Lucinda -- Kleyer, Michael -- Correia, David Laginha Pinto -- Martin, Callum D -- Meiri, Shai -- Novosolov, Maria -- Pan, Yuan -- Phillips, Helen R P -- Purves, Drew W -- Robinson, Alexandra -- Simpson, Jake -- Tuck, Sean L -- Weiher, Evan -- White, Hannah J -- Ewers, Robert M -- Mace, Georgina M -- Scharlemann, Jorn P W -- Purvis, Andy -- BB/F017324/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 2;520(7545):45-50. doi: 10.1038/nature14324.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. [2] Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK. ; Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. ; 1] United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. [2] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, London SL5 7PY, UK. ; United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. ; Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. ; 1] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. [2] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, London SL5 7PY, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (CONICET-UNC) and FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina. ; Deptartment of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel. ; 1] Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knoll Strasse 10, 07743 Jena, Germany. [2] German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Landscape Ecology Group, Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany. ; Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK. ; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK. ; Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, Wisconsin 54701, USA. ; 1] United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. [2] School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources/trends ; Ecology/trends ; History, 16th Century ; History, 17th Century ; History, 18th Century ; History, 19th Century ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; *Human Activities ; Models, Biological ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    Description: Transitional fossils informing the origin of turtles are among the most sought-after discoveries in palaeontology. Despite strong genomic evidence indicating that turtles evolved from within the diapsid radiation (which includes all other living reptiles), evidence of the inferred transformation between an ancestral turtle with an open, diapsid skull to the closed, anapsid condition of modern turtles remains elusive. Here we use high-resolution computed tomography and a novel character/taxon matrix to study the skull of Eunotosaurus africanus, a 260-million-year-old fossil reptile from the Karoo Basin of South Africa, whose distinctive postcranial skeleton shares many unique features with the shelled body plan of turtles. Scepticism regarding the status of Eunotosaurus as the earliest stem turtle arises from the possibility that these shell-related features are the products of evolutionary convergence. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate strong cranial support for Eunotosaurus as a critical transitional form in turtle evolution, thus fortifying a 40-million-year extension to the turtle stem and moving the ecological context of its origin back onto land. Furthermore, we find unexpected evidence that Eunotosaurus is a diapsid reptile in the process of becoming secondarily anapsid. This is important because categorizing the skull based on the number of openings in the complex of dermal bone covering the adductor chamber has long held sway in amniote systematics, and still represents a common organizational scheme for teaching the evolutionary history of the group. These discoveries allow us to articulate a detailed and testable hypothesis of fenestral closure along the turtle stem. Our results suggest that Eunotosaurus represents a crucially important link in a chain that will eventually lead to consilience in reptile systematics, paving the way for synthetic studies of amniote evolution and development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bever, G S -- Lyson, Tyler R -- Field, Daniel J -- Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):239-42. doi: 10.1038/nature14900. Epub 2015 Sep 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, New York 11568, USA. ; Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024, USA. ; Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, P.O. WITS, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. ; Department of Earth Sciences, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, Colorado 80205, USA. ; Department of Geology &Geophysics and Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331544" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fossils ; Models, Biological ; *Phylogeny ; Skull/*anatomy & histology ; South Africa ; Turtles/*anatomy & histology
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  • 28
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-03-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 26;519(7544):389. doi: 10.1038/519389a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25810167" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain ; Computational Biology/trends ; Computer Simulation ; Europe ; Humans ; Mental Disorders ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Models, Biological ; Neurosciences/*methods/*organization & administration/standards/trends ; Primates ; Research Personnel
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  • 29
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, Neil -- England -- Nature. 2015 May 21;521(7552):S64-5. doi: 10.1038/521S64a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992677" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aircraft ; Animals ; Bees/*physiology ; *Biomimetics ; Flight, Animal/*physiology ; Models, Biological ; *Robotics
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  • 30
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    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-10-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Palmer, Tim -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):32-3. doi: 10.1038/526032a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Royal Society research professor of climate physics and co-director of the Oxford Martin Programme on Modelling and Predicting Climate at the University of Oxford, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26432226" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Computer Simulation/*trends ; Computers/*trends ; *Conservation of Energy Resources ; Equipment Design ; Models, Biological
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2015-08-13
    Description: Protein aggregates and damaged organelles are tagged with ubiquitin chains to trigger selective autophagy. To initiate mitophagy, the ubiquitin kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate the ubiquitin ligase parkin, which builds ubiquitin chains on mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, where they act to recruit autophagy receptors. Using genome editing to knockout five autophagy receptors in HeLa cells, here we show that two receptors previously linked to xenophagy, NDP52 and optineurin, are the primary receptors for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy. PINK1 recruits NDP52 and optineurin, but not p62, to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of parkin. Once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and optineurin recruit the autophagy factors ULK1, DFCP1 and WIPI1 to focal spots proximal to mitochondria, revealing a function for these autophagy receptors upstream of LC3. This supports a new model in which PINK1-generated phospho-ubiquitin serves as the autophagy signal on mitochondria, and parkin then acts to amplify this signal. This work also suggests direct and broader roles for ubiquitin phosphorylation in other autophagy pathways.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lazarou, Michael -- Sliter, Danielle A -- Kane, Lesley A -- Sarraf, Shireen A -- Wang, Chunxin -- Burman, Jonathon L -- Sideris, Dionisia P -- Fogel, Adam I -- Youle, Richard J -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 20;524(7565):309-14. doi: 10.1038/nature14893. Epub 2015 Aug 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Autophagy/*physiology ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Mitochondrial Degradation/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factor TFIIIA/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2015-12-04
    Description: Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress has been implicated as a driver of tumorigenesis. Many chromosomal rearrangements characteristic of human cancers originate from specific regions of the genome called common fragile sites (CFSs). CFSs are difficult-to-replicate loci that manifest as gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes (termed CFS 'expression'), particularly when cells have been exposed to replicative stress. The MUS81-EME1 structure-specific endonuclease promotes the appearance of chromosome gaps or breaks at CFSs following replicative stress. Here we show that entry of cells into mitotic prophase triggers the recruitment of MUS81 to CFSs. The nuclease activity of MUS81 then promotes POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis at CFSs, which serves to minimize chromosome mis-segregation and non-disjunction. We propose that the attempted condensation of incompletely duplicated loci in early mitosis serves as the trigger for completion of DNA replication at CFS loci in human cells. Given that this POLD3-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis is enhanced in aneuploid cancer cells that exhibit intrinsically high levels of chromosomal instability (CIN(+)) and replicative stress, we suggest that targeting this pathway could represent a new therapeutic approach.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Minocherhomji, Sheroy -- Ying, Songmin -- Bjerregaard, Victoria A -- Bursomanno, Sara -- Aleliunaite, Aiste -- Wu, Wei -- Mankouri, Hocine W -- Shen, Huahao -- Liu, Ying -- Hickson, Ian D -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 10;528(7581):286-90. doi: 10.1038/nature16139. Epub 2015 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Chromosome Stability and Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. ; Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China. ; Department of Pharmacology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease (SKLRD), Guangzhou 510120, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26633632" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carcinogenesis/*genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromosomal Instability ; Chromosome Fragile Sites ; Chromosome Segregation ; DNA Polymerase III/metabolism ; DNA Repair/*physiology ; *DNA Replication/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; Endonucleases/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; HCT116 Cells ; HT29 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Mitosis/*genetics ; Models, Biological ; Nondisjunction, Genetic/genetics ; Stress, Physiological/*genetics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2015-04-24
    Description: Over the past 200 years, almost every invertebrate phylum has been proposed as a starting point for evolving vertebrates. Most of these scenarios are outdated, but several are still seriously considered. The short-range transition from ancestral invertebrate chordates (similar to amphioxus and tunicates) to vertebrates is well accepted. However, longer-range transitions leading up to the invertebrate chordates themselves are more controversial. Opinion is divided between the annelid and the enteropneust scenarios, predicting, respectively, a complex or a simple ancestor for bilaterian animals. Deciding between these ideas will be facilitated by further comparative studies of multicellular animals, including enigmatic taxa such as xenacoelomorphs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holland, Nicholas D -- Holland, Linda Z -- Holland, Peter W H -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):450-5. doi: 10.1038/nature14433.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903626" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Annelida/anatomy & histology/classification ; Invertebrates/anatomy & histology/classification ; Models, Biological ; *Phylogeny ; Research ; *Vertebrates/anatomy & histology/classification
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Monier, Bruno -- Gettings, Melanie -- Gay, Guillaume -- Mangeat, Thomas -- Schott, Sonia -- Guarner, Ana -- Suzanne, Magali -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):245-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14152. Epub 2015 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LBCMCP, F-31062 Toulouse, France [2] CNRS, LBCMCP, F-31062 Toulouse, France. ; DamCB, Data Analysis and Modelling for Cell Biology, 13005 Marseille, France. ; Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (C.S.I.C.-U.A.M.), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Nicolas Cabrera 1, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607361" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adherens Junctions/chemistry/metabolism ; Animals ; *Apoptosis ; *Cell Polarity ; Cell Shape ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/*embryology ; Epithelial Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Epithelium/*embryology ; Models, Biological ; *Morphogenesis ; Myosin Type II/metabolism
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: To contend with hazards posed by environmental fluoride, microorganisms export this anion through F(-)-specific ion channels of the Fluc family. Since the recent discovery of Fluc channels, numerous idiosyncratic features of these proteins have been unearthed, including strong selectivity for F(-) over Cl(-) and dual-topology dimeric assembly. To understand the chemical basis for F(-) permeation and how the antiparallel subunits convene to form a F(-)-selective pore, here we solve the crystal structures of two bacterial Fluc homologues in complex with three different monobody inhibitors, with and without F(-) present, to a maximum resolution of 2.1 A. The structures reveal a surprising 'double-barrelled' channel architecture in which two F(-) ion pathways span the membrane, and the dual-topology arrangement includes a centrally coordinated cation, most likely Na(+). F(-) selectivity is proposed to arise from the very narrow pores and an unusual anion coordination that exploits the quadrupolar edges of conserved phenylalanine rings.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stockbridge, Randy B -- Kolmakova-Partensky, Ludmila -- Shane, Tania -- Koide, Akiko -- Koide, Shohei -- Miller, Christopher -- Newstead, Simon -- 102890/Z/13/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- K99 GM111767/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K99-GM-111767/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM107023/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM107023/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM087519/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54-GM087519/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):548-51. doi: 10.1038/nature14981. Epub 2015 Sep 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344196" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anions/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluorides/chemistry/*metabolism/*pharmacology ; Ion Channels/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Phenylalanine/metabolism ; Protein Conformation
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2015-05-27
    Description: Cells sense the context in which they grow to adapt their phenotype and allow multicellular patterning by mechanisms of autocrine and paracrine signalling. However, patterns also form in cell populations exposed to the same signalling molecules and substratum, which often correlate with specific features of the population context of single cells, such as local cell crowding. Here we reveal a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism that allows multicellular patterning without requiring specific communication between cells. It acts by sensing the local crowding of a single cell through its ability to spread and activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), resulting in adaptation of genes controlling membrane homeostasis. In cells experiencing low crowding, FAK suppresses transcription of the ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) by inhibiting FOXO3 and TAL1. Agent-based computational modelling and experimental confirmation identified membrane-based signalling and feedback control as crucial for the emergence of population patterns of ABCA1 expression, which adapts membrane lipid composition to cell crowding and affects multiple signalling activities, including the suppression of ABCA1 expression itself. The simple design of this cell-intrinsic system and its broad impact on the signalling state of mammalian single cells suggests a fundamental role for a tunable membrane lipid composition in collective cell behaviour.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Frechin, Mathieu -- Stoeger, Thomas -- Daetwyler, Stephan -- Gehin, Charlotte -- Battich, Nico -- Damm, Eva-Maria -- Stergiou, Lilli -- Riezman, Howard -- Pelkmans, Lucas -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 2;523(7558):88-91. doi: 10.1038/nature14429. Epub 2015 May 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; 1] Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland [2] Life Science Zurich Graduate School, Ph.D. program in Systems Biology. ETH Zurich and University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland. ; Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009010" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/genetics/metabolism ; *Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; Cell Communication/*physiology ; Cell Count ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Membrane/*chemistry ; Fibroblasts/chemistry/*cytology/enzymology ; Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism ; Lipids/*chemistry ; Mice ; Models, Biological ; *Signal Transduction ; Transcriptome
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Description: Classical sexual selection theory provides a well-supported conceptual framework for understanding the evolution and signalling function of male ornaments. It predicts that males obtain greater fitness benefits than females through multiple mating because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs. Sexual selection should therefore lead to the evolution of male-biased secondary sexual characters. However, females of many species are also highly ornamented. The view that this is due to a correlated genetic response to selection on males was widely accepted as an explanation for female ornamentation for over 100 years and current theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that genetic constraints can limit sex-specific trait evolution. Alternatively, female ornamentation can be the outcome of direct selection for signalling needs. Since few studies have explored interspecific patterns of both male and female elaboration, our understanding of the evolution of animal ornamentation remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we use a new method to quantify plumage colour of all ~6,000 species of passerine birds to determine the main evolutionary drivers of ornamental colouration in both sexes. We found that conspecific male and female colour elaboration are strongly correlated, suggesting that evolutionary changes in one sex are constrained by changes in the other sex. Both sexes are more ornamented in larger species and in species living in tropical environments. Ornamentation in females (but not males) is increased in cooperative breeders--species in which female-female competition for reproductive opportunities and other resources related to breeding may be high. Finally, strong sexual selection on males has antagonistic effects, causing an increase in male colouration but a considerably more pronounced reduction in female ornamentation. Our results indicate that although there may be genetic constraints to sexually independent colour evolution, both female and male ornamentation are strongly and often differentially related to morphological, social and life-history variables.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dale, James -- Dey, Cody J -- Delhey, Kaspar -- Kempenaers, Bart -- Valcu, Mihai -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):367-70. doi: 10.1038/nature15509. Epub 2015 Nov 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Natural &Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand. ; Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Am Obstberg 1, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany. ; Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard Gwinner Str, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26536112" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Body Size ; Color ; Feathers/anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Female ; Male ; Mating Preference, Animal/*physiology ; Models, Biological ; Passeriformes/anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Phylogeny ; Pigmentation/*physiology ; *Sex Characteristics ; Tropical Climate
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2015-08-19
    Description: Synaptotagmin-1 and neuronal SNARE proteins have central roles in evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release; however, it is unknown how they cooperate to trigger synaptic vesicle fusion. Here we report atomic-resolution crystal structures of Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-bound complexes between synaptotagmin-1 and the neuronal SNARE complex, one of which was determined with diffraction data from an X-ray free-electron laser, leading to an atomic-resolution structure with accurate rotamer assignments for many side chains. The structures reveal several interfaces, including a large, specific, Ca(2+)-independent and conserved interface. Tests of this interface by mutagenesis suggest that it is essential for Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release in mouse hippocampal neuronal synapses and for Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle fusion in a reconstituted system. We propose that this interface forms before Ca(2+) triggering, moves en bloc as Ca(2+) influx promotes the interactions between synaptotagmin-1 and the plasma membrane, and consequently remodels the membrane to promote fusion, possibly in conjunction with other interfaces.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4607316/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4607316/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Qiangjun -- Lai, Ying -- Bacaj, Taulant -- Zhao, Minglei -- Lyubimov, Artem Y -- Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin -- Zeldin, Oliver B -- Brewster, Aaron S -- Sauter, Nicholas K -- Cohen, Aina E -- Soltis, S Michael -- Alonso-Mori, Roberto -- Chollet, Matthieu -- Lemke, Henrik T -- Pfuetzner, Richard A -- Choi, Ucheor B -- Weis, William I -- Diao, Jiajie -- Sudhof, Thomas C -- Brunger, Axel T -- GM095887/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102520/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH086403/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 MH086403/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM077071/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095887/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM102520/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH063105/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37MH63105/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):62-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14975. Epub 2015 Aug 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Departments of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Photon Science, and Structural Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Departments of Structural Biology, Molecular and Cellular Physiology, and Photon Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280336" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites/genetics ; Calcium/chemistry/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Electrons ; *Exocytosis ; Hippocampus/cytology ; Lasers ; Magnesium/chemistry/metabolism ; Membrane Fusion ; Mice ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Mutation/genetics ; Neurons/chemistry/cytology/*metabolism/secretion ; SNARE Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Synaptic Transmission ; Synaptic Vesicles/chemistry/metabolism/secretion ; Synaptotagmins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2015-02-13
    Description: Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338562/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338562/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shungin, Dmitry -- Winkler, Thomas W -- Croteau-Chonka, Damien C -- Ferreira, Teresa -- Locke, Adam E -- Magi, Reedik -- Strawbridge, Rona J -- Pers, Tune H -- Fischer, Krista -- Justice, Anne E -- Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie -- Wu, Joseph M W -- Buchkovich, Martin L -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- Roman, Tamara S -- Drong, Alexander W -- Song, Ci -- Gustafsson, Stefan -- Day, Felix R -- Esko, Tonu -- Fall, Tove -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Luan, Jian'an -- Randall, Joshua C -- Scherag, Andre -- Vedantam, Sailaja -- Wood, Andrew R -- Chen, Jin -- Fehrmann, Rudolf -- Karjalainen, Juha -- Kahali, Bratati -- Liu, Ching-Ti -- Schmidt, Ellen M -- Absher, Devin -- Amin, Najaf -- Anderson, Denise -- Beekman, Marian -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L -- Buyske, Steven -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Ehret, Georg B -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Goel, Anuj -- Jackson, Anne U -- Johnson, Toby -- Kleber, Marcus E -- Kristiansson, Kati -- Mangino, Massimo -- Mateo Leach, Irene -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Palmer, Cameron D -- Pasko, Dorota -- Pechlivanis, Sonali -- Peters, Marjolein J -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Stancakova, Alena -- Ju Sung, Yun -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Teumer, Alexander -- Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V -- Yengo, Loic -- Zhang, Weihua -- Albrecht, Eva -- Arnlov, Johan -- Arscott, Gillian M -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Barrett, Amy -- Bellis, Claire -- Bennett, Amanda J -- Berne, Christian -- Bluher, Matthias -- Bohringer, Stefan -- Bonnet, Fabrice -- Bottcher, Yvonne -- Bruinenberg, Marcel -- Carba, Delia B -- Caspersen, Ida H -- Clarke, Robert -- Daw, E Warwick -- Deelen, Joris -- Deelman, Ewa -- Delgado, Graciela -- Doney, Alex S F -- Eklund, Niina -- Erdos, Michael R -- Estrada, Karol -- Eury, Elodie -- Friedrich, Nele -- Garcia, Melissa E -- Giedraitis, Vilmantas -- Gigante, Bruna -- Go, Alan S -- Golay, Alain -- Grallert, Harald -- Grammer, Tanja B -- Grassler, Jurgen -- Grewal, Jagvir -- Groves, Christopher J -- Haller, Toomas -- Hallmans, Goran -- Hartman, Catharina A -- Hassinen, Maija -- Hayward, Caroline -- Heikkila, Kauko -- Herzig, Karl-Heinz -- Helmer, Quinta -- Hillege, Hans L -- Holmen, Oddgeir -- Hunt, Steven C -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Ittermann, Till -- James, Alan L -- Johansson, Ingegerd -- Juliusdottir, Thorhildur -- Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota -- Kinnunen, Leena -- Koenig, Wolfgang -- Kooner, Ishminder K -- Kratzer, Wolfgang -- Lamina, Claudia -- Leander, Karin -- Lee, Nanette R -- Lichtner, Peter -- Lind, Lars -- Lindstrom, Jaana -- Lobbens, Stephane -- Lorentzon, Mattias -- Mach, Francois -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Mahajan, Anubha -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Menni, Cristina -- Merger, Sigrun -- Mihailov, Evelin -- Milani, Lili -- Mills, Rebecca -- Moayyeri, Alireza -- Monda, Keri L -- Mooijaart, Simon P -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Mulas, Antonella -- Muller, Gabriele -- Muller-Nurasyid, Martina -- Nagaraja, Ramaiah -- Nalls, Michael A -- Narisu, Narisu -- Glorioso, Nicola -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Olden, Matthias -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Renstrom, Frida -- Ried, Janina S -- Robertson, Neil R -- Rose, Lynda M -- Sanna, Serena -- Scharnagl, Hubert -- Scholtens, Salome -- Sennblad, Bengt -- Seufferlein, Thomas -- Sitlani, Colleen M -- Vernon Smith, Albert -- Stirrups, Kathleen -- Stringham, Heather M -- Sundstrom, Johan -- Swertz, Morris A -- Swift, Amy J -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Tayo, Bamidele O -- Thorand, Barbara -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Tomaschitz, Andreas -- Troffa, Chiara -- van Oort, Floor V A -- Verweij, Niek -- Vonk, Judith M -- Waite, Lindsay L -- Wennauer, Roman -- Wilsgaard, Tom -- Wojczynski, Mary K -- Wong, Andrew -- Zhang, Qunyuan -- Hua Zhao, Jing -- Brennan, Eoin P -- Choi, Murim -- Eriksson, Per -- Folkersen, Lasse -- Franco-Cereceda, Anders -- Gharavi, Ali G -- Hedman, Asa K -- Hivert, Marie-France -- Huang, Jinyan -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Karpe, Fredrik -- Keildson, Sarah -- Kiryluk, Krzysztof -- Liang, Liming -- Lifton, Richard P -- Ma, Baoshan -- McKnight, Amy J -- McPherson, Ruth -- Metspalu, Andres -- Min, Josine L -- Moffatt, Miriam F -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Murabito, Joanne M -- Nicholson, George -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Olsson, Christian -- Perry, John R B -- Reinmaa, Eva -- Salem, Rany M -- Sandholm, Niina -- Schadt, Eric E -- Scott, Robert A -- Stolk, Lisette -- Vallejo, Edgar E -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Zondervan, Krina T -- ADIPOGen Consortium -- CARDIOGRAMplusC4D Consortium -- CKDGen Consortium -- GEFOS Consortium -- GENIE Consortium -- GLGC -- ICBP -- International Endogene Consortium -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- MAGIC Investigators -- MuTHER Consortium -- PAGE Consortium -- ReproGen Consortium -- Amouyel, Philippe -- Arveiler, Dominique -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- Beilby, John -- Bergman, Richard N -- Blangero, John -- Brown, Morris J -- Burnier, Michel -- Campbell, Harry -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Chines, Peter S -- Claudi-Boehm, Simone -- Collins, Francis S -- Crawford, Dana C -- Danesh, John -- de Faire, Ulf -- de Geus, Eco J C -- Dorr, Marcus -- Erbel, Raimund -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Farrall, Martin -- Ferrannini, Ele -- Ferrieres, Jean -- Forouhi, Nita G -- Forrester, Terrence -- Franco, Oscar H -- Gansevoort, Ron T -- Gieger, Christian -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Haiman, Christopher A -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- Heliovaara, Markku -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Hingorani, Aroon D -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hofman, Albert -- Homuth, Georg -- Humphries, Steve E -- Hypponen, Elina -- Illig, Thomas -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Johansen, Berit -- Jousilahti, Pekka -- Jula, Antti M -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kee, Frank -- Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Kovacs, Peter -- Kraja, Aldi T -- Kumari, Meena -- Kuulasmaa, Kari -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Lakka, Timo A -- Langenberg, Claudia -- Le Marchand, Loic -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Lyssenko, Valeriya -- Mannisto, Satu -- Marette, Andre -- Matise, Tara C -- McKenzie, Colin A -- McKnight, Barbara -- Musk, Arthur W -- Mohlenkamp, Stefan -- Morris, Andrew D -- Nelis, Mari -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Oldehinkel, Albertine J -- Ong, Ken K -- Palmer, Lyle J -- Penninx, Brenda W -- Peters, Annette -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Raitakari, Olli T -- Rankinen, Tuomo -- Rao, D C -- Rice, Treva K -- Ridker, Paul M -- Ritchie, Marylyn D -- Rudan, Igor -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Saramies, Jouko -- Sarzynski, Mark A -- Schwarz, Peter E H -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Staessen, Jan A -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Stolk, Ronald P -- Strauch, Konstantin -- Tonjes, Anke -- Tremblay, Angelo -- Tremoli, Elena -- Vohl, Marie-Claude -- Volker, Uwe -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Wilson, James F -- Witteman, Jacqueline C -- Adair, Linda S -- Bochud, Murielle -- Boehm, Bernhard O -- Bornstein, Stefan R -- Bouchard, Claude -- Cauchi, Stephane -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Chambers, John C -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Cooper, Richard S -- Dedoussis, George -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Froguel, Philippe -- Grabe, Hans-Jorgen -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hui, Jennie -- Hveem, Kristian -- Jockel, Karl-Heinz -- Kivimaki, Mika -- Kuh, Diana -- Laakso, Markku -- Liu, Yongmei -- Marz, Winfried -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Njolstad, Inger -- Oostra, Ben A -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Perola, Markus -- Perusse, Louis -- Peters, Ulrike -- Power, Chris -- Quertermous, Thomas -- Rauramaa, Rainer -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Saaristo, Timo E -- Saleheen, Danish -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Slagboom, P Eline -- Snieder, Harold -- Spector, Tim D -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Uusitupa, Matti -- van der Harst, Pim -- Veronesi, Giovanni -- Walker, Mark -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Watkins, Hugh -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Boehnke, Michael -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Deloukas, Panos -- Franke, Lude -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Groop, Leif C -- Hunter, David J -- Kaplan, Robert C -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Qi, Lu -- Schlessinger, David -- Strachan, David P -- Stefansson, Kari -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Willer, Cristen J -- Visscher, Peter M -- Yang, Jian -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Zillikens, M Carola -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Speliotes, Elizabeth K -- North, Kari E -- Fox, Caroline S -- Barroso, Ines -- Franks, Paul W -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Heid, Iris M -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Morris, Andrew P -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Mohlke, Karen L -- 084766/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085235/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 097117/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098381/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098498/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 12/0004470/Diabetes UK/United Kingdom -- 14136/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- G0601261/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 HL116770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K23 DK080145/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A620_1014/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12011/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12015/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K011480/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MR/K013351/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20 MD006899/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 GM103341/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P60 DK020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R00 HL094535/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041517/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK089256/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK093757/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL109946/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL117626/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA027040/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007092/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM067553/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL069768/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG049505/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007416/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007419/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- UM1 CA182910/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Z01 HG000024-14/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):187-96. doi: 10.1038/nature14132.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden. [2] Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, 205 02 Malmo, Sweden. [3] Department of Odontology, Umea University, 901 85 Umea, Sweden. ; Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [4] Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland. [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. [3] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; 1] Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, Essen, 45147 Germany. [2] Clinical Epidemiology, Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, Jena 07743, Germany. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, and Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA. ; Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6008, Australia. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. [2] Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Department of Statistics &Biostatistics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. [2] Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. ; Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Division of Cardiovacular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. ; 1] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland. [2] Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. [3] University Institute for Social and Preventative Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; 1] Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany. [2] Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, Essen, 45147 Germany. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [3] Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK. ; University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA. ; Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands. ; 1] CNRS UMR 8199, F-59019 Lille, France. [2] European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, F-59000 Lille, France. [3] Universite de Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88 Falun, Sweden. ; PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), 50125 Florence, Italy. ; Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA. [2] Genomics Research Centre, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. [2] Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Inserm UMR991, Department of Endocrinology, University of Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France. ; Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; LifeLines Cohort Study, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; USC-Office of Population Studies Foundation, Inc., University of San Carlos, Cebu City 6000, Philippines. ; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. ; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. ; Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, California 90292, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden. ; Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [3] Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. ; Kaiser Permanente, Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612, USA. ; Service of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211, Switzerland. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [3] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Nutritional Research, Umea University, Umea 90187, Sweden. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, FI-70100 Kuopio, Finland. ; MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; 1] Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [2] Medical Research Center Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [3] Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. [3] Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7489, Norway. ; Cardiovascular Genetics Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA. ; 1] Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; 1] Department of Pulmonary Physiology and Sleep Medicine, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia. ; Department of Odontology, Umea University, 901 85 Umea, Sweden. ; Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece. ; Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ; Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 413 45, Sweden. ; Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden. ; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; 1] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [2] Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. [2] Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] The Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Genomics, Life &Brain Center, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. [2] Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. ; Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Sardinia 09042, Italy. ; Center for Evidence-based Healthcare, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. [3] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, D-81377 Munich, Germany. [4] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. ; Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Hypertension and Related Diseases Centre - AOU, University of Sassari Medical School, Sassari 07100, Italy. ; Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [3] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic &Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skane University Hosptial, 205 02 Malmo, Sweden. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; 1] Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 65, Sweden. ; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; 1] Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland. [2] University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. [2] William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [2] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75144, Sweden. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 61053, USA. ; 1] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; deCODE Genetics, Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland. ; Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. ; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. ; Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromso, Norway. ; MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK. ; Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. ; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea. ; Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. [3] Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; 1] State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; 1] Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. [2] NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, OUH Trust, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] College of Information Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026, China. ; Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, County Down BT9 7AB, UK. ; University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa K1Y 4W7, Canada. ; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. ; QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; 1] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham Massachusetts 01702, USA. [2] Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; 1] Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK. [2] MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell OX11 0QG, UK. ; 1] QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. [2] Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. [3] Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; 1] Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science, FI-00076 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Folkhalsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhalsan Research Center, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. ; Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10580, USA. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Computer Science Department, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Atizapan de Zaragoza, 52926, Mexico. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. [2] Nuffield Department of Obstetrics &Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Institut Pasteur de Lille; INSERM, U744; Universite de Lille 2; F-59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, EA3430, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. [2] Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Cedars-Sinai Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA. ; Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. ; Service of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1005, Switzerland. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA. [2] Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; 1] Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Clinic of Cardiology, West-German Heart Centre, University Hospital Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki FI-00290, Finland. ; 1] Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa 56100, Italy. [2] National Research Council Institute of Clinical Physiology, University of Pisa, Pisa 56124, Italy. ; Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, 31400 Toulouse, France. ; UWI Solutions for Developing Countries, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. ; 1] Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Institute of Biomedical &Clinical Science, University of Exeter, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. ; Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated Institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). ; Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; 1] Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. [2] DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum fur Herz-Kreislaufforschung - German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany. ; Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, Institute Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK. ; 1] Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [2] School of Population Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [3] South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia. [4] Population, Policy, and Practice, University College London Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, D-30625 Hannover, Germany. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [2] Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [3] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland. [4] MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK. [5] Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland. [6] Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. [2] Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. [3] Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. ; UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre of Excellence for Public Health (NI), Queens University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK. ; 1] Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland. [2] Unit of Primary Health Care/General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland. ; 1] Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK. [2] National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK. [3] Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK. ; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Department of Biological and Social Epidemiology, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK. ; Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, FI-70100 Kuopio, Finland. [2] Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. [3] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA. ; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and School of Medicine University of Tampere, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland. ; 1] Steno Diabetes Center A/S, Gentofte DK-2820, Denmark. [2] Lund University Diabetes Centre and Department of Clinical Science, Diabetes &Endocrinology Unit, Lund University, Malmo 221 00, Sweden. ; 1] Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. [2] Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; 1] MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. [2] MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK. ; 1] Epidemiology and Obstetrics &Gynaecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1E2, Canada. [2] Genetic Epidemiology &Biostatistics Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A3, Canada. ; 1] Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Campus, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Deutsches Forschungszentrum fur Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany. [3] Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. ; 1] Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated Institute of the University of Lubeck, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany). [2] Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano 39100, Italy. ; 1] Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, FI-20521 Turku, Finland. [2] Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, FI-20521 Turku, Finland. ; Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [3] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Systems Genomics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; 1] Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. [2] Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; South Carelia Central Hospital, 53130 Lappeenranta, Finland. ; 1] Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. [2] Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 01307 Dresden, Germany. ; 1] Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [2] Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. [3] Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, 6229 HA Maastricht, The Netherlands. [2] Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; 1] Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. [2] Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic