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  • Mycotoxins  (8)
  • 1990-1994  (8)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Conidia ; Mycotoxins ; Sawmill ; Tremorgens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred and six strains ofA. fumigatus were isolated from 21 sawmills in Sweden, and 73 of these strains were examined for production of fumitremorgen B and verruculogen (tremorgenic mycotoxins) on YES-medium using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Twenty-three strains (32%) were tremorgen producers and 50 strains (68%) were non-producers. Tremorgenic mycotoxins were detected in conidia of sevenA. fumigatus strains. The amount of toxin varied between 0.6–8.0 µg/108 conidia (mean value 2.3 µg/108 conidia, equivalent with 0.18%). No production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin was detected in 6 strains ofA. fumigatus. No tremorgens were detected during mould growth on wood substrates, in spite of the use of different wood species (Scots pine,Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce,Picea abies and birch,Betula spp.), dried versus non-dried wood, bark (pine), leached wood, and wood after various sterilization methods.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycotoxins ; macrocyclic trichothecenes ; Stachybotrys ; fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty seven isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum, S. albipes, S. kampalensis and S. microspora from Egypt and Eastern Europe were tested for production of macrocyclic trichothecenes. Twenty of the 27 isolates, grown on rice seeds, were toxic to brine shrimp larvae. Based on TLC and HPLC analyses, 5 macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin J, roridin E, satratoxins F, G & H) as well as trichoverrols were identified. When grown in liquid culture on rice extract medium, only 3 isolates were toxic and produced verrucarin J, roridin E and satratoxins G & H. Extracts from mycelial mats were more toxic than culture filterates of two isolates grown on rice extract and both contained the same macrocyclic trichothecenes (285.5 mg/4 L), in addition to trichoverrols A & B (31 mg/4 L) found in mycelial mats only. When grown on 3% sucrose Czapek's medium supplemented with peptone and yeast extract (still cultures), all isolates were non-toxic to brine shrimp and no trichothecenes could be detected in the extracts.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 121 (1993), S. 179-192 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: ELISA ; Fusaria ; HPLC ; Mycotoxins ; TLC ; Trichothecenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The production of type A trichothecene mycotoxins by 19 Fusaria, including 12Fusarium sporotrichioides, 4F. chlamydosporum and 3F. graminearum at 15°C and 25°C over a 35-day period was analyzed by ELISA using antibodies cross-reactive with most type A trichothecenes after conversion to T-2 tetraol tetraacetate. The toxin production peaked at 20–25 days of incubation with maximum yield between 4–6 mg type A trichothecene/ml of culture medium for 5F. sporotrichioides cultures and between 1 to 2 mg/ml for 6F. sporotrichioides cultures. OneF. sporotrichioides produced 700 µg type A trichothecenes/ml of culture medium. Detectable type A trichothecene was also found in the culture extracts ofF. chlamydosporum andF. graminearum, but the yield was very low (less than 100 µg/ml). Quantitative determination of individual trichothecenes was achieved by separation of different toxin in HPLC and followed by ELISA analysis. Eight to 10 immunoreactive peaks, corresponding to various type A trichothecenes, were detected in all the fungal extracts. T-2 tetraol (T-2-4ol), 4-acetyl-T-2 tetraol (4-Ac-T-2-4ol), neosolaniol (NEOS), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin accounted for more than 85% of the total toxins. In general, low temperature was preferred for total type A trichothecene production. More T-2-4ol, 4-Ac-T-2-4ol, HT-2 and DAS were produced at 25°C. In contrast, more T-2 toxin and NEOS were produced at 15°C. Transformation of T-2 toxin and NEOS to polar metabolites such as T-2-4ol, 4-acetyl-T-2-4ol and HT-2 by various strains were observed at both temperatures after 25 days incubation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycotoxins ; Oilseed rape ; Aspergillus flavus ; Alternaria alternata ; Penicillium spp.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract During an investigation of the mycoflora on oilseed rape, the predominant fungal species present in 20 samples collected from Catalonia (Spain) wereAlternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler,Penicillium spp. andAspergillus flavus. None of the 20 samples analyzed presented contamination byAlternaria mycotoxins (tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altertoxin I and altertoxin II). Only aflatoxin B1 was detected in 1 of the 20 samples analyzed, with a concentration of 0.25 ppb. Of the 40Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from oilseed rape samples, only 3 revealed aflatoxigenic capacity. None of thePenicillium spp. isolated from oilseed rape samples revealed mycotoxigenic capacity (citreoviridin, griseofulvin, citrinin, patulin and penicillic acid).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Chicken liver ; Mycotoxins ; Ochratoxin ; Pork kidney
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Contamination studies by ochratoxin A on pork kidney and chicken liver has been carried out in Catalonia (Spain). 73% of the pork kidney samples analyzed did not contain an amount of ochratoxin A over our detection limit (0.5 ng/g) whereas only 7% had contamination higher than 1 ng/g. None of the chicken samples analyzed were contaminated by this toxin above the detection limit. All contamination levels found are below the maximum levels accepted by several countries for this kind of material. A confirmative test is necessary before discarding false positive samples.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ; Biorational control ; Mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Iturin A, a peptidolipid produced byBacillus subtilis, inhibits growth of a large number of fungi. In this study, the effects of iturin A were evaluated on nine isolates ofA. flavus and seven isolates ofA. parasiticus in liquid shake culture. The mycelial dry weight of theA. flavus isolates was not significantly influenced by iturin A, however, there was a significant reduction in mycelial dry weight for two of theA. parasiticus isolates. Aflatoxin production was significantly reduced in five of theA. flavus isolates and three of the six aflatoxigenicA. parasiticus isolates. For the other seven isolates, aflatoxin levels were either unchanged or significantly increased in the presence of iturin A. These results indicate that iturin A does not consistently reduce growth or aflatoxin production of these fungi in pure culture.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Diplodia ; Fumonisin ; Fusarium ; Mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A shipment of South African corn (1989) exported to Taiwan, was analyzed for various ear-rot fungi andFusarium mycotoxins. Two sets of samples, one from the points of origin in South Africa prior to shipment, and the other from the end-point distributors in Taiwan, were studied. Surface-sterilized kernels were plated onto two different agar media and the fungal colonies identified. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to analyze mycotoxin levels. The predominant ear-rot fungi, in decreasing order of isolation frequency, wereFusarium subglutinans, F. moniliforme, Diplodia maydis andF. graminearum. Aspergillus flavus andA. parasiticus were not isolated from samples prior to export, but a small number ofA. flavus isolates were found after shipment. The predominant mycotoxins were fumonisins B1 (0–865 ng/g) and B2 (0–250 ng/g). Low levels of moniliformin (≤390 ng/g) were detected in some samples before shipment. Zearalenone (25 ng/g), and nivalenol (120 ng/g) were detected in two out of 32 samples taken in Taiwan. The samples contained no detectable levels of either aflatoxins (〉0.5 ng/g) or deoxynivalenol (〉100 ng/g) before or after shipment.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Almond ; Cashew nut ; Chestnut ; Fungal flora ; Hazelnut ; Mycotoxins ; Pistachio nut ; Walnut
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A wide range of moulds representing several genera and species, was recorded in this study from 5 seed samples of each almond, cashew nut, chestnut, hazelnut, pistachio nut and walnut collected from different markets in Ar' Ar, Saudi Arabia. The total counts of fungi were widely fluctuated between 1960–7704 and 1948–7434 colonies/g dry seeds on glucose-Czapek's and glycerol agar media at 28°C, respectively, and represented twenty genera, 53 species and 2 varieties of fungi. The prevalent fungi on the 2 agar media wereAspergillus flavus, A. niger andPenicillium chrysogenum. On glucose-Czapek's agar,Rhizopus stolonifer andAspergillus flavus var.columnaris were isolated from all 6 kinds of nut,A. parasiticus from 5 kinds andA. fumigatus from 4 kinds with high frequencies.Eurotium species were completely absent on glucose-Czapek's agar but they were isolated in high frequency from all kinds of nut on glycerol agar medium. The different nut samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography for the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2, citrinin, ochratoxins, patulin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone. Aflatoxins B1 & G1 were detected in 3 out of the 5 samples tested of chestnut at concentrations ranging between 20 to 60 µg/kg. All other samples of almond, cashew nut, hazelnut, pistachio nut, and walnut that were analyzed were mycotoxin free.
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