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  • Mouse  (70)
  • Springer  (70)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • 1970-1974  (70)
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  • Springer  (70)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
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Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: X zone ; Electron microscopy ; Development ; Adrenal ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The postnatal development and involution of the X zone in the mouse adrenal cortex of both sexes were examined using the light and electron microscopes. At 0–5 days of age, no special cell group could be distinguished for the developing X zone in the inner cortex. The inner cortical cells contained spherical or ellipsoidal mitochondria with vesiculotubular cristae, vesiculotubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and electron-lucent lipid droplets. The first sign of the developing X zone was the appearance of small groups of cells in juxtamedullary region differing from the cells in other part of inner cortex at 8 days. The electron microscopy showed that such cells contained nuclei of somewhat irregular outline and some parallel stacks of flattened sER. At 10–11 days, a thin layer of small eosinophilic cells were clearly identified as the developing X zone light microscopically in both sexes. Electron microscopically, the X zone cells showed a much dense cytoplas, which contained abundant sER, many mitochondria and numerous ribosomes. The typical X zone cells were characterized by the formation of peculiar mitochondrial complexes and whorled pattern of the sER. Mitoses were often found in the X zone, where mitotic cells even contained the whorled sER and bizarre mitochondria characteristic of the typical X zone cells. In the male the X zone rapidly involuted and might disappear by 30 days of age, whereas in the female X zone persisted as a thicker layer with the earlist sign of fatty degeneration. The origin of the X zone cell and the process of formation of its characteristic organelles are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Colonic mucosa ; Mouse ; Vacuolated cells ; Electron microscopy ; Morphology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Swiss ICR adult male mice were used to analyse regional morphologic differences in the mucosa of the colon. The three cell types recently described in the descending colon of the mouse were also observed in the transverse and in the ascending colon. However the vacuolated cells of the crypts have presented different morphological characteristics depending on their localisation. In the ascending colon, they exhibited small supranuclear vesicles in contrast to the large vesicles observed in the descending colon. Several cell combining features of argentaffin-vacuolated, goblet-vacuolated and goblet-argentaffin cells have been observed. Furthermore a special type of granule referred to as a secondary lysosome was observed in the peripheral area of the typical goblet cells.
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  • 3
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    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 144 (1974), S. 195-203 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Development ; Adrenal glands ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Untersuchung der vorgeburtlichen Entwicklung der Nebennieren erfolgte an H.-E.-Schnitten und wurde ergänzt durch den Nachweis alkalischer Phosphatase. 1. Markzellen beginnen mit 11–12 Tagen in das Rindenblastem einzuwandern. Mit 14 Tagen a.p. ist die Einwanderung bereits abgeschlossen, d.h. viel früher als bei menschlichen Embryonen entsprechenden Alters. 2. Der Cortex beginnt sich am 11. Tag zu entwickeln, wie bei menschlichen Embryonen vergleichbaren Alters. Vor der Geburt kann bei der Maus nicht zwischen einem “fetalen” und “permanenten” Cortex unterschieden werden. 3. Eine frühzeitige Einwanderung von versprengten Geschlechtszellen kann in der Cortexanlage durch die Reaktion auf alkalische Phosphatase nachgewiesen werden. Später verschwinden sie wieder. Eine Infiltration von Leuko-und Lymphocyten besteht nicht. Beim Herannahen des Geburtszeitpunktes treten aber Blutbildungsherde auf.
    Notes: Summary A detailed reinvestigation of the prenatal development of the adrenal gland has been carried out, using H.-E. sections supplemented by investigation of alcaline phosphatase activity. 1. Medullary cells start to invade the cortex blastema at 11–12 days. Immigration is completed at 14 days a.p., i.e. much earlier than in human embryos of corresponding age. 2. Cortex development starts at 11 days, like in human embryos of corresponding age. Before birth, there is no distinction between “fetal” and “permanent” cortex in mice. 3. Early invasion of gonocytes into the cortex blastema can be demonstrated by alcaline phosphatase reaction. Later on they disappear. There is no infiltration of leuco-and lymphocytes. Near term foci of blood-forming cells are appearing.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 144 (1974), S. 205-214 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Adrenal gland ; Juxtamedullary X-zone ; Mouse ; Development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die postnatale Entwicklung der Nebennieren wurde an hybriden Mäusen (Kreuzung der Inzuchtstämme C57BL/6 und CBA) und an nu/+ Mäusen (BALB/c) untersucht. Dabei standen uns von weiblichen und männlichen Tieren beider Stämme Schnittserien der folgenden Stadien zur Verfügung: 1, 7, 14, 21, 42, 63 und 84 Tage. Neben Zona glomerulosa und Zona fasciculata weist die Nebennierenrinde 2–3 Wochen alter Mäuse zwei innere Schichten auf. An die dem Mark anliegende, schon mehrfach beschriebene X-Zone schließt sich nach außen ein Gürtel kleiner Zellen an. Diese zwischen X-Zone und Fasciculata gelegene, bei Weibschen stärker ausgeprägte Rindenschicht bildet sich mit dem Verschwinden der X-Zone zurück. Wegen ihrer morphodynamischen und wahrscheinlich auch funktionellen Eigenständigkeit haben wir diese Schicht von der X-Zone abgetrennt und als kleinzellige Zone bezeichnet. Auf Grund unserer Beobachtungen neigen wir zur Ansicht, daß die definitive Zona reticularis aus der kleinzelligen Zone hervorgeht. Der Zeitpunkt beginnender Rückbildung der X-Zone zegt neben den bekannten geschlechtsabhängigen Unterschieden eine ganz erhebliche Variabilität (bis 10 Wochen) zwischen den verschiedenen Tierstämmen. Die X-Zone der Maus und die fetale Zone der menschlichen Nebenniere können—obwohl beides vorübergehende Strukturen—, wegen ihrer verschiedenartigen Entwicklung kaum als Analoga betrachtet werden.
    Notes: Summary The postnatal development of the adrenal glands was investigated in hybrid mice (from crossing the two inbred strains C57BL/6 and CBA) and in nu/+ mice (BALB/c). Serial sections of the following stages: day 1, 7, 14, 21, 42, 63, and 84 respectively from both strains and sexes were studied. The adrenal cortex of 2–3 week old mice is structurally differentiated into the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and two inner zones: 1: the well known x-zone surrounding the medulla; 2: a distinct zone (more pronounced in females, than in males) of small cells lying between the x-zone and the zona fasciculata. The latter disappears parallel to the removal of the x-zone. In view of the distinct morphological, developmental and probably even functional individuality of this zone, it was separated from the x-zone and given the name “zone of small cells”. It is assumed, that the definitive zona reticularis originates from the zone of small cells. The time at which the x-zone starts to degenerate depends on the sex, and varies considerably from one strain to another. The x-zone of the mouse and the fetal zone of the human adrenal gland—both transitory structures—differ too much in their development to be considered as analogous structures. New-born mice show a positive chromaffine reaction of the medullary cells. During the first 3 weeks the intensity of reaction increases considerably and then remains at the higher level for the time of further development.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Development ; Genetics ; Mouse ; Vertebrae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The recessive mutation, rachiterata, reduces the number of cervical vertebrae to 6 by shifting the cervico-thoracic boundary in a cranial direction, and produces partial duplication of the neural arch of the axis. Rachiterata also produces malformations of thoraco-lumbar vertebrae, often associated with fusions of ribs. These malformations are caused by a disturbed arrangement of somites first detectable in 11-day embryos.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Embryology ; Mouse ; Muscle differentiation ; Physiologic cell necroses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mice embryos from day 9 to 15 p.c. have been studied by 1. Supravital staining of the whole embryo with nile blue sulfate. 2. Light and 3. Electron microscopic investigation of serial sections from the longitudinal axis of the back of the trunk. Nile blue sulfate staining revealed segmental necroses in the back of mice embryos centrally between the intersegmental arteries. Necroses appeared in the cranial myotomes and extended to the caudal ones during the days 9 to 13 p.c. By light microscopy the necroses extended in the centre of the myotome to the ventromedial margin. Electron microscopy revealed in this area myoblast-like cells rich in filaments, arranged in parallel without striation. A part of these myoblasts were electron-opaque and the nucleus was no longer evident. Forming vortices of filaments, these cells on the cranial and caudal end of the myotomes ceased fusion with the more centrally situated myoblasts. Vortices of filaments were also found in phagolysosomes of macrophages on day 12 p.c. On the same day of gestation we found an unsegmented myoblastema with irregular long myoblasts and striated polynuclear muscle fibres, arranged parallel to the neural tube. Between and parallel to the muscle fibres elongated individual cells could be seen, growing necrotic. Their nuclei were electron-dense with the chromatin clumping cap-like on the inner nuclear membrane. Fragments of myofibrils, corresponding approximately to sarcomeres, were dispersed irregularly as filament logs in the cytoplasm. Logs of filaments were bent at an obtuse angle, partly showing remnants of Z line material. In this stage of necrosis cells were phagocytized by macrophages. After disintegration of the segmental arrangement in scleroblastemata and myoblastemata a segmental rearrangement was not achieved by segmental shifting or by necrotic liquefaction zones. Whether the described cell necroses are due to differentiation, or even to phylogenetic causes is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus ; Morphology (ultrastructure) ; Mouse ; Synaptic vesicles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neuronal perikarya, dendrites, extraglomerular neuropil, and synaptic glomeruli were examined by electron microscopy in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) of the mouse. Particular attention was paid to boutons containing “flattened” synaptic vesicles. In line with recent studies of rat LGd (Lieberman and Webster, 1972; Lieberman, 1973), but in contrast to the findings of Rafols and Valverde (1973) on the mouse LGd, two distinct classes of ‘flat’-vesicle-containing boutons could be distinguished. P-boutons—were traced to and probably originate entirely from the presynaptic dendrites of the intrinsic neurons. They are concentrated within the glomeruli and are postsynaptic as well as presynaptic, being the intermediate elements in numerous intraglomerular serial synapses. F-boutons—are interpreted as axon terminals and are exclusively presynaptic. Some were traced from myelinated fibres. Synaptic vesicles are more concentrated in F-boutons than in P-boutons, appear flatter, and lie in a darker matrix. F-boutons synapse extensively in the extraglomerular neuropil, but are outnumbered by P-boutons in the glomeruli. The synaptic relationships established within the glomeruli are summarized.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Leydig cells ; Differentiation ; Explants ; Ultrastructure ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Testes of newborn mice not older than one day were transplanted into the anterior chamber of one eye of an adult male white Holtzman rat. The events observed in the Leydig cells of the grafted testes can be divided into two periods. Period one is marked by differentiation; period two, by dedifferentiation. In period one, the lipid and glycogen inclusions disappear, possibly owing to the gonadotropins of the host. In period two, which starts after day 15 post-grafting, the lipids and glycogen reappear; the Leydig cells now contain residual bodies, whereas the S.E.R. disappears. Immunological mechanisms can be implicated; it is suggested that the Leydig cells dedifferentiate because the host's gonadotropins may be incapable of evoking and/or activating the genetic memory of the grafted Leydig cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Locomotor Activity ; Mouse ; Morphine ; Narcotic Antagonists
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Morphine-induced locomotor activity in mice has been investigated but there appear to be only a small number of reports on the effects of narcotic antagonists on this increased activity. Also, it is well known that some narcotic antagonists can act as both morphine antagonists and analgesics in nociceptive assays, but there have been few demonstrations of this stimulant and antagonistic action with locomotor activity studies. In this study, six compounds (cyclazocine levallorphan, diprenorphine (M-5050), nalorphine, naloxone, and naltrexone) have been investigated in regard to their activity as antagonists of morphine-induced locomotor activity and in regard to their ability to stimulate locomotor activity themselves. All six compounds antagonized the effect of morphine, but only cyclazocine and levallorphan produced any significant stimulation of locomotor activity by themselves at the doses tested. This study indicates that changes in mouse locomotor activity can be used successfully to monitor the interaction between morphine and narcotic antagonists and that locomotor activity studies can also be used to study the stimulant (agonist) properties of narcotic antagonists.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 148 (1974), S. 381-396 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Placenta ; Mouse ; Syncytium ; Morphogenesis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'origine embryologique des constituants cytologiques de la barrière placentaire chez la Souris a été mise en évidence du 8ème au 11éme jour de la gestation et la séquence des phénomènes favorisant la formation d'un syncytium trophoblastique, précisée. La barrière placentaire trilaminaire a une double origine: la couche interne provient du trophoblaste chorionique, la couche médiane syncytiale comme la couche externe dérivent du trophoblaste ectoplacentaire. Le stimulus initial de la différenciation semble résulter au 9ème jour du contact entre le trophoblaste chorionique et le mésoderme allantoïdien. Quelques heures après, on observe la réaction des cellules chorioniques, caractérisée par une augmentation importante des nucléoprotéines cytoplasmiques, puis l'apparition de globules lipidiques et enfin des propriétés de motilité. Ces cellules établissent des jonctions complexes avec le trophoblaste ectoplacentaire indifférencié qu'elles côtoient. En même temps, le métabolisme nucléaire de ces cellules ectoplacentaires semble modifié. Ultérieurement, au 10éme jour de la gestation, la disparition des membranes plasmiques latérales de ces cellules, conduit à la formation d'un syncytium par fusion de cellules au même stade d'évolution.
    Notes: Summary The morphogenesis of the different layers forming the mouse placental barrier is described during the 8th to 11th day of gestation. The timing and events leading to the formation of the syncytiotrophoblast are analyzed. Two different processes lead to the formation of the hemotrichorial placental membrane: the internal layer is formed by the chorionic trophoblast, both the intermediate syncytial layer and the external cytotrophoblast layer are derived from the ectoplacental trophoblast. The differentiation of the placental barrier begins on the 9th day of gestation by the establishment of contact between the chorionic trophoblast and the allantoic mesoderm. A few hours later, the chorionic cells show a considerable increase in cytoplasmic nucleoproteins and lipids and become ameboid. Complex cell-junctions differentiate between these chorionic cells and the adjacent ectoplacental trophoblast. On the 10th day of gestation the lateral cytoplasmic membranes disappear leading to the formation of a syncytium.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neural lobe ; Mouse ; Growth and development ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nerve fibres of the neurosecretory hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract were studied in embryonic C3H mouse neural lobes; at least four glands at each gestational day 15–19 were examined. Single axons and small bundles of fibres are visible at gestational days 15 and 16. By day 17 large fibre bundles penetrate between glial cells. They increase in number during the next two days. Electron-lucent and electron-dense vesicles are seen in the fibres of the 15th and 16th gestational days. In the 17–19 day-old embryos development is characterized by a successive rise in the number of the two types of vesicles. The mean diameter of the electron-lucent vesicles is approximately unchanged in all the stages examined (50 nm). The electron-dense vesicles increase in size from approximately 80–90 nm at days 15–16 to 140 nm at the 19th gestational day. By day 19 contacts between neurosecretory fibre terminals and the outer basement membrane of internal and peripheral capillaries are occasionally observed. The possibly adrenergic nature of a few terminals contacting peripheral vascular structures in 17 and 18 day-old embryos is suggested.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pituitary ; Mouse ; Pars intermedia ; Adrenoglomerulotropin ; Morphometric cytology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ultrastructural changes in the pars intermedia of the mouse pituitary caused by dietary sodium deprivation were investigated quantitatively. Of the six classes of organelles and inclusions selected for analysis in the pars intermedia cells, only the mitochondria showed no significant changes, while all of the remaining classes showed statistically significant changes. The most conspicuous changes were an abrupt decrease in the number of secretory granules and the appearance of parallel arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus also showed hypertrophy accompanied by newly formed granules. The number of vesicles increased temporarily and then decreased. These findings indicate that dietary sodium depletion, a stimulus to greater aldosterone secretion, causes significant changes in the pars intermedia cells within 3 days, and these signs of hyperfunction last up to 5 days. The present study suggests a possible new role of the pars intermedia in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in response to dietary sodium deprivation in the mouse.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 150 (1974), S. 323-329 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Spermiogenesis ; Mouse ; Multinucleate spermatids ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscope studies of the testes of five inbred and three outbred mouse strains show that the usual frequency of multinucleate spermatids is between one and two percent. In C57 BL/6J and A/Gr however it is higher (4–5%). The frequency of the shared acrosome condition, which would lead to the formation of an abnormal sperm, is 1.3 per thousand.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: 5-HT Synthesis Rate ; MAO Inhibitors ; Probenecid ; Ro4-4602 ; Tryptophan ; Brain ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Non-isotopic and isotopic methods were used to estimate the rate of 5-HT synthesis in the mouse brain. 5-HT and 5_HIAA levels were measured in tissues up to 10 min after the i. p. injection of pargyline (75 or 150 mg/kg) or pheniprazine (5 or 10 mg/kg) (5-HT and 5-HIAA, MAO-inhibitor methods). 5-HIAA levels were also estimated at various times after probenecid administration (200 or 400 mg/kg i. p.) (5-HIAA-probenecid method). 5-HTP levels were estimated at various times after the blockade of 5-HTP decarboxylase by Ro4-4602. (800, 1000 or 1200 mg/kg i. p.) (5-HTP method). Finally the rate of conversion of tryptophan into 5-HT has been estimated by measuring the initial accumulation of 3H-5-HT and 3H-5-HIAA in tissues following the intravenous injection of 3H-tryptophan (isotopic method). Rates of 5-HT synthesis obtained with the two MAO inhibitor methods were much higher (about 3 to 4 times) than those calculated with the 5-HTP and 5-HIAA-probenecid methods. An intermediate rate of 5-HT synthesis was found with the isotopic technique. The high rate of 5-HT synthesis observed with the 5-HT, MAO inhibitor method (about 8 nmoles/g/h) was not related to a stimulation of 5-HT synthesis. Differences seen with all methods are discussed with respect to results obtained by various groups of workers.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine ; Chemodegeneration ; Adrenergic Nerves ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (60 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant reduction in the noradrenaline content of the mouse heart, large intestine and seminal vesicle, 2 and 6 days after drug application. The long-lasting depletion of noradrenaline was found to be due to a degeneration of adrenergic nerve terminals as verified by fluorescence and electron microscopical observations. The results show that 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine is either as potent as (e.g. in the heart) or less potent than 6-hydroxydopamine (e.g. in the vas deferens) in depleting noradrenaline. The pronounced effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on the adrenergic nerves of the seminal vesicle (supplied by the same short adrenergic neurones as the vas deferens) suggest that 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine may be used as a tool for the induction of a chemical sympathectomy in certain peripheral organs of laboratory animals, supplementary to 6-hydroxydopamine.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Mineralisation ; 85Sr ; Graft ; Bone ; Mouse ; Mineralisation ; 85Sr ; Transplantat ; Knochen ; Maus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Durch wiederholte Messung der 48 Std-Retention von85Sr zu verschiedenen Zeiten nach der Transplantation wurde die Kapazität zur Aufnahme von Erdalkali bei Tibiatransplantaten junger Mäuse unter verschiedenen immunologischen Bedingungen über einen Zeitraum von 36 Tagen nach der Transplantation verfolgt. Bei syngenen Transplantaten war die85Sr-Aufnahme bis zum 10. Tag nach der Transplantation gleich derjenigen der allogenen Transplantate. Danach stieg sie steil an bis zum 17. Tag und blieb bis zum Ende des Versuchs (36 Tage nach Transplantation) auf dem Niveau der Empfängertibia. Sowohl syngen als auch allogen transplantierte Tibiae zeigten nach der Transplantation eine etwa gleichstarke Zunahme der Aschegewichte.
    Notes: Summary In growing tibia transplants of the mouse the 48-hour uptake of85Sr was determined. With allogeneic grafts the uptake was continuously low during 32 days after transplantation. With syngeneic grafts uptake was low up to the 10th day after grafting. After 17 days, however,85Sr uptake was higher than that of allogeneic ones. Ashweights of both groups of transplants were higher at the end of the experiment than at the time of grafting.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cleavage stages ; Egg-cylinder ; Mouse ; Rat ; Hydrolytic enzymes distribution ; Differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The time of appearance and the distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase was investigated in cleavage and early postimplantation stages of mouse and rat embryos. Alkaline and acid phosphatase appeared for the first time in 8-cell embryos. Activity of both enzymes grew progressively stronger to blastocyst stage. Acid phosphatase activity was revealed in the form of fine and coarse granules distributed evenly in the cytoplasm. Alkaline phosphatase was predominantly localized in plasma membranes. There was no difference in intensity of reaction between trophoblastic cells and the inner cell mass. After implantation acid phosphatase was localized in coarse granules in the apical portion of entodermal cells. With the appearance of mesoderm, the cells of embryonal entoderm became flattened and devoid of acid phosphatase activity which was restricted to cells of extraembryonic entoderm. The activity of nonspecific esterase was not detected in preimplantation stages. In postimplantation embryos it roughly corresponded to the activity of acid phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase was localized in cell membranes of ectodermal cells. The mesodermal cells of mouse embryo displayed a somewhat weaker activity than ectodermal cells, while in the rat embryo the same layer remained completely nonreactive. Our findings on the distribution of the enzymes mentioned did not reveal any kind of polarity or bilateral symmetry in preimplantation stages. In postimplantation stages acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase are probably bound to lysosomes and play an important role in embryonic nutrition. The absence of alkaline phosphatase from entodermal cells is somewhat puzzling and suggests that the process of molecular transport in those cells is most probably restricted to endocytosis. Our results suggest that all blastomeres are identical with respect to enzyme distribution and that the first signs of differentiation of enzyme content appear with the formation of germ layers.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Lymphocytes ; Thymus ; Karyometry ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Karyometric studies were made of lymphocytes for the cortex and medulla of the thymus of mice at various ages from birth to adulthood. From the results obtained it was evident that in early neonate mice, medullary small lymphocytes were characterized by having larger nuclei than cortical small lymphocytes. On the basis of cytological features, such medullary lymphocytes could reasonably be classified as small lymphocytes rather than medium lymphocytes, although they had larger nuclei than typical small lymphocytes. Such peculiar small lymphocytes with larger nuclei were preponderant in the medulla during early neonatal life, but they rapidly decreased in number with advancing age, although they were present in a small proportion even in adults. The findings on the occurrence of such peculiar small lymphocytes in the medulla were discussed in relation to the maturation pathway of lymphocytes in the thymus.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Peroxisomes ; Microbodies ; Catalase ; Ciliated cells ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Flimmerepithel aus Respirationstrakt (Nasenseptum, Trachea) und Tube der Maus wurde untersucht. Nach Fixierung in 5% nicht destilliertem Glutaraldehyd wurde das Gewebe zur Darstellung der peroxydatischen Aktivität von Katalase in einem alkalischen Medium (pH 8,0 und 9,5) von 0,2% DAB und 0,02% H2O2 inkubiert. In den Flimmerzellen wird durch die histochemische Reaktion die granuläre Matrix kleiner Zellorganellen elektronendicht dargestellt. Diese Organellen sind im Schnitt rund, oval oder tubulär; Sie werden von einer Einheitsmembran begrenzt. Die Größe ihrer kurzen Durchmesser schwankt zwischen 0,1 und 0,2 μm. Schlauchförmige Partikel sind bis 1 μm lang. Die histochemische Reaktion wird durch 2×10−2 M 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazol im Inkubationsmedium gehemmt und fehlt, wenn ohne H2O2 im Medium inkubiert wird. Die Interpretation dieser Organellen als echte Peroxysomen einzig auf Grund ihres Katalasegehalts wird diskutiert. Um den Forderungen des von de Duve entwickelten Peroxysomenkonzepts zu genügen, wäre der Nachweis von H2O2 erzeugenden Oxydasen Voraussetzung. Bis dahin muß der Terminus Peroxysom für Partikel, in denen nur Katalase nachgewiesen ist, als Arbeitshypothese aufgefaßt werden.
    Notes: Summary Ciliated cells in the epithelium of the respiratory tract (septum nasi, trachea) and oviduct of mice were investigated. The tissue was fixed in 5% undistilled glutaraldehyde and incubated in an alkaline (pH 8.0 and pH 9.5) medium containing 0.2% DAB and 0.02% H2O2, to demonstrate the peroxidatic activity of catalase. In ciliated cells the granular matrix of small cell organelles is intensely stained by the histochemical method used. These particles are round, oval or tubular in shape, they are limited by an unit membrane. Their short axes measure from 0.1 to 0.2 μm. Tubular shaped particles are up to 1 μm long. The histochemical staining reaction is abolished by the addition of 2×10−2 M 3-amino 1,2,4-triazole to the incubation medium or if H2O2 is omitted from the medium. The interpretation of these particles as true peroxisomes on account of their catalase content only is discussed. It is concluded that the demonstration of peroxide producing oxidases would be necessary to satisfy the conditions of the peroxisome concept, which was proposed by de Duve. So far, the term peroxisome for particles which are only demonstrated to contain catalase, must remain a working hypothesis.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Retina ; Mouse ; Photoreceptors ; Differentiation ; rd Mutant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mice, homozygous for the mutant gene rd show selective degeneration of the photoreceptor cells after their initial differentiation. Phenotypic expression in the mutant and in normal mice was studied by light and electron microscopy. The sequential emergence of developmental deviations in the mutant retina falls into three categories. First, predegenerative differences are manifest within the photoreceptor cells during 4–8 days after birth in retarded growth of the inner segments, reduced outer segment production, delayed development of the outer plexiform layer and slower segregation of the perikarya. Next, degenerative changes are recognized from 6 day onwards with swelling and vacuolization of the Golgi cisternae in the inner segments followed by cytolytic alterations affecting the ultrastructure of the entire cell. Lastly, with increasing loss of photoreceptor cells post-degenerative effects are seen in deepening of the basal infoldings and microvilli of the pigment epithelium and increase of Müller's fibres. The progress of degeneration in the mutant retina corresponds to the phase of rapid growth of the Golgi apparatus and rod outer segments in the normal retina. The role of the Golgi apparatus in the differentiation of the photoreceptor cells and its relation to the expression of the rd gene are discussed.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Osteopetrosis ; Diphosphonates ; Bone Resorption ; Mouse ; Calcium ; Tooth ; Bone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'effet de doses quotidiennes, administrées depuis la naissance, de deux types de diphosphonates, à savoir l'éthane-1-hydroxyle-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) et le dichlorométhylène diphosphonate (Cl2MDP), sur la croissance et le squelette de souris a été étudié. Les diphosphonates freinent la croissance: les incisives ne font pas leur éruption ou elle est plus tardive. La calcémie est normale. L'administration de Cl2MDP à une dose quotidienne de 10 mg P/kg/jour provoque des modifications squelettiques identiques à celles des souris grises létales atteintes d'ostéopétrose et les animaux meurent après quatre semaines de traitement. Par rapport aux témoins, les souris traitées présentent des os plus étroits, plus denses et plus déformés: les cavités médullaires sont comblées avec de l'os calcifié et du cartilage. La quantité totale de calcium d'un animal n'est pas augmentée par traitement au diphosphonate, par rapport à un témoin de même âge. Chez les souris grises létales et celles traitées aux diphosphonates, la plupart des anomalies est secondaire à une résorption osseuse diminuée. Ces résultats sont commentés en fonction de l'emploi des diphosphonates au cours de remaniements osseux pathologiques augmentés et en fonction du rôle de la résorption osseuse dans le maintien de la calcémie.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Mäuse erhielten von der Geburt an tägliche Dosen folgender zwei Diphosphonate: entweder Äthan-1-Hydroxy-1,1-Diphosphonat (EHDP) oder Dichloromethylen-Diphosphonat (Cl2MDP). Es wurde deren Wirkung auf das Wachstum und das Skelet untersucht. Die Diphosphonate verlangsamten das Wachstum, die Schneidezähne brachen nicht oder erst später durch, aber die Höhe des Plasmacalciums blieb normal. Die Verabreichung von Cl2MDP in Dosen von 10 mg P/kg/Tag führt zu Skeletveränderungen, welche denjenigen der „grey-lethal” osteopetrotischen Mäuse gleichen. Die Tiere sterben nach einer Behandlungsdauer von etwa 4 Wochen. Verglichen mit normalen Mäusen von ungefähr gleichem Alter hatten die behandelten Mäuse kleinere, dichtere und mehr keulenförmige Knochen, und die Markhöhlen waren gefüllt mit verkalktem Knochen oder Knorpel. Die Gesamtcalciummenge im Skelet wurde durch die Diphosphonatbehandlung nicht erhöht; dies ergab sich aus einem Vergleich mit der bei normalen Mäusen desselben Alters gefundenen Menge. Es wird vorgeschlagen, daß bei den „grey-lethal” und bei den Diphosphonat-behandelten Mäusen viele der Abnormalitäten als Folge der herabgesetzten Knochenresorption angesehen werden müssen. Die Ergebnisse werden einerseits im Hinblick auf den Gebrauch der Diphosphonate bei pathologischen Bedingungen eines erhöhten Knochenumbaus diskutiert; andererseits werden sie im Zusammenhang mit der Rolle der Knochenresorption bei der Erhaltung des Plasmacalcium-Spiegels besprochen.
    Notes: Abstract The effect of daily doses from birth of two diphosphonates, namely either ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) or dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP), on the growth and the skeleton of mice has been studied. Diphosphonates slowed growth, the incisors did not erupt or erupted later, but the level of plasma calcium remained normal. The administration of Cl2MDP at a dose rate of 10 mg P/kg/day leads to skeletal changes that are similar to those observed in grey-lethal osteopetrotic mice, and the animals die after about four weeks of treatment. As compared with normal mice of similar age, treated mice had bones that were smaller, denser and more clubshaped, and the marrow cavities were filled with calcified bone or cartilage. The total amount of calcium in the carcass was not increased by diphosphonate treatment, as compared with the amount in normal mice of the same age. It is suggested that both in the grey-lethal and diphosphonate-treated mice many of the abnormalities are secondary to decreased bone resorption. The results are discussed with respect to the use of diphosphonates in pathological conditions of increased bone turnover and with respect to the role of bone resorption in the maintenance of plasma calcium levels.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
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    Calcified tissue international 12 (1973), S. 117-124 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Mouse ; Calcification ; Metals ; Mast Cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des souris, ayant reçu par voie intra-veineuse une solution d'acétate de plomb, sont injectés par voie sous-cutanée avec du sulfate de polymixine B. Au niveau de ce dernier point d'injection, on observe des calcifications. L'examen histologique montre une dégranulation des mastocytes, une vaso-dilatation locale ainsi qu'une diffusion d'ions à partir des vaisseaux. Après 24 heures, des ions calcium et phosphate sont présents. En outre. des groupes de souris, pré-injectées par voie intraveineuse avec de l'acétate de plomb, reçoivent des extraits de granules de mastocytes, comportant du phosphate d'histamine, du sulfate de créatinine sérotonine, de l'héparine, du sulfate de chondroitine ou de l'acide hyaluronique. Seules les injections de sérotonine et d'histamine, connues comme vaso-dilatateurs et augmentant probablement la perméabilité capillaire, provoquent des calcifications. Il semble que le rôle des mastocytes dans la calcification soit lié principalement à la production d'une vasodilatation locale, avec perméabilité capillaire augmentée, plutot qu'à une action de liaison initiale des ions métalliques.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Nachdem Mäusen Bleiacetatlösungen intravenös eingespritzt worden waren, erhielten die Tiere Polymixin-B-Sulfat subkutan. Dies führte zu Verkalkung an der zweiten Injektionsstelle. Die histologische Untersuchung zeigte eine deutliche degranulation der Mastzellen, eine lokale Vasodilatation und das Austreten von Bleiionen aus diesen Gefäßen 24 Std nach der Injektion konnte eine groß Menge von Calcium- und Phosphationen eindeutig nachgewiesen werden. Weiter wurden Gruppen von Mäusen, die vorher Bleiacetat intravenös erhalten hatten. Bestandteile von Mastzellen-Granula injiziert. Diese bestanden aus Histaminphosphat, Serotonin-Creatinin-Sulfat, Heparin, Chondroitin-Sulfat oder Hyaluronsäure. Unter diesen exogenen Bestandteilen bewirkten nur Serotonin und Histamin eine Verkalkung. Beide sind starke Vasodilatatoren und erhöhen vermutlich die kapillare Permeabilität. Es wird postuliert, daß die Rolle der Mastzelle in der “calcergy” viel eher auf einer lokalen Vasodilatation mit erhöhter kapillarer Permeabilität als auf einer primären Bindung der Metallionen beruht.
    Notes: Abstract Mice previously injected intravenously with lead acetate solution were injected subcutaneously with Polymixin B Sulphate. This resulted in calcification at the latter injection site. Histological evidence showed marked mast cell degranulation, local vasodilation and the efflux of lead ions from these vessels. At twenty four hours after injection abundant calcium and phosphate ions were readily demonstrated. In addition, groups of mice pre-injected intravenously with lead acetate, were injected with constituents of mast cell granules. These included histamine phosphate, serotonin creatinine sulphate, heparin, chondroitin sulphate or hyaluronic acid. Of these exogenous constituents used, calcification was found only after serotonin and histamine injections, both of which are potent vasodilators and presumbly increase capillary permeability. It is postulated that the role of the mast cell in calcergy may be mainly that of producing local vasodilation with increased capillary permeability rather than the initial binding of metallic ions.
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  • 23
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    Cell & tissue research 137 (1973), S. 167-175 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Leydig cells ; Mouse ; Ring-shaped nucleolus ; Endoplasmic reticulum ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Many mature Leydig cells of adult mice contain annular nucleoli. In the cytoplasm of these cells, there is an abundance of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and its modifications, i.e. membranous whorls and double-walled tubules. By contrast, the cytoplasm of Leydig cells with compact nucleoli shows abundant free ribosomes and granular endoplasmic reticulum. It is assumed that the granular endoplasmic reticulum shifts to the agranular endoplasmic reticulum and its modifications during the differentiation of the Leydig cell. For the maturation of the Leydig cell the annular nucleoli may play an important role.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 139 (1973), S. 201-215 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Median eminence ; Mouse ; Ontogenesis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les fibres nerveuses renfermant des vésicules granuleuses et des vésicules de type synaptique apparaissent dans l'éminence médiane de foetus de 14 jours. Dés le 18è jour foetal, de véritables terminaisons nerveuses sont au contact des capillaires du plexus intercalaire, constituant une charnière neurohémale. Les anses intrainfundibulaires commencent à pénétrer dans l'éminence médiane à la naissance mais ce n'est que chez des souris de 5 jours qu'elles deviennent très nombreuses. — Nous discuterons sur des critères morphologiques, de la possibilité d'un contrôle hypothalamique sur l'adénohypophyse avant la naissance.
    Notes: Summary Nerve fibers containing granular vesicles and vesicles closely resembling synaptic vesicles appear in the median eminence of 14 days old mouse fetuses. At 18th fetal day true nerve endings have been observed which are located close to the capillaries of the superficial plexus forming a neurovascular link. The capillary loops penetrate into the median eminence at the time of parturition but only in 5 days old mice they can be observed more frequently. — On the basis of the morphological observations presented the question is discussed whether the hypothalamus can influence pituitary hormone secretion before birth.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Subcommissural organ ; Mouse ; Mucopolysaccharides ; Acid phosphatase activities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In mice most of the ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ (SCO cells) are densely packed with dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) containing either finely granular or flocculent materials. The well developed supra-nuclear Golgi apparatus consists of stacks of flattened saccules and small vesicles; the two or three outer Golgi saccules are moderately dilated and exhibit numerous fenestrations; occasional profiles suggesting the budding of coated vesicles and formation of membrane-bound dense bodies from the ends of the innermost Golgi saccules are seen. A few coated vesicles and membrane-bound dense bodies of various sizes and shapes are also found in the Golgi region. The contents of the dilated ER cisternae are stained with periodic acid-silver methenamine techniques. In the Golgi complex the two or three inner saccules are stained as deeply as the dense bodies, and the outer saccules are only slightly stained. The stained contents of ER cisternae are more electron opaque than those of the outer but less opaque than those of the inner Golgi saccules and the dense bodies. Acid phosphatase activities are localized in the dense bodies, some of the coated vesicles in the Golgi region, and in the one or two inner Golgi saccules. On the basis of these results the following conclusions have been reached: (1) In mouse SCO cells the finely granular and the flocculent materials in the lumen of ER cisternae contain a complex carbohydrate(s) which is secreted into the ventricle to form Reissner's fiber; (2) the secretory substance is assumed to be synthesized by the ER and stored in its cisternae, and the Golgi apparatus might play only a minor role, if any, in the elaboration of the secretory material; (3) most of the dense bodies in the mouse SCO cells are lysosomal in nature instead of being so-called dark secretory granules.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Intercellular junctions ; Neonatal liver ; Mouse ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Au cours du passage de la vie foetale à la vie postnatale, on note, dans le foie de souris, l'apparition d'associations jonctions-organites cellulaires. Celles-ci cont de deux types: associations desmosomes-organites et associations nexus-organites. 1.Associations nexus-organites. Le long de la «gap junction» sont étroitement accolés, uni ou bilatéralement, divers organites: mitochondrie(s), subsurface cisterna(e), peroxysome(s) ou lysosome. Ces associations n'apparaissent qu'entre le 21ème jour de la gestation et le ler jour post-natal, période à partir de laquelle ils disparaissent au profit d'associations desmosomes-organites cellulaires. Un nouveau type de structure s'associe dans le foie aux membranes plasmatiques: il s'agit des saccules ergastoplasmatiques ou subsurface cisternae. 2.Associations desmosomes-organites. Dans ces complexes, les tonofilaments desmosomiques entrent étroitement en contact avec la paroi des organites cellulaires associés: mitochondrie ou peroxysome. Déjà présents au 13ème jour de la gestation, ces structures s'observent plus fréquemment à partir du ler jour post-natal. La signification de ces associations reste à déterminer, d'autant plus que leur présence a déjà été signalée dans de trés nombreux tissus. Quelques hypothèses sont présentées.
    Notes: Summary During the transition between the fetal and postnatal periods associations between cell junctions and cell organelles appear in the liver of the mouse. These associations are of two types: desmosome-organelle and nexus-organelle. 1.Nexus-Organelles Association. Unilaterally or bilaterally, various organelles — mitochondria, cysternae, microbodies or lysosomes — adhere tightly along the gap. These associations appear only between the 21st day of gestation and the first postnatal day. Thereafter they gradually disappear and are replaced by desmosome-organelle associations. Another type of structure — ergastoplasmic saccules or cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum — become associated with the cell membrane. 2.Desmosome-Organelle Associations. In these complexes the desmosomal microfilaments are in close contact with membranes of the associated organelles — mitochondria or peroxysomes. The associations, which exist as early as the 13th day of gestation increase after the first postnatal day. The significance of these associations remains to be ascertained, especially since they occur in many other tissues. A few hypotheses are presented.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypothalamus ; Mouse ; Arcuate neurons ; Nucleolus-like bodies ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The arcuate nucleus of untreated (control) and castrated adult mice was studied with the electron microscope. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLB) were found in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the dendrites of arcuate neurons. NLB were spherical or ovoid, 0.7–1.5µm in diameter; they were composed of granules 100–150 Å and 200 Å in diameter, and filaments ∼70 Å in diameter. NLB were frequently associated with free ribosomes and cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Light microscopic studies with basic dyes and enzymatic digestions showed that these bodies contained some RNA. There was no significant change in the number of NLB in castrated animals.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Vaginal epithelium ; Cell differentiation ; Mouse ; Estradiol sensitive antigen ; Immunocytology, Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of an antigenic material specific for the cervicovaginal epithelium (CVA) was studied in the vaginal epithelium of the adult mouse with immunofluorescence and immunoferritin techniques. The antigen localization has been correlated to the fine structure of the vaginal epithelium in various states of functional activity. The antigen distribution in adult ovariectomized mice and in ovariectomized mice treated with estradiol was compared with that in normal cycling mice. CVA was found to be associated with the exterior of the cell membrane of vaginal epithelium cells, being part of the glycocalyx. Two cell types, mucous or keratinized, are derived from the germinative cell layer of the vaginal epithelium, depending on the hormonal environment. Mucous cells with morphological features that characterize cells about to cornify have been demonstrated. Fluorescence as well as ferritin particles, indicating the presence of antigen-antibody complexes, were seen within the mucous droplets of the mucous cells. The CVA production is apparently connected with vaginal mucus formation. The CVA distribution in the adult vaginal epithelium is discussed in relation to the distribution demonstrated earlier in the cervicovaginal epithelium of neonatal mice.
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  • 29
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    Cell & tissue research 140 (1973), S. 445-449 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cecum, Colon ; Mouse ; Glycocalyx ; Intestinal microorganisms ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the cecal epithelium of the mouse resembles that of more distal parts of the colon. A brief discussion is presented of the possible significance of apical cytoplasmic granules to the glycocalyx and of the close association of microorganisms with the lining epithelium.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ovum ; Mouse ; Membranes ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of unusual membrane complexes within developing mouse oocytes. These structures, most obvious 18 days post fertilization, are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of cells in meiotic prophase. The complexes, usually found in small groups, are characterized by a slightly bowed appearance, and a thin middle section that is vesiculated at each end. At high magnification the middle section exhibits a pentalaminar structure similar to tight junctional complexes, while the looped membranes of the vesiculated ends are trilaminar in appearance. In addition to being free in the nucleoplasm or cytoplasm, the complexes are also seen in continuity with the inner and outer leaflets of the nuclear envelope, and with typical membranes forming cytoplasmic tubular systems. The possible formation of these complexes from blebs or vesicles derived from the nuclear envelope is presented and the role that these structures may play in developing oocytes is discussed.
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  • 31
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    Cell & tissue research 138 (1973), S. 155-169 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Spermiogenesis ; Mouse ; Multinucleate spermatids ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This ultrastructural study confirms and extends the light microscope findings of Bryan (1971) concerning the presence and developmental fate of multinucleate spermatids. Four main classes of cells: uninucleate-individual, uninucleate-conjoined, multinucleate-conjoined, and multinucleate-individual, were identified along with a few instances of more complex syncytial organizations. When the respective nuclei in a given multinucleate are far enough apart, each develops autonomously but in synchrony with its neighbors. When nuclei are intimately associated, the “normal” pattern of spermiogenesis may be altered, giving rise to highly bizarre spermatozoa. Commonly, a single Golgi complex serves a pair of nuclei and gives rise to a “T-shaped” acrosome which binds the nuclei together. During the ensuing nuclear elongation phase, such units are invested by a single manchette. Pairs of axonemes within a common plasma membrane have also been encountered. These ultrastructural findings indicate that multinucleate spermatids are true components (not artifacts) of the seminiferous epithelium of normal animals. The presence of such cells and the unusual developmental consequences which can arise as a result of the multinucleate state must be taken into account when evaluating the course of spermatogenesis in cases of mutation- or chemically-induced infertility.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Probenecid ; Cardiac Glykosides ; Distribution ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Distribution studies have been performed on mice with tritium labelled Digitoxin, Digoxin and Ouabain. Contrary to many other species Digitoxin does not lead to an accumulation of radioactivity in the mouse organs. Neither the liver, nor the muscle, nor the kidney concentrations ever reached plasma radioactivity levels; the highest organ concentrations in steady state were found in the liver,and attained between 40 and 50% of plasma radioactivity concentrations. Radiochromatographic controls of these experiments in the liver, bile and plasma showed that Digitoxin is metabolized to a very small extent only and is especially not subject to 12-β-hydroxylation: no Digoxin is demonstrable in liver, bile, plasma, and urine of the mouse following Digitoxin administration. Unlike with Digitoxin is the concentration of Digoxin and Ouabain in the mouse liver very effective. Liver radioactivity after 3H-Digoxin administration is found mostly to be 2–3 fold above plasma level concentrations whereas Ouabain—not metabolized in the mouse—may reach liver concentrations up to 35 times the plasma level. Radioactivity in bile reflects this behaviour: Ouabain bile levels reach the highest values (up to 200 fold) whereas Digitoxin never exceeds plasma radioactivity. When Probenecid was given together with the cardiac glykosides, Digitoxin plasma radioactivity fell to about half of the control values with a slight rise in liver and muscle concentrations. With Digoxin and even more with Ouabain Probenecid inhibited their accumulation in the liver leading to a redistribution into the plasma and muscles with subsequent higher muscle concentrations. The general Probenecid effect was to level out concentration gradients mostly pronounced in the Ouabain experiments where also the effect was achieved with the lowest Probenecid dose (20 mg/kg). A satisfactory explanation for this effet is not yet possible.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Dichlorvos ; Trimethyl Phosphate ; Ethyl Methanesulphonate ; Dominant Letal ; Mutagenesis ; Mouse ; Inhalation ; Dichlorvos ; Trimethylphosphat ; Äthylmethansulfat ; dominant letal ; Mutagenese ; Maus ; inhalation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Männliche CF1-Mäuse wurden 16 Std lang Dichlorvos-konzentrationen von 30 und 55 μg/l in der Atemluft ausgesetzt, oder sie wurden 4 Wochen lang 23 Std am Tag in einer Atmosphäre gehalten, die 2,1 bzw. 5,8 μg/l Dichlorvos enthielt. Bei den nachfolgenden Paarungen während 8 Wochen kam es nicht zu mutagenen Effekten im Sinne eines gesteigerten frühen Fetaltodes oder präimplantativen Verlustes. Die Fertilität der Männchen blieb unbeeinflußt.
    Notes: Abstract Male CF1 mice were exposed to atmospheres containing dichlorvos at concentrations of 30 and 55 μg per litre of air for 16 h, or to 2.1 and 5.8 μg per litre for 23 h daily for 4 weeks. These exposures to dichlorvos produced no mutagenic effects as expressed by increased pre-implantation losses or early foetal deaths in subsequent test matings. No impairment of male fertility was detected following the exposures to dichlorvos vapour.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Sympathetic System ; Mouse ; Development ; Monoamines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The early development of the sympathetic chain with adjacent ganglia and chromaffin tissue and the appearance of monoamines in these organs was mapped with the Falck-Hillarp fluorescence technique. In the 11 days embryo a few fluorescent cells are found lateral to the aorta in the thoracal region. During the following days the sympathetic chain with segmentally arranged ganglia develops. The cells have a weak to medium fluorescence intensity. A migration of fluorrescent cells ventral to the sympathetic chain can be seen in embryos 12 days old. These migrating cells will later form the prevertebral ganglia and the chromaffin tissue. At the 14 days old stage the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia can be distinguished, while the prevertebral plexa are differentiated in the 15 days old embryo. The chromaffin tissue has a brilliant fluorescence but in the neonatal stages parts of the paraganglia show a weaker fluorescence and though they have their largest extension around the 10th day of postnatal life a brilliant fluorescence can be seen only in a smaller part of the ganglia at that time. The paraganglia are reduced in adult stages.
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  • 35
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    Anatomy and embryology 138 (1972), S. 67-81 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Adrenal gland ; Mouse ; N-(acetyl-H3)-D-glucosamine ; Estrogenic steroid conjugation ; Autoradiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In der Nebennierenrinde der Maus lassen sich nach i.p.-Injektion von N-(Acetyl-H3)-D-Glucosamin Conjugate oestrogener Steroidhormone autoradiographisch nachweisen. Bei erwachsenen Tieren beiderlei Geschlechts ist eine an das Mark angrenzende Rindenzone selektiv markiert. Es bestehen jedoch Geschlechtsunterschiede: Bei jungen erwachsenen virginellen Mäusen ist der spezifische Tritiumeinbau auf die juxtamedulläre X-Zone beschränkt. Männchen gleichen Alters, die nach der Geschlechtsreife keine X-Zone mehr besitzen, haben die Radioaktivität in der Zona reticularis und dem angrenzenden drittel der Zona fasciculata aufgenommen. Testosteronbehandlung virgineller Mäuse führt zur Degeneration der juxtamedullären X-Zone und zur Inkorporation des N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamin in die Zona reticularis sowie dem marknahen Anteil der Zona fasciculata. Nach postnatal ausgeführter Testektomie persistiert die X-Zone. Die spezifische Markierung umfaßt jetzt einen breiten Rindenbereich von der Mark-Rindengrenze bis zum äußeren Drittel der Zona fasciculata. Die testosteroninduzierte Degeneration der X-Zone ist bei kastrierten Männchen mit einer Rindenmarkierung verbunden, welche derjenigen normaler adulter Männchen entspricht. Die Nebennierenrinde der Maus erweist sich wegen ihres natürlichen und experimentellen geschlechtsspezifischen Verhaltens als geeignetes Modell für autoradiographische Untersuchungen zur Konjugation oestrogener Steroidhormone. Die adrenale Steroidkonjugation und die unterschiedliche Conjugatbildung in den Zonen der Nebennierenrinde werden anhand der einschlägigen Literatur diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary In the adrenal cortex of the mouse, conjugation of estrogenic hormones can be visualized by means of light microscopic autoradiography after intraperitoneal injection of N-(acetyl-H3)-D-glucosamine. Tritium label from N-acetylglucosamine is detected within the inner adrenocortical zone of both sexes. However, the distribution of the label is different in the two sexes: In adult virgin females the incorporation of radioactivity is mainly restricted to the X-zone, whereas in adult males, the X-zone of which has undergone degeneration, the bulk of radioactivity is found in the zona reticularis and in the inner portion of the zona fasciculata. After treatment of virgin female mice with testosterone propionate, radioactivity is found to be incorporated into the zona reticularis and into the inner part of the zona fasciculata. Testectomy shortly after birth leads to an extensive uptake of tritium in the persisting X-zone and in addition in the zona reticularis and approximately the inner two-thirds of the zona fasciculata. In adult males castrated shortly after birth, injection of testosterone propionate is followed by degeneration of the X-zone. In this case the distribution of label is similar to that seen in normal adult males. Because of the striking morphological differences between the adrenal cortices of the two sexes and of animals treated with hormones, the adrenal cortex of the mouse is shown to be a particularly useful model for autoradiographic investigations of steroid conjugation. Its physiological significance and its different pattern of biogenesis within the adrenocortical zones are discussed.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Anterior pituitary ; Mouse ; Tissue culture ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Suitability of an ordinary incubation system for the culture of anterior pituitary tissues of mice was examined by electron microscopy. It was found that this system has many advantages over Trowell's standard technique for tissue culture and is particularly suitable for the short-term culture. In this system the pituitary tissue cultures were maintained well for at least two days in a chemically defined tissue culture medium (TC 199) without any additives. Addition of 20% calf serum to the medium extended the period to up to five days. Any attempts to prolong it further, however, failed because of a massive necrosis and a great loss of the histological integrity. In the cultured tissues there an enhancement of the LTH cells and a suppression of the other granulated types of cells were observed. The follicular cells were found to hypertrophy and to actively participate in phagocytosis of cell debris.
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  • 37
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    Anatomy and embryology 137 (1972), S. 285-300 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Mouse ; Paraganglionic cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Ganglion vestibulare der Maus recht inkonstant vorkommende besondere Zellknötchen wurden licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Es wird angenommen, daß die disseminiert auftretenden Zellgruppen ein nicht-chromaffines, parasympathogenes Paraganglion vestibulare darstellen, das den aus der Pars intermedia des N. facialis abgehenden Rr. communicantes cum N. statoacustico angehört. Diesem Paraganglion vestibulare wird eine (neuro-)sekretorische Funktion unterstellt und die Bedeutung der Paraganglien allgemein erörtert.
    Notes: Summary Morphology and ultrastructure of special cell groups in the ganglion vestibulare are investigated. It is supposed that the disseminated cell groups represent a nonchromaffin parasympathogenic paraganglion vestibulare belonging to the Rr. communicantes cum N. statoacustico of the N. facialis. A neurosecretory function of the paraganglion vestibulare is discussed.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Endocardium ; Scanning Electron Microscopy ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine surface morphology of the endocardium and the venae cordis minimae foramina has been examined using the scanning electron microscope. The morphology of the endocardium differed in various sites in the atria and ventricles. The endocardial appearance included: fusiform cells with fine cell extensions from their ends; villiform, cuneiform and cusp-shaped projections; beaded strands of cells; groups of cells forming ridges and bulging spheroidal nuclear projections. In areas where the endocardium is flatter and smoother the endocardial cells have only slightly bulging nuclei which give the surface a macular appearance. Structures resembling intercellular bridges were seen in some areas. Both the cell surface projections and the whole cell alignment were in the direction of systolic blood flow, thus effectively minimising the flow resistance and turbulence. The cell surfaces were pitted, suggesting pinocytotic activity, ridged or possessed microvilli. Both unguarded and valved venae cordis minimae foramina were seen, the latter generally, being in the form of flap valves. Unguarded foramina less than 5 μ in diameter had a sphincterlike appearance while those foramina larger than 5 μ were variable in structure. In view of the presence of the complex foramina and variable endocardial cell types the endocardium is a complex and specific structural entity distinguishing it form normal vascular endothelium.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Diphosphonates ; Bone resorption ; Mouse ; Pyrophosphate ; Tissue culture ; 45Calcium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Deux diphosphonates, le disodium-éthane-1-hydroxyle-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) et le disodium dichlorométhylène diphosphonate (Cl2MDP), inhibent la résorption osseuse, induite par des cellules au niveau de calottes craniennes, cultivées pendant 48 heuresin vitro, lorsque ces substances sont ajoutées au milieu. Le Cl2MDP est plus actif que l'EHDP, à des doses variant 0–16 μg P/ml. Le pyrophosphate et l'imidodiphosphate n'inhibent pas la résorption osseuse à des doses comparables. Lorsque les deux diphosphonates sont injectés à des sourisin vivo avant mise en culture, la résorption osseuse observéein vitro est considérablement réduite: à une dose de 10 μg P/g de poids corporel de Cl2MDP, elle est presque totalement inhibée. Cet effet est rapide et dure plusieurs jours. Les conséquences de ces résultats et la méthode d'essai d'inhibiteurs de la résorption osseuse par la méthode combinéein vivo/ in vitro sont envisagées.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Zwei Diphosphonate, Dinatrium-äthan-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonat (EHDP) und Dinatrium-Dichloromethylendiphosphonat (Cl2MDP), hemmen zellbedingte Knochenresorption von Mäuseschädeldächern, welche während 48 Stdin vitro kultiviert worden waren, wenn diese Substanzen dem Nährmedium zugegeben werden. Im Dosierungsbereich von 0–16 μg P/ml ist Cl2MDP wirksamer als EHDP. Pyrophosphat und Imidodiphosphat blockieren die Knochenresorption bei entsprechenden Dosen nicht. Wenn die zwei Diphosphonate Mäusenin vivo injiziert werden, bevor das Explantat hergestellt wird, ist die nachfolgende Knochenresorptionin vitro stark vermindert; bei einer Dosierung von 10 μg P/g Körpergewicht von Cl2MDP ist die Resorption fast gänzlich blockiert. Diese Wirkung erfolgt rasch und dauert während einigen Tagen an. Die Folgerungen aus diesen Ergebnissen sowie das Verfahren, Knochenresorptionshemmer mittels kombinierterin vivo/in vitro-Methode zu prüfen, werden diskutiert.
    Notes: Abstract Two diphosphonates, disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) and disodium dichloromethyle diphosphonate (Cl2MDP), inhibit cell-mediated bone resorption of mouse calvaria cultivated for 48 hoursin vitro, when the compounds are added to the medium. Cl2MDP is more effective than EHDP over the dose range 0–16 μg P/ml. Pyrophosphate and imidodiophosphate do not block bone resorption at comparable dose levels. When the two diphosphonates are injected into micein vivo before explants are prepared, subsequent bone resorptionin vitro is considerably reduced; at a dose level of 10 μg P/g body weight of Cl2MDP it is almost completely blocked. This effect is rapid and persists for several days. The implications of these results and the method of testing inhibitors of bone resorption by the combinedin vivo/in vitro method are discussed.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Mouse ; Rat ; Brain ; Light-Dark-Programming ; Circadian ; Toxicity Rhythms ; Acetylcholine ; Pilocarpine ; Oxotremorine ; Carbachol ; Physostigmine ; Neostigmine ; Atropine ; Scopolamine ; Atropine Methyl Nitrate ; Maus ; Ratten ; Gehirn ; Beleuchtungsprogramm ; Circadianer Toxicitätsrhythmus ; Acetylcholin ; Piloearpin ; Oxotremorin ; Carbachol ; Physostigmin ; Neostigmin ; Atropin ; Scopolamin ; Atropin-methylnitrat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Nach Adaptation an ein Licht-Dunkelprogramm (8.00 bis 20.00 Licht, 20.00 bis 8.00 Dunkelheit) wurde der Acetylcholingehalt (ACh) im Mittelhirn und N. caudatus von Ratten sowie im Gesamthirn von Mäusen bestimmt. Die höchsten ACh-Konzentrationen wurden bei Ratten um 24.00 gefunden; die höchsten ACh-Werte bei der Maus waren nicht signifikant von den Konzentrationen um 24.00 und 12.00 verschieden. Signifikante ACh-Minima traten im Mittelhirn der Ratte um 12.00, im N. caudatus sowie im Mäusegehirn um 18.00 Uhr auf. Während der Dunkelperiode wurde die größte Toxicität gegenüber i.v. bzw. i.p. injiziertem ACh bei Mäusen gefunden. Ähnliche zeitliche Unterschiede ergaben sich für Neostigmin, Pilocarpin und Oxytremorin. Die Toxicität von Carbachol zeigte Maxima bei 12.00 und 24.00. Für Physostigmin, einen CholinesteraseHemmstoff mit einem tertiären Stickstoff, lagen sowohl die Toxicitätsmaxima als auch die Toxicitätsminima in der Dunkelperiode. Die rhythmische Schwankung der Toxicität von i.p. verabfolgtem Atropin verhielt sich umgekehrt wie die der Cholinomimetica (außer Carbachol). Auch nach i.v. Applikation von Scopolamin und N-Methylatropin war ein entsprechender rhythmischer Einfluß auf die Toxicität nachweisbar. Die Vorbehandlung mit N-Methylatropin schwächte die Toxicität zwar ab, der Toxicitätsrhythmus gegenüber ACh und Physostigmin war aber nicht verändert. Die Toxicität von Cholinomimetica zeigt ein Maximum während der höchsten ACh-Konzentrationen im Gehirn und der höchsten Stoffwechselaktivität. Bei den anticholinergen Substanzen zeigte sich ein umgekehrtes Verhältnis. Die Beziehungen zum zentralen ACh-Gehalt sind unklar.
    Notes: Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh) levels were determined in rat midbrain and caudate nucleus and mouse whole brain in mature animals adapted 3 weeks to a programmed lighting schedule (08:00 to 20:00 h light; 20:00 to 08:00 dark). Peak ACh levels in the rat occurred at 24:00 h; in the mouse the peak at 06:00 h did not differ significantly from values obtained at 24:00 and 12:00 h. Significant trough values occurred at 12:00 h in rat midbrain and at 18:00h in rat caudate nucleus and mouse brain. In mice toxicity of I.V. and I.P. administered ACh is maximal during the dark. Neostigmine, pilocarpine and oxotremorine have toxicity patterns similar to ACh. Carbachol toxicity peaked at 12:00 and 24:00 h. With physostigmine, a tertiary anticholinesterase, peak and trough occurred during the dark. The atropine (I.P.) toxicity rhythm is a mirror image of the cholinomimetic rhythm (except for carbachol). I.V. scopolamine and atropine methyl nitrate patterns resemble atropine's but are less clear-cut. Atropine methyl nitrate pretreatment reduced ACh and physostigmine toxicity but did not alter the overall pattern. Cholinomimetic toxicity and brain ACh patterns are similar, peaking when metabolic activity is maximal. An inverse relationship holds for the anticholinergic drugs. The relationship to central ACh is uncertain.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: 2,2-Dichlorvinyl Dimethyl Phosphate ; Dichlorvos ; Vapona ; Metabolism ; Man ; Rat ; Mouse ; Hamster ; 2,2-Dichlorvinyl-dimethylphosphat ; Dichlorvos ; Vapona® ; Stoffwechsel ; Mensch ; Ratte ; Maus ; Hamster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung An Mäusen und Hamstern wurde die Exkretion und Retention der Radioaktivität nach Fütterung mit [1-14C-Vinyl]-Dichlorvos bestimmt. Außerdem wurde beim Menschen die Exkretion und Exhalation gemessen und die erhaltenen Werte mit den tierexperimentellen Daten von Rattenversuchen verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen schnellen Stoffwechsel von Dichlorvos bei allen vier untersuchten Species. Die Dealkylierung zu Desmethyldichlorvos spielt bei der Biotransformation eine untergeordnete Rolle. Eine gewisse Ausnahme zeigen die Mäuse, bei denen 18,5 % der zugeführten Radioaktivität als Desmethyldichlorvos aufgefunden werden konnte. Bei allen Species kam es zu einer hydrolytischen Spaltung zu Dichloracetaldehyd, der weiter zu Dichloraetbanol reduziert wird. Der weitere Weg führt über die Ausscheidung als Glucuronid mit dem Harn. Ein Teil wird dechloriert und das14C-Atom als14CO2 oder14C-Hippursäure im Harn ausgeschieden. Im menschlichen Harn konnte Dichloraethanol nach Inkubation mitβ-Glucuronidase nachgewiesen werden, wenn hohe Dichlorvoskonzentrationen (38 μg/l) eingeatmet wurden. Auf dieser Basis könnte eine Überwachungsmethode gegen die Inhalation von zu hohen Dichlorvoskonzentrationen ausgearbeitet werden.
    Notes: Abstract The routes of excretion and retention of radioactivity following the ingestion of [1-14C-vinyl]dichlorvos by mice and hamsters have been determined. The excretion of radioactivity in urine and exhaled air of man has also been measured. The data have been compared with those for rats. The results indicate that metabolism is rapid in the four species. Dealkylation to desmethyldichlorvos is a minor route of biotransformation, except in the mouse, where desmethyldichlorvos constitutes at least 18.5 % of the administered radioactivity. Hydrolytic metabolism of dichlorvos occurs in all species and leads presumably to dichloroacetaldehyde which is further metabolized by (i) reduction to dichloroethanol and excretion in the urine as the glucuronide and (ii) dechlorination followed by incorporation of the carbon atoms into endogenous biosyntheses and excretion as [14C]carbon dioxide and [14C]hippuric acid in the urine. Dichloroethanol can be detected inβ-glucuronidase-treated urine after exposure of a human subject to high air concentrations (38 μg/l) of non-radioactive dichlorvos. This may form the basis of a method of monitoring the exposure of humans to high concentrations of dichlorvos.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Tracheo-bronchial mucosa ; Amine-storing (enterochromaffin-like) cells ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The tracheo-bronchial mucosa of the mouse has been found to contain an extensive system of argyrophilic epithelial cells. In the trachea the cells morphologically resemble enterochromaffin cells. Normally, these enterochromaffin-like cells contain no fluorogenic amine, as revealed by the Falck-Hillarp formaldehyde technique. On the other hand the cells have the capacity to take up and decarboxylate 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP); the amine formed is stored in the cytoplasm in a reserpine-sensitive store. This capacity to produce and store amines under experimental conditions may reflect the presence in the tracheal enterochromaffin-like cells of an amine which can not be demonstrated with available fluorescence histochemical techniques. In the electron microscope the tracheal enterochromaffin-like cells were identified by a positive argyrophil reaction and by their capacity to accumulate radioactivity after administration of 3H-DOPA or 3H-5-HTP as revealed by autoradiography. The radioactive labelling was associated with cytoplasmic electron-dense granules (800–1000 Å), suggesting that the amine formed was stored in these granules. Accordingly, the granules stained argentaffin after DOPA-pre-treatment of the animal. It is suggested that, like similar cells in the gastric mucosa, these argyrophilic enterochromaffin-like cells constitute an endocrine system in which amines are of cytophysiological importance.
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  • 43
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    Cell & tissue research 130 (1972), S. 249-261 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Chromaffin tissue ; Ganglion cervicale uteri ; Mouse ; Light and electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das chromaffine Gewebe im Ganglion cervicale uteri der Maus wurde licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch in verschiedenen Funktionsstadien des Genitale untersucht. Die Befunde decken sich weitgehend mit den bisher bekannten Beobachtungen an extraadrenalem, chromaffinem Gewebe anderer Lokalisation. 1. Das chromaffine Gewebe besteht aus granulahaltigen Paraganglienzellen und Hüllzellen, die Schwannschen Zellen gleichen. 2. Die Granula der Paraganglienzellen sind sehr kontrastreich und von einer Membran umhüllt, die größeren Abstand von ihrem dichten Inhalt haben kann. 3. Gelegentlich sind die Paraganglienzellen mit Zilien ausgestattet. 4. Zellen mit wenig Granula haben ein kräftiger ausgebildetes rauhes endoplasmatisches Retikulum als Zellen mit hohem Granulagehalt. 5. Die paraganglionären Zellen haben keine besondere Beziehung zum Gefäßsystem. 6. Die Paraganglienzellen stehen mit Nervenendingungen durch Synapsen in Kontakt, die sowohl überwiegend synaptische Bläschen als auch überwiegend „dense core vesicles” enthalten können. Sie scheinen also sowohl durch cholinerge als auch durch adrenerge Innervation kontrolliert zu werden. 7. Unterschiede in der Ultrastruktur der Paraganglienzellen konnten nur zwischen ausgewachsenen und infantilen Tieren festgestellt werden. Letztere haben einen höheren Anteil an Zellen mit wenig Granula. 8. Die Befunde scheinen für eine lokale endokrine Beeinflussung der Nervenzellen des Ganglion cervicale uteri durch Abgabe von Katecholaminen aus den Paraganglienzellen zu sprechen.
    Notes: Summary The chromaffin tissue in the ganglion cervicale uteri of mice was investigated in different functional stages of their reproductive system by light and electron microscopy. The observations correspond to the findings obtained in extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue localized in other regions. 1. The chromaffin tissue consists of granule containing paraganglionic cells and of surrounding cells that resemble Schwann cells. 2. Occasionally the paraganglionic cells possess cilia. 3. The granules in the cytoplasm of paraganglionic cells are very electron dense and are enveloped by a membrane that forms a vesicle with a diameter either corresponding to that of the granule or considerably larger than the latter. 4. Cells with little granules have a better developed rough endoplasmic reticulum than cells with a great number of granules. 5. The paraganglionic cells have no special relationships to blood vessels. 6. The paraganglionic cells are innervated by synapses that possess synaptic vesicles and by synapses that show accumulations of dense core vesicles. The paraganglionic cells seem to be under the control of cholinergic and adrenergic innervation. 7. Differences of ultrastructure of the paraganglionic cells were seen only between adult and infantile animals. The latter have a greater number of cells containing only a small quantity of granules. 8. The findings suggest the hypothesis of a local endocrine influence of the paraganglionic cells on the neurons of the ganglion cervicale uteri by release of catecholamines.
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  • 44
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    Cell & tissue research 129 (1972), S. 188-195 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Thymus ; Mouse ; Mitosis ; Circadian rhythm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The mitotic and pyknotic indices were calculated over a period of 24 hrs in four different zones of the mouse thymus (Balb/C). Counts were based on 1 micron sections of Epon-embedded tissue. This technique gives a more accurate mitotic index than has been calculated in the past because mitotic figures in the prophase stage are more easily recognizable. Mitotic as well as pyknotic index showed a distinct diurnal rhythm in the subcapsular zone, the rhythm being less distinct towards the medulla, where no significant diurnal fluctuations were demonstrated. It was shown that the index variations could be correlated to significant variations in the mitotic time.
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  • 45
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    Cell & tissue research 124 (1972), S. 387-405 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adenohypophysis ; Mouse ; Follicular cells ; Marginal cells ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Follicular cells in the mouse adenohypophysis were studied electron microscopically. These elements appear to be very similar to the marginal cells that delineate both sides of the hypophyseal cleft. The mouse differs from most other species in that the follicular cells in the pars distalis and the marginal cells look completely inactive in young, intact animals. This makes the mouse exceptionally favorable for correlating morphological changes in the cells of both types with changes in the physiological state of the animal. Different treatments applied in the present investigation all induced morphological reactions in the follicular and/or marginal cells; these reactions were generally similar. Thus, morphological changes in the follicular or marginal cells should be considered as general phenomena accompanying many changes in the physiological state of the animal, rather than as a specific result of the treatment applied. In three experiments, the follicular and marginal cells were involved in the digestion of waste material from other cells. It is suggested that the morphological changes in the other experiments should also be interpreted as signs of such an activity. In the pars tuberalis of the young, intact mouse the follicular cells may show characteristics that in the pars distalis are found only under experimental conditions. Therefore, the follicular cells in this part of the hypophysis are probably in an active state.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Anterior pituitary ; Mouse ; in vitro ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Anterior pituitaries of mice were incubated for periods up to four hours in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate glucose gassed with 95% O2∶5% CO2. The incubated explants survived and retained a fine structure that approximated the condition in situ. The few necrotic cells were sharply localized, and were found to be due to initial mechanical damage to the tissue. Some cells of the six granulated types exhibited slight but significant changes attributable to the liberation from the hypothalamic control: in LTH cells there was a release of preexisting granules and a development of cell organelles, whereas in other cell types there was an inhibition of release of granules and an enhanced digestion of the accumulated granules by the lysosomal system. Follicular cells responded uniquely to the changed environment by hypertrophy of the cytoplasm and were found to phagocytize cell debris. A part of non-epithelial elements of the gland showed a tendency to modulate cytologically.
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  • 47
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    Cell & tissue research 128 (1972), S. 135-138 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Spinal cord ; Mouse ; Myelinated neuronal soma ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Thorakalmark (Hinterhornbereich) einer Wildmaus wurde ein kleines Nervenzellperikaryon beobachtet, das vollständig von einer Markscheide umhüllt war. Die Zahl der Markscheidenlamellen variierte zwischen 7 und 12. An einer Stelle konnte ein sogenanntes inneres Mesoperikaryon nachgewiesen werden. Die Bedeutung dieses zufällig erhobenen Befundes ist vorerst noch offen.
    Notes: Summary In the thoracic cord (posterior horn region) of a wild mouse, we have observed a small nerve cell soma completely enveloped by a myelin sheath. The number of myelin lamellae varied between 7 and 12. In one place, the existence of an inner ‘mesoperikaryon’ could also be shown. The significance of this fortuitous finding has not yet been explained.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Olfactory mucosa ; Mouse ; Glands of Bowman ; Light and electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das erste Auftreten der Glandulae olfactoriae in der olfaktorischen Region der Maus wird beschrieben. Die Struktur der Bowmanschen Drüse und ihre topologische Beziehung zu den übrigen zellulären Elementen im Riechepithel wird untersucht. Die Bedeutung des Sekrets für die Bildung des Deckhäutchens wird diskutiert. Die Bowmanschen Drüsen der Maus erreichen im letzten Viertel des intrauterinen Lebens die Lamina propria des Riechepithels. In den Endstücken finden sich dunkle, sekretreiche und helle, sekretarme Zellen. Die sezernierenden Zellen der Bowmanschen Drüsen sind nicht auf die Lamina propria beschränkt, sondern erstrecken sich bis in die untersten Anteile des Kernlagers im Riechepithel. Beim Austritt der Bowmanschen Drüsen aus dem Riechepithel in die Lamina propria konfluieren die Basalmembranen dieser Gewebeanteile miteinander. Die gemeinsame Basalmembran kann sich noch eine Strecke weit bis in den normalen Interzellularraum zwischen Drüsen- und Riechepithelanteilen einsenken. In den apikalen Anteilen des Riechepithels wird der Ausführungsgang von den benachbarten Sinnes- und Stützzellen nur durch eine normal breite Interzellularfuge getrennt. Im Ausführungsgang der Bowmanschen Drüse finden sich dunkle und helle auskleidende Zellen. Die durch Desmosomen miteinander verbundenen Epithelzellen der Ausführungsgänge zeigen Zeichen einer Sekretion. Die periphersten Ausläufer des Ausführungsgangepithels erstrecken sich lediglich bis in das Terminalplattenniveau der Stützzellen, mit denen sie sich durch desmosomenartige Kontaktzonen verbinden. In der Verlängerung der Ausführungsgänge wird das Lumen peripher des Terminalplattenniveaus von den apikalen Stützzellanteilen und deren Mikrovilli sowie von den obersten Anteilen der Dendriten, von den Riechköpfen und den Sinneshaaren der Rezeptorzellen umgrenzt. Im Lumen der Ausführungsgangverlängerung finden sich im Bereich des olfaktorischen Saumes flächenhafte Ansammlungen von Sekret. Das Sekret im intervillösen Raum des olfaktorischen Saumes zeigt eine besondere Affinität zu den Membranen der peripheren Sinneszellausläufer. In der intrauterinen Lebensphase ließ sich bisher kein Deckhäutchen feststellen. Die austrocknende Wirkung der Luft auf das Sekret der Bowmanschen Drüsen wird als Entstehungsmechanismus für das Deckhäutchen in Erwägung gezogen.
    Notes: Summary First appearance, structure and topological relations of Bowmans' glands in the regio olfactoria of white mice are described. The importance of these glands for the formation of the terminal mucous cover of the olfactory epithelium is discussed. In the last quarter of intrauterine life the glands of Bowman reach the lamina propria. In the terminal portion of the glands dark cells with many secretory droplets and pale cells with only a few of them can be seen. Secretory active cells are localized in the basal part of the olfactory epithelium as well. When entering the lamina propria the irregular wide basement membrane of the glands joins that one of the epithelium. It is possible to follow up this joined basement membrane for a short distance between the glands and the cells of the olfactory epithelium. Peripheral to the very basal part of the olfactory epithelium there is no basement membrane around the glands' tissue. Receptors and sustentacular cells are separated from the gland only by a normal intercellular space. The epithelium of the ducts consists of dark and light cells as well. They are connected with the sustentacular cells by desmosomelike contacts. In its prolongation the lumen of Bowman's duct is lined by the apical portions of the sustentacular cells and their microvilli, and by dendrites, olfactory vesicles, and sensory cilia of the receptor cells. In the region of cilia and microvilli one can see masses of secretion which have confluenced. In the intervillous space its special affinity to the receptor's membranes is evident. During the intrauterine phase of life no terminal mucous cover could be demonstrated. The drying effect of the air as a possible reason for the origin of the terminal mucous cover is discussed.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cervicovaginal anlage ; Estradiol sensitive antigen ; Mouse ; Cell differentiation ; Immunocytology ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cells of the cervicovaginal epithelium of neonatal mice underwent morphological changes in response to estradiol injection. On the luminal border, estradiol treatment caused development of distinct microvilli and a prominent surface coat of delicate filamentous material. Very deep nuclear folds appeared, and the border between adjacent cells became strongly interdigitated. The cells developed a pronounced smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dark-stained membrane-bounded granules accumulated in the apical part of the cells. Estradiol promoted increased production of an antigenic material specific for the cervicovaginal epithelium (CVA). Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated CVA in the most apical part of the cells, in the extracellular material on the epithelial surface, and in the intercellular spaces between adjacent epithelial cells. This was confirmed by immunoferritin methods, which revealed that the antigen was localized to the surface coat and to material adhering closely to the exterior of the cell membrane, the part facing the lumen and also the part facing intercellular spaces. Within the cells, ferritin tagging was recognized around the membranes enclosing the dark-stained granules in the apical part of the cells and also on the inside of the luminal cell membrane. This is so interpreted that CVA acquires its antigenic properties when passing out from the dark-stained granules through the surrounding envelope. CVA apparently forms part of the glycocalyx of the cervicovaginal cells.
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  • 50
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    Archives of toxicology 27 (1971), S. 173-186 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Tetramethyl-thiuram Disulphide (Thiram TMTD) ; Mouse ; Skeletal Malformations ; Stage Specificity ; Cleft Palate ; Tetramethylthiuramdisulfid (Thiram, TMTD) ; Maus ; Skeletmißbildungen ; Stadienspezifität ; Gaumenspalten
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den vorliegenden Untersuchungen wurden gravide Mäuseweibchen der Stämme NMRI und SW sowohl vom 6.–17. Trächtigkeitstag als auch während bestimmter Abschnitte der Gestation oral mit verschiedenen, für das Muttertier untoxischen Dosen (5–30 mg/Tier) von Tetramethylthiuramdisulfid (Thiram, TMTD) behandelt. Neben vermehrten Fruchtresorptionen und deutlichen Entwicklungsverzögerungen konnte bei beiden Stämmen in Abhängigkeit von der Konzentration ein für das Thiram charakteristisches Mißbildungssyndrom des Skelets (Gaumenspalten, gewellte Rippen, Verbiegungen der Extremitätenknochen, Mikrognathien) festgestellt werden. Außerdem war es anhand der unterschiedlichen Applikationszeitpunkte möglich, stadienspezifische Wirkungen zu ermitteln, wobei sich der 12. und 13. Tag der Keimesentwicklung als empfindlichster Abschnitt erwies. Hinsichtlich der Auslösung von Gaumenspalten zeigte sich der NMRI-Stamm wesentlich empfindlicher als der SW-Stamm. Als teratogen unwirksame Dosis sind für die Maus etwa 250 mg/kg anzusehen.
    Notes: Abstract In the studies described, pregnant female mice of the NMRI and SW strains were treated between the 6th and 17th day of pregnancy as well as during certain other periods of gestation with tetramethyl-thiuram disulphide (thiram, TMTD) in oral doses that were non-toxic 5–30 mg/animal) for adult animals. In addition to increased resorption of embryos and clearly retarded fetal development, a syndrome of skeletal malformations (cleft platae, “wavy” ribs, curved long bones of the extremities, and micrognathia) characteristic of thiram and related to concentration could be observed in both strains. Furthermore, varying times of application allowed for a determination of stage-specific effects. The 12th and 13th day of embryonic development proved to be the most susceptible phase. There was a considerably higher succeptibility of the NMRI than SW strain with regard to the induction of cleft palates. The teratogenically ineffective dose for mice is considered to be approx. 250 mg/kg.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Adrenal gland ; Juxtamedullary X-zone ; Mouse ; Autoradiography ; L-cysteine-S35
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Verhalten der juxtamedullären X-Zone in der Nebennierenrinde der Maus wurde an 22 weiblichen und 20 männlichen Versuchstieren unter normalen und experimentellen Bedingungen untersucht. Lichtmikroskopisch und autoradiographisch zeigte sich ein geschlechtsspezifisches Verhalten der juxtamedullären X-Zone. Folgende Ergebnisse wurden erhalten. 1. Geschlechtsreife virginelle und nicht geschlechtsreife Mäuse beiderlei Geschlechts besitzen eine juxtamedulläre X-Zone. Autoradiographisch kommt diese Zone durch einen erhöhten Einbau von L-Cystein-S35 selektiv zur Darstellung. Die Nebennieren erwachsener männlicher Mäuse enthalten die juxtamedulläre X-Zone nicht. 2. Bei erwachsenen männlichen Mäusen, welche im Alter von 7 Tagen testektomiert wurden, persistiert die juxtamedulläre X-Zone noch nach 120 Tagen. 3. Testosteron-Injektionen bewirken sowohl bei erwachsenen virginellen als auch bei den testektomierten Mäusen eine Suppression der juxtamedullären X-Zone. 4. Die Korrelation von histologischer und autoradiographischer Darstellung wird als Beweis dafür gewertet, daß die bevorzugte Aufnahme von Cysteinschwefel eine Eigenschaft der juxtamedullären X-Zone ist. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Schwefelmarkierung und Sulfatierung androgener Steroid-hormone in der juxtamedullären X-Zone wird diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary In the adrenal cortex of the mouse the juxtamedullary X-Zone was investigated under normal and experimental conditions. In 22 female and 20 male mice both light microscopy and autoradiography revealed a sex-specific behaviour of the X-zone. The following findings were obtained: 1. Mature virgin mice and immature mice of both sexes possess a juxtamedullary X-zone. In autoradiographs this zone stands out because of an enhanced incorporation of L-cysteine-S35. The juxtamedullary X-zone is not present in the adrenals of untreated, normal adult male mice. 2. In adult male mice castrated at the age of seven days, the X-zone persists even after 120 days following castration, and has the same morphological aspect as that of virgin female mice. 3. Injections of testosterone cause a suppression of the juxtamedullary X-zone, both in adult virgin and in castrated male mice. 4. The correlation between histological and autoradiographical findings provides evidence that one property of the juxtamedullary X-zone is the preferential incorporation of labelled sulphur from the injected cysteine. The relationship between sulphur labelling and sulphurization of androgen steroid hormones in the juxtamedullary X-zone is discussed.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Female genitalia ; Vagina ; Cell differentiation ; Pinocytosis ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The mouse vaginal anlage consists of an anterior müllerian part and a posterior part derived from the urogenital sinus: the sinus vagina. Ultrastructural differences between the two parts have been studied. In contrast to the epithelial cells of the müllerian vagina, the cells of the sinus vagina at birth develop a basal cortical zone against the stroma border. Invaginations of the basal cell membrane enter the cortical zone, and minute vesicles are separated off. The sinus vagina has no typical basal lamina. During the postnatal period, the epithelia of both vaginal parts converge into a uniform immature epithelium with a distinct basal lamina. The morphological findings are related to other results concerning the vaginal epithelium.
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  • 53
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    Anatomy and embryology 133 (1971), S. 305-317 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Sympathetic Nervous System ; Mouse ; Development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The first visible primordia of the sympathetic chain appear in the anterior thoracic region and run caudally through 8 segments in an embryo of 11 gestation days. At 12 gestation days the trunk reaches from the base of the skull into the sacral region. During the following days the trunk develops into ganglia with interganglionic fibers. At 16 gestation days there is a well developed trunk with a cranial ganglion cervicale superior and a ganglion stellatum in the anterior part of the thoracic region. In the remaining sympathetic chain there are segmentally arranged ganglia but in this common pattern large differences are noticed. At the 13th gestation day the first signs of the adrenal medulla and the splanchnic plexus appear in the form of sympathoblasts ventral to the sympathetic chain. The migration of sympathoblasts into the primordia of the adrenal cortex goes on for 3 days while the migration to the splancnic plexus in the mesenchym ventral and lateral to the aorta goes on at least 2 more days.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Retrograde Nerve Cell Reaction ; Regeneration ; Degeneration ; Facial Nucleus ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Nervenzellveränderungen im Facialiskern von Mäusen wurden nach Quetschung und kompletter Durchtrennung des N. facialis untersucht. Die Läsionen waren von kompletter Nervenzellregeneration bzw. ausgedehnter Nervenzelldesintegration gefolgt. Lichtoptische Untersuchungen zeigten Zerstreuung der Nissl-Substanz ab dem 1. Tage nach beiden Läsionsformen; Zunahme der Cytoplasmabasophilie in der 1. Woche. Nach Quetschung begann die Nissl-Substanz nach 1 Woche wieder aufzutreten, und nach 30 Tagen waren die Neuronen wieder regelrecht. Nach Nervendurchtrennung blieb die basophile Substanz zerstreut. Es kam zum langsamen Verschwinden der Basophilie und zum Untergang der meisten Zellen 14–60 Tage nach der Läsion. Die ultrastrukturellen Veränderungen waren in den ersten Tagen nach beiden Läsionen identisch: Die aus parallelen Zisternen des granulären EPR und Haufen freier Ribosomen zwischen Lamellen bestehenden Nissl-Körper wurden durch kurze Segmente granulären EPR und freie Ribosomenhaufen im gesamten Cytoplasma ersetzt. Nach Quetschung fanden sich keine Veränderungen an anderen Zellorganellen. Die Nissl-Körper traten nach 1 Woche wieder auf. Es wird vermutet, daß die Dispersion und Neubildung der Nissl-Substanz nicht durch einen massiven Austausch von Organellen, sondern eher durch einfache Verteilung der Membranen und Ribosomenhaufen sowie eine Neuordnung dieser Strukturen während der Erholungsperiode beding ist. Nach Nervendurchtrennung bleibt das EPR verstreut, ohne daß weitere Veränderungen bis kurz vor der Desintegration auftreten. Später zeigt das Cytoplasma eindeutige Degenerationszeichen. Die Neurone werden schließlich durch Phagocytose durch Mikrogliazellen entfernt.
    Notes: Summary The neuronal changes were studied in the facial nucleus of mice after crush lesions and complete section of the facial nerve. These lesions were followed by complete nerve cell regeneration and extensive nerve cell disintegration, respectively. Light microscopical examination showed dispersion of the Nissl substance from the first day after both types of lesion, and the cytoplasmic basophilia increased during the first week. After crush lesions the Nissl substance began to reappear after one week, and after 30 days the neurons again were normal. After section of the nerve the basophilic substance remained dispersed and there was a slow depletion of the basophilia until the majority of the cells disappeared between 14 and 60 days after the lesion. The ultrastructural changes were identical during the first days after both types of lesion: The Nissl bodies, which consisted of parallel cisterns of granular endoplasmic reticulum and clusters of free ribosomes between the lamellae, were replaced by short segments of granular endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomal clusters throughout the cytoplasm. After crush lesions no changes were seen in any of the other cell organelles. New Nissl bodies began to reappear after one week. It is suggested that the dispersion and re-formation of the Nissl substance is not caused by a massive exchange of organelles but rather by a simple spreading of the membranes and ribosomal clusters and a re-arrangement of the same structures during recovery. After section of the nerve the endoplasmic reticulum remained dispersed without further changes until shortly before disintegration. The cytoplasm then showed extensive degeneration. The neurons were ultimately removed through phagocytosis by microglial cells.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Foot Shock ; Mouse ; Distress Arousal ; Fighting ; Locomotor Activity ; Vocalizing ; Recovery Time ; Imipramine ; Methamphetamine ; Perphenazine ; Methadone ; Pentobarbital ; Ethyl Alcohol ; Chlordiazepoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Methodologic studies were undertaken to establish the optimal conditions of continuous foot shock stimulation (3 min at 0.08 mA) for investigating drug effects on distress-evoked behavior, e.g., vocalizing, leaping, running, fighting and recovery latencies. The drugs subsequently studied under these conditions (imipramine, methamphetamine, methadone, perphenazine, pentobarbital, ethyl alcohol and chlordiazepoxide) could be distinguished and classified from the profiles of action obtained. Greatest overall reduction of the distress-evoked behaviors in diminishing order were produced by perphenazine, methadone, ethyl alcohol and chlordiazepoxide. Methadone most selectively reduced leaping responses; perphenazine most selectively prolonged recovery time latencies. None of the agents reduced fighting at doses that did not also modify the other modes of responding.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Stereotypy ; Behaviour ; Rat ; Mouse ; Neuroleptics ; Thymoleptics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The behaviour of mice after various doses of amphetamine or apomorphine which induce stereotypies is described in details. The induced stereotyped behaviour in mice appears more differentiated than that in rats. The amphetamine-syndrome in rats consists of an excitement phase followed by the stereotypy, whereas apomorphine elicits stereotyped behaviour directly after administration. Amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour is different from the apomorphine-induced stereotypy in several respects. Neuroleptics inhibit the amphetamine (12.5 mg/kg s.c.) and apomorphine-(10 mg/kg s.c.) syndrome, while thymoleptics potentiate subeffective doses of amphetamine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and apomorphine (2 mg/kg s.c.). This is demonstrated with some neuroleptics of the phenothiazine-type, haloperidol, reserpine, and a group of thymoleptics. The method opens the possibility of differentiating within several groups of neuroleptics and within several groups of thymoleptics.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Avoidance Conditioning ; Amino Acids ; Uninterrupted Sessions ; Fasting ; Glucoseaemia ; Serine ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In mice subjected to long uninterrupted avoidance sessions (1,500 trials) a clear decrement of performance was evident after the first 500–600 trials. Mice subjected to a 24 h fast showed a more rapid decrement of performance during the session following the fasting period than that evident in the same group fed ad libitum. When the effects of feeding casein, glucose or different amino acids were assessed, only casein, glucose or serine prevented the impairment of performance while the most toxic amino acids, i.e. histidine, methionine and tryptophan diminished the performance below that obtained by fasting. Casein, glucose and serine were the only diets that maintained blood glucose levels within the normal range. Feding experiments showed that serine was the most acceptable aminoacid to the mice indicating that it was unique in maintaining performance because it is the only amino acid that is both palatable and readily gluconeogenic.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal cells ; Mouse ; Glycogen ; Quantitative histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Effects of continuous lighting on glycogen in pineal cells of the mouse were histochemically investigated, qualitatively and quantitatively. In continuous lighting, glycogen stores in pineal cells show a striking increase during the first three days. The glycogen level rises almost fourfold in 1 day of lighting and reaches a peak at 2 days. At 3 days it begins to decrease slightly. After 3 days the glycogen level decreases gradually until it returns almost to normal in 3 weeks. Continuous lighting causes a decrease in the size of pineal cells, and the decreased size of the cells remains almost constant throughout lighting. In blinded mice, neither glycogen stores in pineal cells nor sizes of pineal cells are affected by continuous lighting.
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  • 59