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• 1
Electronic Resource
Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: geminate pair ; luminescence quenching ; diffusion coefficient ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Oxygen diffusion in atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) has been studied by anthracene luminescence quenching in geminate pairs anthracene-oxygen at 77-130 K. Analysis of the experimental data shows that the luminescence quenching is well accounted for by a polychromatic model assuming a log-normal diffusion coefficients distribution due to inhomogeneity of polymer structure. Energy activation is equal to 30 ± 1 KJ/mol. All diffusion coefficients data in the range 77-300 K demonstrate a good linear Arrhenius law. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 127-131, 1998
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• 2
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: recrystallization rate ; equilibrium melting temperature ; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) ; poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A method is described for measuring the heat and rate of recrystallization following partial melting. The method uses a specific sequence of temperatures with a differential scanning calorimeter, and the melting and recrystallization processes were confirmed by optical observations. The method was applied to poly(butylene terephthalate). The rate of recrystallization was found to be roughly two orders of magnitude faster than isothermal crystallization from the melt. The melting temperatures obtained from recrystallization were used in the Hoffman-Weeks equation to deduce 236°C as the equilibrium melting temperature for poly(butylene terephthalate). © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 133-141, 1998
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• 3
Electronic Resource
Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: enthalpy relaxation ; physical aging ; DSC ; glassy state ; thermoplastic polymers ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The enthalpy relaxation of a series of linear amorphous polyesters (poly(propylene isophthalate) (PPIP), poly(propylene terephthalate) (PPTP), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP), and poly(dipropylene terephthalate) (PDPT)) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These polyesters have been annealed at equal undercooling below their respective glass transition temperatures, Tg, (Tg - 27°C, Tg - 15°C, and Tg - 9°C) for periods of time from 15 min to 480 h. The key parameters of structural relaxation, namely the apparent activation energy (Δh*), the nonlinearity parameter (x) and the nonexponentiality parameter (β), have been determined for each polyester and related to an effective relaxation rate (1/τeff) and to the chemical structure. We observe that the variation of the structural relaxation parameters shows a trend that is common to other polymeric systems, whereby an increase of x and β corresponds a decrease in Δh*. The comparison of these parameters in PETP and in PPTP gives information about the effect of the introduction of a methyl group pendant from the main chain; the x parameter increases (i.e., a reduced contribution of the structure to the relaxation times), β increases (i.e., a narrow distribution of relaxation times), and Δh* decreases. Additionally, enthalpy relaxation experiments show that a decrease of Δh* correlates with an increase of 1/τeff, when they are measured at a fixed value of the excess enthalpy, δH. The introduction of an isopropyl ether group in PDPT with respect to PPTP decreases both x and β, but increases Δh*, which the rate of relaxation decreases. The ring substitution in PPTP and PPIP originates less significant changes in the structural parameters. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 113-126, 1998
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• 4
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polyimides ; reflectivity ; moisture absorption ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Water absorption in thin films (〈1000 Å) of a commercial polyimide was evaluated by monitoring dimensional changes induced by a humid environment. Film thickness was measured using x-ray reflectivity, which is a nondestructive technique offering angstrom resolution in the measurements of thin film or multilayer thickness. The effect of several variables on the absorption of moisture were monitored in polyimide films adhered to polished silicon substrates, including total dry film thickness, exposure time, and the contribution of a coupling agent. The percentage increase in film thickness due to moisture uptake is found to be a weak function of dry film thickness, decreasing as dry film thickness increases, and to be somewhat affected by the use of an interfacial coupling agent. The observed behavior points to the polymer/substrate interface as a strong factor controlling the absorption of moisture in the polyimide/silicon system, and is believed to reflect the presence of a highly moisture-saturated interfacial layer. A bilayer model is proposed, and the feasibility of using this model to describe the observed behavior is considered. Published 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 155-162, 1998
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• 5
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: integral sorption ; rubbery polymers ; moving boundaries ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Simple equations are derived that describe integral sorption and desorption experiments under conditions where moving boundary effects in polymer films and spheres can be large because of high solvent concentrations. General conclusions are formulated about the nature of sorption and desorption experiments for both rectangular and spherical geometries. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 171-180, 1998
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• 6
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: small-angle neutron scattering ; SANS ; polystyrene ; polyvinylmethylether ; radius of gyration ; Zimm analysis ; random phase approximation ; phase diagram ; polymer blends ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Small-angle neutron scattering was used to measure the radius of gyration and thermodynamics of blends of poly(vinylmethylether) (PVME) at dilute concentration in deuterated polystyrene (PSD). The data were analyzed using the Zimm equation and the random phase approximation theory. For PVME with a weight-average molecular weight of 38,400 the value of the radius of gyration, Rg, was found to be 47 Å in the limit of the concentration of PVME extrapolated to zero. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the Flory interaction parameter, χ/v0, indicates that phase separation should occur at approximately 300°C for a sample with φPVME ≅ 9%. No significant temperature dependence of Rg was found over the experimental range studied. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1-9, 1998
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• 7
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: fluorescence emission technique ; dynamic light scattering ; reduced viscosity ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The synthesis, rheological, and fluorescence properties of a cationic water-soluble copolymer, naphthalene-labeled cationic poly(dimethyl sulfate quaternized acrylamide/N,N-dimethylaminopropylmaleimide copolymer), poly(DSQADMAPM)/NA, are reported. When fluorescent hydrophobes (naphthyl group) are incorporated into the cationic copolymer, the photophysical response may effectively probe solution behavior on the microscopic level. The salt and pH responsiveness inherent to the cationic copolymer systems is a function of ionic group type. Experimental results indicate that IE/IM increases steadily with increases in polymer concentration and IE/IM values for a given polymer concentration are higher in salt. At low pH values, IE/IM is high and excimer emission increases as the quaternary amino groups (R4N+) are screened out. Dynamic light scattering (QELS) measurements indicate that diffusion coefficients of the cationic copolymer increase and the hydrodynamic diameters decrease with increasing salt concentration. Viscosity studies reveal that the polymer coil shrinks as salt is added. In fluorescence quenching study, the reduction in the quenching efficiency of thallium (Tl+) with salt addition can arise from enhanced compartmentalization of naphthalene labels as added electrolyte enhances intrapolymer micellization. The intrapolymer micelle is easily formed, indicating that the thallium ion has difficulty in reacting with bound naphthalenes located in the shrunk polymer coil. The cationic copolymer is depicted as an expanded polymer coil in deionized water because of intra- and interchain repulsions. Consequently, salt addition breaks down the repulsions and enhances intrapolymer micellization. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 11-19, 1998
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• 8
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: liquid crystals ; thermosets ; smectic epoxy ; nematic ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Deformation experiments were carried out for densely crosslinked smectic-like networks obtained from diepoxy monomers with twin mesogen architecture. For the initially unoriented smectic networks, the network could be aligned up to an orientation parameter of 0.35 by applying 8 MPa of external stress in the rubbery regime. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the deformed smectic network possesses both smectic-A like and smectic-C like structure. It is thought that after extension domains initially oriented parallel to the external stress displayed a smectic-A-like structure, whereas domains initially tilted with respect to the tensile direction showed a stress-induced smectic-C like structure. A smectic network oriented under a.c. electric fields with an orientation parameter of 0.4 had a smectic-A like structure and possessed linear elasticity in the rubbery regime. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 31-38, 1998
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• 9
Electronic Resource
Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: liquid crystal ; block copolymer ; polyester block ; polymethacrylate block ; magnetic field ; X-ray diffraction ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The phase and orientational behaviors of a series of liquid crystalline (LC) AB-type diblock copolymers comprising thermotropic main-chain (MC) polyester and side-group (SG) polymethacrylate blocks were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The MC and SG blocks were phase separated and gave rise to their individual mesophases that coexisted at equilibrium. The samples were oriented by using either a magnetic field or a mechanical field. In magnetically aligned samples both the MC and SG microphases were oriented with their smectic planes orthogonal to the magnetic field direction, independent of the copolymer composition. Mechanically aligned, fiber samples showed different orientations of the MC and SG smectic planes for different sample compositions. In this case the disposition of the smectic planes of the MC and SG blocks was driven by the relative length of the two blocks. Some features of the X-ray patterns of the copolymers were compared to those of the MC and SG homopolymers. In addition, the MC smectic domains crystallized on annealing without affecting the orientation that had been achieved by applying a magnetic field. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 21-29, 1998
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• 10
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole ; X-ray scattering ; transmission electron microscopy ; Young's modulus ; tenacity ; crystal size ; orientation ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Morphological survey on new PBO fiber (Zylon®) was conducted by X-ray and transmission electron microscopic studies. Crystal size, orientation of the crystal, fibrils, microvoids, and fine structure were discussed. It was found that the molecule in the fiber showed high orientation (more than 0.99 in Hermann's orientation function for heat-treated fiber) and relatively small crystal sizes in the longitudinal (160 Å) and the transverse (110 Å) directions. Crystal modulus estimated by extrapolation to perfect orientation on the plot of the fiber modulus as a function of fiber orientation (Northolt's method) shows discrepancy from the crystal modulus directly obtained by X-ray scattering. This discrepancy means that the Northolt's model is insufficient to describe the Young's modulus of PBO fiber. Microvoids elongated to the fiber direction were examined by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopic methods. The diameter of the microvoids was 20 Å to 30 Å and the fiber had a very thin microvoids-free layer (0.2 μm). Preferential orientation of the a-axis of crystal in the fiber was also confirmed. Summarizing these results, a structure model of the PBO fiber was proposed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 39-48, 1998
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• 11
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: substituted poly(paraphenylene) ; phase transitions ; synchrotron radiation ; mesophases ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The thermal behavior of poly(para-2,5-didecyl-p-phenylene) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and real time X-ray diffraction. Poly(para-2,5-didecyl-p-phenylene) is a semicrystalline material that crystallizes in a layered structure. The system exhibits two thermal transitions in the investigated temperature range. The first one, occurring at lower temperatures, provokes a reduction of the layered spacing accompanied by an appreciable disordering of the lateral side chains. Above the first transition the material is shearable, highly viscous, and birefringent. Thus, we have associated this transition to the formation of a layered mesophase. The higher temperature transition exhibits a twofold endothermic DSC peak and is characterized by the disappearance of X-ray diffracted intensity. At temperatures above the second transition the system presents the characteristics of an isotropic melt. Consequently, we have associated this transition with the complete disordering of the polymeric backbones. By following an appropriate thermal treatment it has been shown that the twofold shape of the endotherm characterizing the higher temperature transition can be changed into a single endotherm. This effect has been interpreted as being due to the kinetics of main-chain ordering. This ordering seems to proceed by the initial growth of domains with a high level of order followed by the subsequent increase of these domains through the inclusion of less ordered material. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 49-54, 1998
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• 12
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: PDLC ; polarization ; angular discrimination ; copolymer ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Electrooptic responses (voltage and angular-dependent transmittance) of polymer/liquid crystal composite films with H, V, and unpolarized lights have been studied based on a nematic liquid crystal (Ro-5921) and four types of homopolymers and copolymers from ethyl methacrylate and styrene with different compositions. In this way, the index ratio of the polymer (np) to the ordinary refractive index of liquid crystal (no)(np/no) has been varied systematically, and the effect of the index ratio on viewing angle, applied voltage, response times, and transient response have been investigated. With increasing styrene content in the copolymer, droplet size increased, threshold (Vth) and saturation (Vsat) voltage, and rise time decreased. With np ≲ no, maximum transmittance occurred at normal incidence, regardless of the type of polarization. On the contrary with np 〉 no, V-polarization gave a peak in the transmittance-voltage curve, and transmittance overshot upon removal of the field, and these were interpreted in terms of effective refractive index and two-step relaxations. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 55-64, 1998
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• 13
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polybutadiene ; poly(methyl methacrylate) ; poly(butadiene-block-methyl methacrylate) ; compatibilization ; micelle ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Compatibilization of blends of polybutadiene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with butadiene-methyl methacrylate diblock copolymers has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. When the diblock copolymers are added to the blends, the size of PB particles decreases and their size distribution gets narrower. In PB/PMMA7.6K blends with P(B-b-MMA)25.2K as a compatibilizer, most of micelles exist in the PMMA phase. However, using P(B-b-MMA)38K as a compatibilizer, the micellar aggregation exists in PB particles besides that existing in the PMMA phase. The core of a micelle in the PMMA phase is about 10 nm. In this article the influences of temperature and homo-PMMA molecular weight on compatibilization were also examined. At a high temperature PB particles in blends tend to agglomerate into bigger particles. When the molecular weight of PMMA is close to that of the corresponding block of the copolymer, the best compatibilization result would be achieved. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 85-93, 1998
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• 14
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: barrier polymer ; permeability coefficient ; glass transition temperature ; blend ; sulfone ; oxyethylene ; oxytrimethylene ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Gas barrier properties of alkylsulfonylmethyl-substituted poly(oxyalkylene)s are discussed. Oxygen permeability coefficients of three methylsulfonylmethyl-substituted poly(oxyalkylene)s, poly[oxy(methylsulfonylmethyl)ethylene] (MSE), poly[oxy(methylsulfonylmethyl)ethylene-co-oxyethylene] (MSEE), and poly[oxy-2,2-bis (methylsulfonylmethyl)trimethylene oxide] (MST) were measured. MSEE, which has the most flexible backbone of the three polymers, had an oxygen permeability coefficient at 30°C of 0.0036 × 10-13 cm3(STP)·cm/cm2·s·Pa higher than that of MSE, 0.0014 × 10-13 cm3(STP)·cm/cm2·s·Pa, because the former polymer's Tg was near room temperature. MST with two polar groups per repeat unit and the highest Tg showed the highest oxygen permeability, 0.013 × 10-13 cm3(STP) · cm/cm2·s·Pa, among the three polymers, probably because steric hindrance between the side chains made the chain packing inefficient. As the side chain length of poly[oxy(alkylsulfonylmethyl)ethylene] increased, Tg and density decreased and the oxygen permeability coefficients increased. The oxygen permeability coefficient of MSE at high humidity (84% relative humidity) was seven times higher than when it was dry because absorbed water lowered its Tg. At 100% relative humidity MSE equilibrated to a Tg of 15°C after 2 weeks. A 50/50 blend of MSE/MST had oxygen barrier properties better than the individual polymers (O2 permeability coefficient is 0.0007 × 10-13 cm3(STP)·cm/cm2 ·s·Pa), lower than most commercial high barrier polymers. At 100% relative humidity, it equilibrated to a Tg of 42°C, well above room temperature. These are polymer systems with high gas barrier properties under both dry and wet conditions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 75-83, 1998
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• 15
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) ; poly(ether ketone ketone) (PEKK) ; solvent-induced crystallization ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The relationship between semicrystalline morphology and glass transition temperature has been investigated for solvent-crystallized poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and poly(ether ketone ketone) (PEKK). Solvent-crystallized specimens of both PEEK and PEKK displayed a sizeable positive offset in Tg compared to quenched amorphous specimens as well as thermally crystallized specimens of comparable bulk crystallinity; the offset in Tg for the crystallized samples reflected the degree of constraint imposed on the amorphous segments by the crystallites. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies revealed markedly smaller crystal long periods (d) for the solvent-crystallized specimens compared to samples prepared by direct cold crystallization. The strong inverse correlation observed between Tg and interlamellar amorphous thickness (lA) based on a simple two-phase model was in excellent agreement with data reported previously for PEEK, and indicated the existence of a unique relationship between glass transition temperature and morphology in these poly(aryl ether ketones) over a wider range of sample preparation history and lamellar structure than was previously reported. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 65-73, 1998
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• 16
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: blends ; melting behavior ; miscibility ; FTIR ; hydrogen bond interactions ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The miscibility of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-methoxystyrene) (HSMS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). HSMS/PCL blends were found to be miscible in the whole composition range by detecting only a glass transition temperature (Tg), for each composition, which could be closely described by the Fox rule. The crystallinity of PCL in the blends was dependent on the Tg of the amorphous phase. The greater the HSMS content in the blends, the lower the crystallinity. The polymer-polymer interaction parameter, χ32, was calculated from melting point depression of PCL using the Nishi-Wang equation. The negative value of χ32 obtained for HSMS/PCL blends has been compared with the value of χ32 for poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (P4HS)/PCL blends. The specific nature, quantitative analysis, and average strength of the intermolecular interactions in HSMS/PCL and P4HS/PCL blends have been determined at room temperature and in the molten state by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The FTIR results have been in good correlation with the thermal behavior of the blends. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 95-104, 1998
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• 17
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polystyrene ; single-molecule single crystal ; radiation resistance ; lattice image ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The structure of single-molecule single crystals of isotactic polystyrene (i-PS) was investigated by electron diffraction (ED). The nanoscale single-molecule single crystals were found to be more resistant to electron irradiation when compared to the larger crystals of many molecules, as indicated by both observation of ED and high-resolution electron microscopy with increasing radiation dose. It is proposed that since the single-molecule single crystals are very small, the secondary electrons escape more frequently from the crystal so that the radiation damage is reduced. Lattice imaging was achieved at room temperature in the case of single-molecule single crystals because of their stability to electron irradiation. Published 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 105-112, 1998
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• 18
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: kinetic sorption ; steady-state permeation/sorption ; polyimide ; carbon molecular sieve ; membrane separation processes ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Typically, materials with high-performance transport properties such as zeolites, carbon molecular sieves, or hyper rigid polymers are inherently difficult or impossible to characterize by steady-state membrane permeation experiments used for conventional polymers. Diffusion coefficients determined by transient sorption, a measurement easily performed on brittle media, are analyzed here and compared to those determined by steady-state permeation/sorption and transient permeation for a glassy polymer and a carbon molecular sieve. Average and local diffusion coefficients are extrapolated to zero upstream partial pressure to eliminate effects caused by concentration dependence. Good agreement between the techniques was observed for the glassy polymer. On the other hand, carbon molecular sieves, possessing a more complex morphology, exhibit a greater difference in diffusion coefficients determined by the various techniques. Nevertheless, comparison of the analysis techniques is shown to provide potentially valuable insights into the morphological features of such carbon molecular sieves. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1747-1755, 1998
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• 19
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: bulk modulus ; equation of state ; heat capacity ; high-pressure ; poly(isobutylene) ; thermal conductivity ; transient hot-wire method ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The thermal conductivity λ and heat capacity per unit volume ρcp of poly(isobutylene)s, one 2.8 in weight average molecular weight and one 85 kg mol-1 in viscosity average molecular weight (PIB-2800 and PIB-85000), have been measured in the temperature range 170-450 K at pressures up to 2 GPa using the transient hot-wire method. At 297 K and atmospheric pressure, λ = 0.115 W m-1 K-1 for PIB-2800 and λ = 0.120 W m-1 K-1 for PIB-85000. The bulk modulus BT has been measured in the temperature range 170-297 K up to 1 GPa. At atmospheric pressure, the room temperature bulk moduli BT are 2.0 GPa for PIB-2800 and 2.5 GPa for PIB-85000 with dBT/dp = 10 for both. These data were used to calculate the volume dependence of λ, \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$g = - \left({{\partial\lambda/\lambda}}\over{{\partial V/V}}\right)_{T}.$$\end{document} At room temperature and atmospheric pressure (liquid phase) we find g = 3.4 for PIB-2800 and g = 3.9 for PIB-85000, but g depends strongly on temperature for both molecular weights. The difference in g between the glassy state and liquid phase is small and just outside the inaccuracy of g of about 8%. The best predictions for g are given by the theoretical model of Horrocks and McLaughlin. We have found that PIB exhibits two relaxations, where one is associated with the glass transition. The value for dTg/dp at atmospheric pressure (for the main glass transition) is about 0.21 K MPa-1 for both molecular weights. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1781-1792, 1998
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• 20
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: interpenetrating polymer networks ; gelation ; phase separation ; kinetics ; poly(carbonate-urethane)/polyvinyl pyridine ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A possible model for the formation of interpenetrating polymer networks is suggested. Phase separation is assumed to be faster than gelation. This implies that domains rich in either component grow first until late stages of spinodal decomposition. In these domains, short linear chains are crosslinked, leading to large branched macromolecules. Growth of the domains is slowed down by the presence of crosslinked polymers. It is assumed that it is stopped when the sizes of the domains and of the branched macromolecules are comparable. The resulting domains are significantly larger than the average distance between crosslinks. These results are supported by recent neutron scattering results on a poly(carbonate-urethane)/polyvinyl pyridine interpenetrating network. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1507-1512, 1998
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• 21
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: free volume ; thermal expansion ; positron lifetime measurements ; semicrystalline polymers ; polyethylene ; polytetrafluoroethylene ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Positron lifetime measurements, performed in the temperature range 80-300 K, are reported for polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The lifetime spectra have been analyzed using the data processing routines LIFSPECFIT and MELT. Two long-lived components appear, which are attributed to pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium in crystalline regions and at holes in the amorphous phase. The ortho-positronium lifetimes, τ3 and τ4, are used to estimate the crystalline packing density and the size of local free volumes in the crystalline and amorphous phases. The interstitial free volume in the crystals exhibits a weak linear increase with the temperature which is attributed to thermal expansion of the crystal unit cell. In the amorphous phase, the hole volume varies between 0.053 and 0.188 nm3 (PE) and between 0.152 and 0.372 nm3 (PTFE). Its temperature variation may be fitted by two straight lines, the intersection of which is used to estimate a glass transition temperature of Tg = 195 K for both PE and PTFE. The slopes of the free volume in the glassy and crystalline phases with the temperature correlate well with each other. The coefficients of thermal expansion of the hole volume are compared with the macroscopic volume change below and above the glass transition. From this comparison a fractional hole volume at Tg of 4.5 (PE) and 5.7% (PTFE) and a number of 0.73 (PE) and 0.36 (PTFE) × 1027 holes/m3 is estimated. Finally, it is found that the intensity of o-Ps annihilation in crystals shows a different temperature dependence to that in the amorphous phase. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1513-1528, 1998
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• 22
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy ; diffuse reflectance spectroscopy ; copolymer ; ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer ; chemometrics ; multivariate data analysis ; principal component analysis ; partial least-squares regression ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectra have been measured by use of a rotating drawer for pellets of 12 kinds of ethylene/vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers with vinyl acetate (VA, the comonomer) varying in the 7-44 wt % range. They are unambiguously discriminated from one another by a score plot of the principal component analysis (PCA) Factor 1 and 2, based upon the NIR spectra pretreated by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). Principal component (PC) weight loadings for Factor 1 show that the discrimination relies largely upon bands due to the overtone and combination modes arising from the VA unit. We have found one “outlier” in the score plot and elucidated its spectral characteristics based upon PC weight loadings for Factor 2. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression has been applied to propose calibration models which predict the VA content in EVA. The models have been prepared for three kinds of pretreatment, the first derivative, the second derivative, and MSC; and four kinds of wavelength regions. The NIR spectra in the 1100-2200 nm region after the MSC treatment has given the best correlation coefficient and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.998 and 0.70%, respectively. The calibration models, prepared by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the pellet samples, are compared with previously reported models by NIR transmission spectroscopy for the flowing molten samples, and with those by Raman spectroscopy for the pellet samples. PLS regression has also allowed us to predict melting points of the copolymers with the correlation coefficient and SEP of 0.997 and 0.78°C, respectively. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1529-1537, 1998
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• 23
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polypyrrole film ; contraction ; electric field ; desorption ; actuator ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: No abstract.
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• 24
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polyesters ; PET ; PEN ; PEI ; 13C NMR ; dynamics ; nuclear relaxation times ; gas diffusion ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The dynamics of amorphous aromatic polyesters consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(ethylene isophthalate) (PEI), and poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate) (PEN) has been investigated by means of solid state CPMAS 13C NMR. Proton T2, 13C T1ρ, and proton T1ρ decays have been measured in particular, and the experimental data fitted to suitable model functions to determine best relaxation parameters. The fitting results show for proton T2 and 13C T1ρ measurements the presence of two components with different relaxation times and intensities, arising from different motional domains. The proton T1ρ, on the contrary, shows a single component which limits the dimensions of the two regions to less than 20 Angstroms. The dependence of 13C T1ρ values on two different irradiating field strengths (H1 = 38 KHz, H1 = 60 KHz) allowed the assignment of each component to relatively rigid and mobile regions. By comparing the three polymers we observe that PEN and PEI have a similar relaxation behavior, while a higher fraction of mobile components was found for PET. These differences are believed to arise mainly from local motions of the aromatic rings. The relaxation measurements have been evaluated to suggest a correspondence to O2 and CO2 gas permeabilities in PET, PEI, and PEN. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1557-1566, 1998
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• 25
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) ; fibers ; atomic force microscopy ; dynamic light scattering ; random-coil solvents ; surface-induced rod-globular transition ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: This article reports the results of structural studies of poly (γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) layers self-assembled from dilute solutions in organic solvents on mica surface. Polarized dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy were used to study polymer properties in solutions and on the surface. The hierarchy of self-assembly from PBLG solutions in different solvents was investigated as a function of polymer concentration and solvent polarity. We show that the surface-polymer interaction is suppressed in polar solvents that is interpreted in terms of suppressed charge-dipole interaction. The transformation of the PBLG surface structure occurs upon addition of different amounts of trifluoroacetic acid to polymer solution in dioxane. Rigid-rod PBLG molecules experience rod-globular transition while assembling on nonmodified mica from the very dilute solutions. A scheme is proposed describing different stages of PBLG fibrogenesis on a charged surface. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1567-1577, 1998
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• 26
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: infrared spectroscopy ; polymer blends ; poly(vinyl cinnamate) ; UV curing ; hydrogen bonds ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The results of an infrared spectroscopic characterization of poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCIN) and its blends with poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVPh) are reported before and after photo-crosslinking the PVCIN by exposure to UV radiation. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate methodology, and it is shown that quantitative analysis of the fraction of unsaturated (—C=C—) double bonds, “free” (non-hydrogen bonded) and hydrogen bonded unsaturated (—CO—C=C—) and saturated (—CO—C—C—) acetoxy carbonyl groups is feasible in these blends as a function of UV exposure time. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1579-1590, 1998
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• 27
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: hydrogen-bonded living polymers ; supramolecular ; liquid crystalline polymers ; X-ray scattering ; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) ; structure ; association chain polymers ; self-assembly ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A main chain hydrogen-bonded liquid crystalline polymer was formed by melt mixing two complementary components, A and B, which in their individual states do not exhibit liquid crystallinity. The structure of the polymer and the thermal stability of its mesophase were studied using synchrotron radiation SAXS/WAXS/DSC at Daresbury (UK) and by variable temperature Fourier transform infrared. The chain extension, or “polymerization” process, was accelerated at the point when the polymer formed a liquid crystalline phase upon cooling from the isotropic melt. The polymer has an aabb chain structure and forms a smectic layer with a length of the A-B repeating unit. The hydrogen-bonded main chain polymer studied here is a monotropic liquid crystal. Above 150°C, it exhibits kinetic stabilization of its monotropic smectic phase. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1617-1624, 1998
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• 28
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly(acrylonitrile) ; two-stage draw ; morphology and tensile properties ; effect of molecular weight ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Ultradrawing of atactic poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) was investigated for a Mv series, ranging 8.0 × 104-2.3 × 106. Samples for the draw were prepared from 0.5-30 wt % solutions of PAN in N,N′-dimethylformamide. The solutions were converted to a gel by quenching from 100 to 0°C. The dried gel films were initially drawn uniaxially by solid-state coextrusion (first-stage draw) to an extrusion draw ratio (EDR) of 16, followed by further tensile draw at 100-250°C (second-stage draw). The maximum total draw ratio (DRt,max) and tensile properties achieved by two-stage draw increased remarkably with sample Mv. Other factors affecting ductility were the solution concentration from which gel was made and the second-stage draw temperature. The effects of these variables became more prominent with increasing Mv. The temperature for optimum second-stage draw increased with sample Mv. Both the initial gel and the drawn products showed no small-angle X-ray long period scattering maximum, suggesting the absence of a chain-folded lamellae structure, which had been found in our previous study on the drawing of nascent PAN powder. The chain orientation function (fc) and sample density (ρs) increased rapidly with DRt in the lower range (DRt 〈 30) and approached constant values of fc = 0.980-0.996 and ρs = 1.177-1.181 g/cm3, respectively, at higher DRt 〉 30-100. The tensile modulus also showed a similar increase with DRt. The tensile strength increased linearly with DRt, reaching a maximum, and decreased slightly at yet higher DRt. The highest modulus of 28.5 GPa and strength of 1.6 GPa were achieved with the highest Mv of 2.3 × 106. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 629-640, 1998
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• 29
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: impedance spectroscopy ; chemical and physical changes ; glass formers ; reactive polymers ; in situ monitoring ; dielectric properties ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A study was conducted aimed at establishing the nature of chemical and physical phenomena in polymeric and nonpolymeric glass formers that can be observed by impedance measurements. Various systems were investigated that undergo a temporal evolution of structure as a result of chemical reactions and physical processes such as crystallization, vitrification, or phase separation. Distinct and systematic changes in impedance during crystallization and vitrification confirmed that these events could be monitored by impedance spectroscopy. Of particular interest was the potential use of impedance measurements in detecting gelation in crosslinking polymers. It was shown that the experimentally observed “knee” in imaginary impedance during reaction shifts with frequency and, hence, cannot be used to measure gelation. But a new insight at the molecular level was obtained by employing a novel experimental approach based on simultaneous dielectric-infrared measurements. Evidence was generated to support the formation of a hydrogen-bonded complex in the vicinity of gel point in polymer networks, which affords a vehicle for the migration of intrinsic charges and provides a contribution to the overall conductivity. This finding should be explored further because it suggests the possibility of correlating dielectric response with gelation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 641-653, 1998
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• 30
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: clustering ; water ; wood ; adsorption ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Clustering behavior of water molecules during adsorption of water in wood was studied using the Zimm-Lundberg theory. The average cluster size of water molecules was determined with the help of wood adsorption isotherms at five temperatures. The effects of both relative humidity and temperature on average cluster size were studied. Average cluster size progressively increased with an increase in humidity. At humidities corresponding to fiber saturation, larger clusters were formed. Cluster size increased sharply with an increase in temperature at humidities close to saturation. Formation of large clusters at high temperature and humidities close to saturation is attributed to increased fraction of weakly bonded water and capillary condensation in such conditions. A description of adsorption of water in wood was provided in terms of average cluster size. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 665-671, 1998
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• 31
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: PMMA ; ion beam ; scission ; G value ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Chemical and physical effects induced by bombardment of nearly monodisperse Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with energetic ions (He+) at 200 keV have been studied. Bond scission is the main results of low fluence ion irradiation but, at high fluence there is a regime transition of PMMA from positive tone resist behavior to negative tone. The ion-induced chemical reactions in the macromolecular film give rise to gas evolution and chemical changes in the solid residue. The gas formed during the bombardment has been studied by means of a mass spectrometer, while the solid polymer has been characterized by measuring the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and the absorption coefficient in the Near Infrared (NIR), visible, and ultraviolet regions. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has been performed to learn what happens at the surface of the polymer after bombardment. The main result of these studies is that at fluence higher than 1013 cm-2 both chemical and physical effects follow a nonlinear behavior due to the transition from a single-track regime to a track overlap regime. This transition is explained in terms of progressive chemical change of the irradiated polymer from the pristine chemical structure to a new one depleted of the ester pendent groups. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 655-664, 1998
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• 32
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: scanning force microscopy ; hectorite ; polystyrene ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Many important layered silicate-polymer nanocomposite materials may be synthesized using an in-situ polymerization process. Using this technique, organic monomers are intercalated into the interlayer regions of the hosts, where subsequent polymerization may then occur. In this paper, we report on the in-situ polymerization of styrene in Cu(II)-exchanged hectorite thin films. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) images of the polymer surface reveal that the surface polystyrene is generally aggregated into groups of elongated strands. SFM imaging of the interclay regions, in conjunction with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron spin resonance (ESR) data, indicates that approximately 20-30% of these regions contain polystyrene, with minimal reduction in the majority of Cu2+ sites observed. XRD data shows little or no intercalation of the monomer into the true intergallery regions. Instead, the polymer likely forms in intercrystallite or planar defect regions. In addition, two distinct phases of polymeric material are found within these defect regions, a highly polymerized polystyrene in addition to a polystyrene form exhibiting greater material stiffness. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 673-679, 1998
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• 33
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: high-density polyethylene ; nonisothermal crystallization kinetics ; plateau temperature ; regime transition ; crystallinity ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The quiescent nonisothermal bulk crystallization kinetics of two high-density polyethylene resins were investigated by a modified light-depolarizing microscopy (LDM) technique. The technique allows studies at average cooling rates up to 2500°C/min. The polymer was found to crystallize at a pseudo-isothermal temperature even at these very high cooling rates. The overall bulk crystallization rate increased rapidly as the cooling rate and supercooling increased. Crystallization kinetics was analyzed by Avrami analysis. Avrami exponents near 3 suggested spherical growth geometry and instantaneous nucleation at predetermined sites. Observation of spherulites by optical microscopy together with a number density of spherulites that changed little with increase in cooling rate or supercooling supported this model of crystallization behavior. Analysis of the half-time of crystallization based on the Lauritzen and Hoffman secondary nucleation theory indicated that the regime II-III transition was found to occur at a degree of supercooling of approximately 22°C. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 681-692, 1998
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• 34
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: phase separation ; NMR spectroscopy ; block copolymers ; reaction injection molding ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The microphase separation (MPS) in polyureas based on methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) hard segment, diethyltoluenediamine chain extender, and amino-terminated polypropylene glycol soft segment prepared by reaction injection molding (RIM) was studied by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Incomplete microphase separation leads to the presence of mobilized hard segments dispersed in the soft segment domains as well as immobilized soft segments residing in the hard domains. This is detected by 1H-NMR spectra recorded under spinning at the magic angle (MAS) as well as two-dimensional wide-line separation (WISE) NMR spectra. The sizes of the various domains as well as the interfaces between them are quantified by spin diffusion measurements. In this way the impact of annealing, method of polymerization, and hard segment content on MPS is studied. Whereas annealing at temperatures up to 170°C results in improving the MPS, major changes are observed after annealing at higher temperatures (190°C), where the system changes from “soft-in-hard” to “hard-in-soft” behavior. The MPS decreases with increasing hard segment content. The highest MPS is observed for solution polymerized samples. The various NMR experiments clearly reveal the nonequilibrium nature of RIM systems. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 693-703, 1998
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• 35
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: molecular weight distribution ; comb copolymer ; branching ; grafting ; nonlinear polymerization ; modeling ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Grafting one type polymer onto a different polymer type may yield a comb-branched copolymer. The branching density has a significant effect on its overall molecular weight distribution. A general model is derived to describe the bivariate distribution of molecular weight and branching density for such comb copolymers. The model is applicable for various grafting mechanisms provided the side chains are randomly grafted onto the backbone. The determining parameters are the molecular weight distributions of backbone and side chains, and the branching density. Analytical expressions are obtained for the cases of the side chains having uniform and Schulz-Zimm distributions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 705-714, 1998
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• 36
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polyethylene ; ion implantation ; surface structure ; wear ; hardness ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Polyethylene (PE) film was implanted with 1000-keV Ar+ ions to a fluence of 5 × 1014 ions/cm2 under high vacuum conditions (2.5 × 10-6 torr) and the film surface was investigated by means of microhardness and microwear measurements, and FTIR/ATR, Raman, and XPS techniques. Ion implantation significantly increased the subsurface hardness and also significantly improved the microwear resistance of the polymer. The implanted surface region of the film was found to consist of two distinct layers. One was the outermost carbon layer with a thickness of the order of 10 nm. In this layer, ca. 75% of carbon atoms were combined by graphitic sp2 and diamond-like sp3 bonds, and the remaining 25% had chemical links with oxygen atoms. Spectroscopic data suggested that the sp2-bonded carbons segregated in graphite-like clusters containing imbedded oxygen atoms, interconnected by the sp3-bonded carbons. The other was the subsurface layer resulting from PE oxidation after ion-beam treatment. This layer was characterized by high contents of O—H and C=O groups as well as ester and double bonds. The chemical composition of the layer was uniform and did not vary over the layer thickness of about 1.4 μm. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 715-725, 1998
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• 37
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: liquid crystal polymer ; aromatic polyester ; molecular modeling ; Monte Carlo ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The condensed phase of the alternating copolyester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) and 2-hydroxy-6-naphthoic acid (HNA) is investigated by studying the room temperature packing arrangement of the copolymer chains. A molecular modeling methodology is employed with a Monte Carlo sampling of the configurational phase space. Realistic poly(HBA-alt-HNA) polymer chains are represented by an explicit atom representation of the HBA/HNA dimers. States are sampled from the NVT ensemble using a sampling scheme consisting of (1) valence and torsional variations, (2) rigid body rotations of the chain about the chain axis, and (3) rigid body translations of the chain. The effect of chain packing on the conformation of chains, as well as the relative intra- and intermolecular orientations of aromatic rings, is investigated. Correlation of chain positioning along the chain axis is dominated by aromatic rings maintaining a center-to-center plane of registry. These layers of aromatic units pack with a preference for edge-to-face orientations in a herringbone-type pattern and have an intermolecular ring angle between the pairs of aromatic rings in the unit cell that is ca. 68°. The aromatic rings, on average, are rotated 38° out from the b-c plane. The phenylene rings of these copolyesters are less restricted in their relative orientation in comparison to the naphthalene rings. Intramolecular orientational probability density distributions indicate a preference for staggering the successive aromatic rings along the chain, with a staggering angle of ca. 66°. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 727-741, 1998
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• 38
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polymer electrolytes ; NMR ; conductivity ; glasses ; Arrhenius and VTF dependences ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: We have studied the temperature variation of conductivity and 1H NMR linewidth of (PEG)xNH4ClO4 (x = 20, 30, 46, 100, 200, & 1000) polymer electrolyte systems. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows two distinct behaviors, the low temperature VTF dependence crossing over to Arrhenius dependence at higher temperatures. The departure from the VTF behavior is found to be composition dependent. NMR spectra indicate the presence of large fractions of crystalline regions that start to melt around the crossover temperature. We understand the deviation from the VTF behavior as a consequence of this crystalline to elastomer transition. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1201-1209, 1998
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• 39
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polyethylene ; slow crack growth ; γ-irradiation ; crosslinks ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The effects of γ-irradiation were measured in a HDPE and in the resin after it was recrystallized. The fracture mode of the initial material transformed from crazing to complete brittle failure at a critical dose. The failure mode of the recrystallized material transformed from crazing to shear deformation, which produced an extremely long failure time, and finally, at a higher dose, its fracture became brittle. The relationship between morphology and slow crack growth is presented where crosslinking was the major factor. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1211-1218, 1998
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• 40
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly(ethylene terephthalate) ; oligomer ; poly(ethylene glycol) ; epoxy resin ; concentrated solution ; crystallinity ; thermoreversible gel ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was rapidly crystallized through thermoreversible gelation in a liquid ethylene glycol oligomer or in epoxy resin. The solutions formed gel rapidly on cooling. Polarized light microscopy and small-angle light scattering showed that these gels contain large, regular PET spherulites. The gels may be formed by two consecutive processes: the phase separation and crystallization, and gelation by formation of a three-dimensional PET network in the oligomer solvents, where the nodes of the network are PET spherulites. The crystallinity of PET recovered from polymer/oligomer gels is near 72% measured by wide-angle X-ray diffraction method, which is about 20% higher than PET samples crystallized by solution crystallization in small molecule solvent, high temperature annealing, and stretching techniques. It takes only a few minutes to form the highly crystalline phase PET in the PET/oligomer system, and the crystallinity of the dried gel is independent of the concentration of the original solution. Excimer-fluoresence and Raman spectroscopic studies indicated that PET recovered from the gels are in an ordered state with few chain entanglements. The entanglement density of the recovered PET recovered from a 20 wt % solution in ethylene glycol oligomer is as low as that of freeze-extracted PET from a 0.5 wt % solution in phenol. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1219-1225, 1998
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• 41
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy ; isotactic polystyrene ; crystallization process ; induction period ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The melt crystallization process of isotactic polystyrene (i-PS) was studied by means of in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, with a focus on the conformational changes during the induction period. The spectra obtained during the induction period suggested the occurrence of some ordered structure that is characterized by higher regularity and packing of the helical moieties than observed in the melt. This ordered structure was clearly different from the amorphous structure, and close to the crystal structure. The Avrami analysis indicated that the formation process of the ordered structure at the late stage of the induction period is similar to the growth process of the crystallites after the induction period. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1227-1233, 1998
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• 42
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly(methylphenylsiloxane) ; poly(dimethylsiloxane) ; titania ; silica ; composites ; reinforced elastomers ; morphology ; stress-strain isotherms ; scattering intensities ; differential scanning calorimetry ; transmission electron microscopy ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The work reported in the preceding article in this series is extended by consideration of polysiloxane-ceramic composites based on atactic poly(methylphenylsiloxane) (PMPS) elastomers instead of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The former is noncrystallizable because of its stereochemically irregular structure, while the latter is crystallizable. In addition, some composites were prepared by the in situ precipitation of titania instead of silica. The resulting materials were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, equilibrium stress-strain measurements in elongation, small-angle neutron scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The moduli of the PMPS elastomers were found to increase significantly with increase in amount of either type of filler, with reinforcing upturns at high elongation in the case of the silica. Because the PMPS elastomers were amorphous, it is obvious that strain-induced crystallization is not required for these upturns in modulus. Titania did not give as good reinforcement as did silica, at least in the case of PMPS. Differences in interactions between the polymer and the two fillers are obviously important in this regard, but differences in particle morphology probably also contribute. Specifically, the titania “particles” were significantly larger than the silica particles when observed in TEM, and appeared to be much more porous. The actual domain size as measured by scattering, however, was only approximately 5% larger. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1191-1200, 1998
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• 43
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ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: PMMA ; mechanical properties ; ionomer precursor polymer ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Rigid-rigid blends made of ionomer and ionomer precursor polymer, based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have been investigated. Two series of blends have been prepared for studying mechanical properties. In one series, dynamic mechanical properties were determined over a wide range of temperatures. As the weight fraction of the ionomer was increased, there was a modest increase of modulus at ambient temperature and a very large increase in the rubbery modulus at elevated temperatures above the glass transition temperature of PMMA. In a second series of tests, tensile stress-strain measurements, made at an ambient temperature, were carried out over a wide range of blend compositions. For all blends tested, the mechanical properties exhibited a synergistic enhancement, i.e., average values of modulus, strength and fracture energy were all higher than expected based on the rule of mixtures. Measurements of fracture toughness also exhibited synergy, with a maximum value, higher than the value of either blend component, being attained in blends containing about 30 wt % of the PMMA ionomer. These results are interpreted in terms of a higher resistance to fracture of the more chain-entangled ionomer phase and good interfacial adhesion between the two components of the blend. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1235-1245, 1998
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• 44
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polyimides ; thin films ; infrared spectroscopy ; molecular structure ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The molecular structure of poly[biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylenediamine] (BPDA-PDA) polyimide in ultrathin (3-300 nm) films on silicon has been characterized by polarized infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity measurements. In spite of the high degree of crystalline packing of the polymer chains, the results show that an unexpected and significant content of imide rings exhibit local structural perturbations, including out-of-plane twisting. Further, the fraction of perturbed rings increases with increasing film thickness while, in contrast, the high degree of in-plane uniaxial film symmetry and planar stacking of the chains remain constant with thickness. These results reveal a new structural aspect of localized ring disorder that arises within the otherwise well-ordered, chain-stacked structure of BPDA-PDA polyimide films. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1247-1260, 1998
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• 45
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: chitosan ; polyethylene glycol polyblend ; intermolecular interaction ; viscometry ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The molecular structures of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (CS) are illustrated as follows: 1CS2PEG\documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$${\rm HO} \hbox{--} {\rm CH}_2 {\rm CH}_2 \rlap{--} ({\rm O} \hbox{--} {\rm CH}_2 {\rm CH}_2 \rlap{--} {\rm O} \hbox{--} {\rm CH}_2 {\rm CH}_2 \hbox{--} {\rm OH}$$\end{document} The intermolecular interactions between these two polymers were studied by viscometry with a thermodynamic parameter α, which was first proposed by Sun et al. The weight additive rule of the intrinsic viscosity of polyblend relating to the values of each polymeric constituent was attested to with PEG/CS polyblend. The calculation formula of Huggins coefficient for polyblend, km, was theoretically deduced, and a very simple expression of α was obtained. First, the values of α for PEG/CS blends with different PEG molecular weight were estimated from the experimental viscosity data of the polyblends with different mixed ratio. According to these values of α, it can be predicted that an attractive interaction exists between the molecule of PEG and that of CS. Second, the viscosity of CS was measured in pseudo-solvents (PEG dissolved in 0.01N sodium chloride aqueous solution) with different PEG concentrations. From these viscosity data, the values of cross Huggins coefficient are calculated to be all larger than the values of the Huggins coefficient both for CS and for PEG. On the revised α criterion, the dissimilar molecular interaction in PEG/CS polyblend is demonstrated to be attractive too. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1275-1281, 1998
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• 46
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: rod-like polyimide ; poly(amic acid) precursor ; imidization ; residual stress ; intrinsic stress ; thermal stress ; refractive index ; birefringence ; molecular in-plane orientation ; molecular ordering ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A soluble poly(amic acid) precursor solution of fully rod-like poly(p-phenylene pyromellitimide) (PMDA-PDA) was spin cast on silicon substrates, followed by soft bake at 80-185°C and subsequent thermal imidization at various conditions over 185-400°C in nitrogen atmosphere to be converted to the polyimide in films. Residual stress generated at the interface was measured in situ during imidization. In addition, the imidized films were characterized in the aspect of polymer chain orientation and ordering by prism coupling and X-ray diffraction. The soft-baked precursor film revealed a residual stress of 16-28 MPa at room temperature, depending on the soft bake condition: higher temperature and longer time in the soft bake gave higher residual stress. The stress variation in the soft-baked precursor film was not significantly reflected in the final stress in the resultant polyimide film. However, the residual stress in the polyimide film varied sensitively with variations in imidization process parameters, such as imidization temperature, imidization steps, heating rate, and film thickness. The polyimide film exhibited a wide range of residual stress, -7 MPa to 8 MPa at room temperature, depending on the imidization condition. Both rapid imidization and low-temperature imidization generated high stress in the tension mode in the polyimide film, whereas slow imidization as well as high temperature imidization gave high stress in the compression mode. Thus, a moderate imidization condition, a single- or two-step imidization at 300°C for 2 h with a heating rate of 〈 10 K/min was proposed to give a relatively low stress in the polyimide film of 〈 10 μm thickness. However, once a precursor film was thermally imidized at a chosen process condition, the residual stress-temperature profile was insensitive to variations in the cooling process. All the films imidized were optically anisotropic, regardless of the imidization history, indicating that rod-like PMDA-PDA polyimide chains were preferentially aligned in the film plane. However, its degree of in-plane chain orientation varied on the imidization history. It is directly correlated to the residual stress in the film, which is an in-plane characteristic. For films with residual stress in the tension mode, higher stress films exhibited lower out-of-plane birefringence, that is, lower in-plane chain orienta-tion. In contrast, in the compression mode, higher stress films showed higher in-plane chain orientation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 1261-1273, 1998
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• 47
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: heat capacity ; poly(trimethylene terephthalate) ; entropy ; enthalpy ; free enthalpy ; heats of transition ; glass transition ; melting ; crystallinity ; rigid-amorphous fraction ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The heat capacity of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) has been measured using adiabatic calorimetry, standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The heat capacities of the solid and liquid states of semicrystalline PTT are reported from 5 to 570 K. The semicrystalline PTT has a glass transition temperature of 331 K. Between 340 and 480 K, PTT can show exothermic ordering depending on the prior degree of crystallization. The melting endotherm of semicrystalline samples occurs between 480 and 505 K, with a typical onset temperature of 489 K (216°C). The heat of fusion of the semicrystalline samples is about 15 kJ mol-1. For 100% crystalline PTT the heat of fusion is estimated to be 30 ± 2 kJ mol-1. The heat capacity of solid PTT is linked to an approximate group vibrational spectrum and the Tarasov equation is used to estimate the heat capacity contribution due to skeletal vibrations (θ1 = 550.5 K and θ2 = θ3 = 51 K, Nskeletal = 19). The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to better than ±3% between 5 and 300 K. The experimental heat capacities of liquid PTT can be expressed by: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$C^L_p(exp)$\end{document} = 211.6 + 0.434 T J K-1 mol-1 and compare to ±0.5% with estimates from the ATHAS data bank using contributions of other polymers with the same constituent groups. The glass transition temperature of the completely amorphous polymer is estimated to be 310-315 K with a ΔCp of about 94 J K-1 mol-1. Knowing Cp of the solid, liquid, and the transition parameters, the thermodynamic functions enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs function were obtained. With these data one can compute for semicrystalline samples crystallinity changes with temperature, mobile amorphous fractions, and resolve the question of rigid-amorphous fractions.© 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36: 2499-2511, 1998
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• 48
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: block copolymer ; thermoplastic elastomer ; physical gel ; order-disorder transition ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Thermoplastic elastomer gels (TPEGs) composed of a poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] triblock copolymer and a low-volatility, midblock-compatible mineral oil have been investigated here to ascertain the effects of composition on TPEG morphology, and temperature on mechanical properties. Cryofracture-replication transmission electron micrographs reveal the existence of spheroidal bumps due to copolymer micelles, as well as a network of irregularly shaped, high-aspect-ratio features. Since the density of this network decreases with increasing oil concentration, these features are attributed to copolymer grain boundaries. Micellar periodicities are discerned from small-angle X-ray scattering as a function of copolymer concentration and compared with previously reported data from related systems. Dynamic rheological tests performed up to 140°C indicate that the linear viscoelastic regime for these TPEGs decreases with both increasing copolymer concentration and temperature. A concentration-dependent thermal transition, signified by an abrupt reduction in the dynamic elastic modulus (G′), has also been identified.© 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36: 2513-2523, 1998
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• 49
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: No abstract.
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• 50
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: dielectric spectroscopy ; interfacial polarization ; Debye length ; particle size ; polymer blends ; laminates ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: In this article we will focus on the dielectric properties of laminates and blends of a partially conducting (the liquid crystalline copolyesteramide Vectra B950) and an insulating (polypropylene or mica) phase. Dielectric spectroscopy was used as a tool to obtain information about the influence of the dimensions of the conducting phase in these laminates and blends. With decreasing thickness of the conducting layer in the laminates, the measured permittivities deviate more and more from the values predicted using conventional dielectric mixture models. From this discrepancy it is possible to calculate the thickness of the charge layer (=Debye length) in the conducting phase and the thickness of this phase itself, using a model derived by Trukhan. This model incorporates not only conduction, but also diffusion of the charges. Similar experiments were performed on a system of Vectra B950 particles in a polypropylene matrix. After the derivation of a new model, which combines the Trukhan model for space charges with the Böttcher equation for dielectric mixtures, we could make a distinction between samples containing large and small particles. For samples containing small particles, it is even possible to determine the variation in particle sizes. However, the use of a Debye length of 1.1 µm obtained from the laminates resulted in particle sizes that were two times higher than the actual values. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 2835-2848, 1998
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• 51
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: cyclopentadiene ; resins ; carbon yields ; carbon-carbon composites ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: A series of thermosetting resins were synthesized via phase transfer reaction of allyl chloride and propargyl bromide with cyclopentadiene in the presence of a strong base. Feed ratios of 1 : 1, 3 : 1, and 5 : 1 allyl chloride to propargyl bromide were used to give resins with varying amounts of propargyl and allyl functionality. In all cases the resins could be thermally cured, without added catalyst, at temperatures below 275°C to give black, glassy, brittle materials with densities of 1.15. TGA evaluation of the resins, with heating to 1000°C, resulted in carbon yields ranging from 48 to 66% with increasing propargyl functionality causing increased values. Physical mixtures of ACP and PCP resins were also made and evaluated. Cure of the mixed materials also occurred below 275°C, and carbon yields were comparable to the corresponding APCP resin. APCP/carbon fiber composites gave good mechanical properties with flexural modulus values of 115-130 GPa and flexural strength values of 1000 MPa. Carbonization of 1 : 1 APCP/carbon fiber composites provided materials with interlaminar strength values of approximately 1.14 MPa. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 2869-2876, 1998
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• 52
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene ; virgin powder ; two-stage draw ; morphology ; tensile properties ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) virgin powder was ultradrawn uniaxially by a two-stage draw. A film, compression molded from powder below the melting temperature (Tm), was initially solid-state coextruded to an extrudate draw ratio (EDR) of 6-20 at an established optimum extrusion temperature of 325°C, near the Tm of 335°C. These extrudates from first draw were found to exhibit the highest ductility at 45-100°C for the second-stage tensile draw, depending on the initial EDR and draw rate. The maximum achievable total draw ratio (DRt, max) was 36-48. Such high ductility of PTFE, far below the Tg (125°C) and Tm, is in sharp contrast to other crystalline polymers that generally exhibit the highest ductility above their Tg and near Tm. The unusual draw characteristics of PTFE was ascribed to the existence of the reversible crystal/crystal transitions around room temperature and the low intermolecular force of this polymer, which leads to a rapid decrease in tensile strength with temperature. The structure and tensile properties of drawn products were sensitive to the initial EDR, although this had no significant influence on DRt,max. The most efficient and highest draw was achieved by the second-stage tensile draw of an extrudate with the highest EDR 20 at 100°C, as evaluated by the morphological and tensile properties as a function of DRt. The efficiency of draw for the cold tensile draw at 100°C was a little lower than that for solid-state coextrusion near the Tm. However, significantly higher tensile modulus and strength along the fiber axis at 24°C of 60 ± 2 GPa and 380 ± 20 MPa, respectively, were achieved by the two-stage draw, because the DRt,max was remarkably higher for this technique than for solid-state coextrusion (DRt,max = 48 vs. 25). The increase in the crystallite size along the fiber axis (D0015), determined by X-ray diffraction, is found to be a useful measure for the development of the morphological continuity along the fiber axis of drawn products.© 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36: 2551-2562, 1998
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• 53
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polyolefin foams ; thermal properties ; closed-cell foams ; linear thermal expansion coefficient ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: An experimental study on the thermal expansion of a collection of crosslinked low-density polyethylene (LDPE) foams with closed-cell structure is presented. The thermal characterization of these materials, the relationships between the linear thermal expansion coefficient and the structure of the foams, and the determination of the variables that can modify the thermal properties of these products are the goals of this work. The experimental results show that the linear thermal expansion coefficient decreases when the density of the foamed material increases. The gas expansion inside the cells is a mechanism that should be taken into account. Moreover, the thermal expansion also depends on the cellular structure. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36: 2587-2596, 1998
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• 54
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: epoxy ; amine ; microdielectrometry ; conductivity ; conversion ; glass transition temperature ; curing ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Three reactive epoxy-amine systems based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS), 4,4′-methylenebis [3-chloro 2,6-diethylaniline] (MCDEA), and 4,4′-methylenebis [2,6-diethylaniline] (MDEA), were studied during isothermal curings at 140 and 160°C. The simultaneous kinetic and dielectric studies allow to express conductivity, σ, in terms of conversion, x, and of glass transition temperature, Tg. The conductivity, σ0, of the initial monomer mixture and, σ∞ of the fully cured network are measured. It is found that: The glass transition temperature, Tg, versus conversion, x, curves follows the equation of Di Benedetto modified by Pascault and WilliamsThere exists a linear relation between log σ/log σ0 and Tg.So, it is possible to predict both kinetic and dielectric behaviors of these epoxy-amine systems by the knowledge of Tg0, ΔCp0, and σ0, respectively, glass transition temperature, heat capacity, and conductivity of initial monomer mixture, Tg∞ and ΔCp∞, and σ∞, respectively, glass transition temperature and heat capacity and conductivity of fully cured network. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 2911-2921, 1998
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• 55
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: polymer blends ; crystallization ; diffusion ; composition inhomogeneities ; internal spherulite structure ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: Composition profiles develop around growing PVDF spherulites in a blend with PMMA. These profiles assume stationary courses after a certain crystallization time provided that the overall degree of crystallinity is not too high. The composition-dependent growth rate and the diffusion-controlled remove of the surplus PMMA from the spherulite surface are then in a stationary equilibrium. The internal structure of the spherulites will then be homogeneous, too. Upon isothermal crystallization of a PVDF/PMMA = 60/40 (wt %) blend at 160°C for at least 4 h, the spherulites internal degree of crystallinity xc as related to the PVDF fraction obeys the inequality 55 wt % ≤ xc ≤ 84 wt %. The overall PMMA content within the spherulites as averaged over its whole inside has been determined by IR microscopy. It amounts to about 15 wt %. In contrast, the PMMA content of the amorphous phase within the spherulites (averaged again over its whole inside) ranges between 28 and 52 wt %. This composition jumps at the spherulite surface to 52 wt %. From the slope of the composition profiles outside the spherulites that have a width of more than 50 μm, the effective chain diffusion coefficient in blends as averaged over both components can be calculated to amount to (250 ± 100) μm2h-1. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 2923-2930, 1998
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• 56
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: ultrasound ; crystallization kinetics ; film formation ; polychloroprene ; shear modulus ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: We report the application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection technique for the investigation of film formation and crystallization kinetics of one amorphous and two semicrystalline polychloroprene samples with different gel content. Both isothermal and temperature-dependent measurements of the complex dynamic shear modulus (G* = G′ + iG″) have been performed at a frequency of 5.32 MHz. The process of film formation during the evaporation of water is expressed by a stepwise increase of the shear modulus. For the semicrystalline samples a further increase, which is due to crystallization, can be observed. Film formation and crystallization are delayed for the sample with high gel content and its minor final modulus is explained by a lower degree of crystallinity. The time-dependent increase of the shear modulus due to the growth of spherulites has been analyzed by the Avrami equation combined with the Kerner model for the modulus of a two-phase composite (spherulites in an amorphous matrix). The dynamic shear modulus for the spherulites has been estimated by a model introduced by Halpin and Kardos. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 2949-2959, 1998
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• 57
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: poly(paraphenylenes) ; viscoelastic ; creep ; physical aging ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Notes: The linear viscoelastic behavior of a poly(paraphenylene) with a benzoyl substituent has been examined using tensile, dynamic mechanical, and creep experiments. This amorphous polymer was shown to have a tensile modulus of 1-1.5 Msi, nearly twice that of most common engineering thermoplastics. The relaxation behavior, which is similar to that of common thermoplastics, can be described by the WLF equation. Outstanding creep resistance was observed at low temperatures, with rubbery-like behavior being exhibited as the temperature approached Tg. Physical aging was shown to interact with long-term creep, rendering time-temperature superposition invalid for predicting the long-term properties. The effect of physical aging on the creep behavior was characterized by the shift rate μ. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 70: 2971-2979, 1998
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• 58
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266
Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 59
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Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0887-6266