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  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  (25)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alterations in pathogenicity ; in vitro growth ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; reisolation ; subcultivation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thein vitro subcultivation of some microorganisms for long periods causes measurable loss of their pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from infected hosts. We compared the pathogenicity and thein vitro growth pattern of oneP. brasiliensis isolate (Pb 18) in its yeast phase, using the following samples: 1) The original pathogenic Pb 18 (OP). 2) Pb 18 attenuated by continuousin vitro subcultivation (AT). 3) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from susceptible B 10.A mice (RS). 4) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from resistant A/SN mice (RR). Pathogenicity was evaluated by anatomopathology and mortality of mice infected i.p. with 5×106 fungi. Median survival times of mice infected with OP ranged from 74 to 117 days during the first 51 months of subculturing; with more cycles of subculturing the median survival time increased, reaching 250 days at the 64th month. This indicated decreasing virulence of OP during this period of subculturing. Survival of mice infected with RS and RR was respectively 112 and 123 days, which is similar to the behavior of the OP variant. Thein vitro growth curve profile of RR showed significantly higher numbers of total and viable yeasts than the other studied variant. These results show that: 1) Pb 18 isolate loses its pathogenicity by continuous subcultivation. This phenomenon is reverted by reisolation from mice, independently from their susceptibility to the fungus; 2) thein vitro growth patterns of Pb 18 do not correlate with alterations in pathogenicity but are influenced by the host's environment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycelial conidia ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The conidia produced by the mycelial form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Several different conidial types were characterized. These included intercalary arthroconidia, several types of septate conidia that are formed from other conidia, pedunculate conidia, and terminal hyphal conidia. In addition, the ultrastructure of the supporting pedestal of the pedunculate conidium was found to be separated from the mother conidium by a septum in some instances, and at other times it was not.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; Paracoccidioidomycosis ; fungal antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the occurrence of antigenic and biochemical variability among Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen batches prepared according to the same protocol. Initially (experiment #1), we analyzed two antigen lots of two human isolates (Bt1 & Bt2), cultured in two media (PYG: bactopeptone, yeast extract, glucose; MMM: McVeigh & Morton medium) in SDS-PAGE and in two immunological tests (imunodiffusion-ID and footpad swelling test-FPT). Afterwards (experiment #2), we compared the antigenic profile of three antigen batches from three human isolates (Bt1, Bt2 & Bt3) by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis (2 D-IEP) against a reference system for P. brasiliensis antigens. In experiment #1, there were important intra- and inter-strain antigenic differences between batches of the fungal isolates cultured on both media. The block titration of the antigen batches for the immunological tests revealed correlation between protein concentration and biological activity in ID and no correlation in FPT. In experiment #2, the reference system for P. brasiliensis showed 26 antigen peaks. There were important differences between batches prepared from the same isolate and between batches from different isolates. Our data suggested the occurrence of instability in the synthesis of antigenic components by a same P. brasiliensis isolate, under controlled incubation conditions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brazil ; dimorphic fungi ; ecology ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared the antigenic characteristics of two thermo-dependent dimorphic fungi isolated from soil in Botucatu, an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The soil isolates grew as cerebriform colonies at 37 °C (yeast form) and as cottonous colonies at 25 °C (mycelial form). No pathogenicity for ddY mice or hamsters were observed. In immunodiffusion test, there were precipitation bands between the 2 soil isolates and pooled PCM patient sera. There were also common precipitation bands at 21, 50 and 58 kDa between the soil isolates antigens and PCM patient sera by Western-blotting, but no gp43 kDa band. No gene for gp 43 kDa protein was detected in the soil isolates by PCR. The fact that these isolates were obtained from an endemic area of PCM and there were some antigenic similarities between the soil isolates and P. brasiliensis in immunodiffusion test and Western-blotting may have some importance in epidemiological surveys done with paracoccidioidin as well interfering with the immune response of the exposed population.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Mycopathologia 144 (1998), S. 131-133 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: armadillo ; Dasypus novemcinctus ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; paracoccidioidomycosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A study conducted in a rural area of Ibiá, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was recently isolated from soil, sought to determine if the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus developed paracoccidioidomycosis. Out of 21 armadillos captured in the area, one had a lung granuloma containing fungal cells attributable to those of P. brasiliensis. The present report presents the first histopathological evidence for the presence of this pathogen in the lungs of an armadillo. This finding permitted us to establish a linkage between the two species and to suggest that fungal infections of humans and of armadillos occur in the same agricultural and forest microenvironment that they share.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: antibodies ; armadillo ; experimental infection ; hamster ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; virulence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis may vary in virulence according to time of in vitro subcultivation. The present study compared the morphology and pathogenicity to hamsters of two P. brasiliensis isolates: one obtained from human lesions and maintained in the laboratory for several years (Pb-18) and the other isolate recovered from hamsters inoculated with organ homogenates from armadillos (Pb-T). The microscopic morphology of Pb-18 and Pb-T showed yeast cells with similar diameter. However, Pb-T produced a significantly higher number of buds per mother cell than Pb-18. Besides, the mycelial form of Pb-T developed abundant sporulation during 8 weeks of culture which was absent in the Pb-18 isolate. Virulence studies demonstrated that mortality rates, antibody levels, fungal load and extent of lesions in the organs were significantly higher in animals infected with Pb-T. The results demonstrated that Pb-T recently isolated from an animal was more virulent than Pb-18. These differences between the two P. brasillensis isolates may be indicators of virulence attenuation in this fungal species.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: armadillo ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; PCR ; RAPD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-three Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from three nine-banded armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus), one Amazonian armadillo's and 19 clinical isolates were compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis with the primer OPG-19. The isolates were divided into three major clusters, I, II and III. Coincidences between human and armadillo isolates were observed in clusters I and II. Cluster III consisted only of armadillos' isolates. The results suggested that (I) humans may acquire P. brasiliensis infection by contact with armadillo's environment, (II) there may be P. brasiliensis genotypes peculiar to the animal, and (III) individual armadillos may be infected with P. brasiliensis cells with different genotypes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Acridine orange ; Dye exclusion ; Erythrosin B ; Horse serum ; Janus green ; Methylene blue ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; Paracoccidiodomycosis ; Plating efficiency ; South American blastomycosis ; Ultrasound ; Vital dyes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mild sonication was used to obtain single cell suspensions of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. These cells were intact by microscopic criteria. Direct cell counts in a given inoculum and colony formation on various media were used to determine plating efficiency. Sonicated and nonsonicated cell suspensions were used to study plating efficiency and to estimate viability by means of vital dyes. Methylene blue, Erythrosin B, and Janus green were unreliable when used with P. brasiliensis, but vital dyes were accurate when tested with Candida albicans. Acridine orange gave more meaningful results of viability. Estimates of viability, however, changed significantly as a result of relatively minor alterations in the composition of the suspending medium. In initial experiments, the plating efficiency of P. brasiliensis was dismally low. It descended abruptly with increasing dilution of inoculum. Efficiency was much improved if horse serum was added to brain heart infusion plates or if glucose glycine yeast extract (GGY) plates were incubated at room temperature and mycelial colonies were counted. With the technique we report, current plating efficiency of sonicated suspensions is of the order of 25 %. Our results and procedures have an important bearing upon those studies concerned with in vitro killing of P. brasiliensis in suspensions or with isolating this fungus from clinical or environmental specimens.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; paracoccidioidomycosis ; passage in vitro ; virulence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Stability of virulence in P. brasiliensis isolates was studied with respect to the in vitro culture history and methods used for storage. Virulence in yeast-form P. brasiliensis isolates was tested in a chronic pulmonary murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis where progression of disease was quantitated in terms of colony forming units recoverable from lungs. Four isolates of P. brasiliensis, including recently isolated from patients or experimental animals, caused chronic progressive disease. Two isolates with a history of subculturing showed attenuation by causing resolving but chronic disease. An attenuated isolate became avirulent subsequent to 15 more years of subculturing. These findings suggest that virulence of P. brasiliensis can be attenuated or lost subsequent to cycles of subculturing over long periods. Our data suggest that the use of fresh P. brasiliensis isolates may be needed to provide reproducible virulence for experimental systems.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Estrous cycle ; female mouse ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; paracoccidioidomycosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between paracoccidioidomycosis in ddY mouse and its estrous cycle was studied. Adult ddY mice of both sexes were used as experimental animals. Estrous cycle of female mice was examined before inoculation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells and mice were divided into 5 groups such as proestrus, estrus, metestrus-I, metestrus-II and diestrus. Each mouse was inoculated intravenously with 106 P. brasiliensis yeast cell units and sacrificed on day 28 after inoculation. Their internal organs were cultured, and in addition, their histopathologies were studied. As a result, there was no difference in the organ cultures among the male and the female mice of 5 groups. However, histopathologically, the female groups at estrus, metestrus-I and metestrus-II were affected more severely than the male group, and the susceptibility of the female mice to the fungus was closely related to their estrous cycles.
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