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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (94,637)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Strömungsmechanik
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (94,637)
  • Sage Publications  (6)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (2)
Collection
Years
  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: radical polymerization ; ortho-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenyl ethyl fumarate ; hydrogen abstraction ; cyclic acetal ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The polymerization of o-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenyl ethyl fumarate (DOPEF) initiated with dimethyl 2,2′-azobisiso-butyrate (MAIB) was studied kinetically in benzene. The polymerization rate (Rp) at 60°C was given by Rp = k [MAIB]0.76 [DOPEF]0.71. The overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 98.3 kJ/mol. The number-average molecular weight of resulting poly(DOPEF) was in the range of 1000-3100. 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of resulting polymers revealed that the radical polymerization of DOPEF proceeds in a complicated manner involving vinyl addition, intramolecular hydrogen abstraction, and further ring opening of the cyclic acetal at higher temperatures. From the copolymerization of DOPEF (M1) and styrene (St) (M2) at 60°C, the monomer reactivity ratios were obtained to be r1 = 0.02 and r2 = 0.20, the values of which are similar to those of the copolymerization of ethyl o-formylphenyl fumarate and St. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 563-572, 1998
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: alternating copolymerization ; free radical ; isopropenylisocyanate ; trimethylsilyl methacrylate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The copolymerization of 2-propenyl isocyanate (1) with trimethylsilyl methacrylate (2) has been investigated. 1 is an electron donor monomer with little tendency to undergo homopolymerization, while 2 is an electron acceptor monomer, capable of free radical homopolymerization. Polymerization to low conversion in benzene gave copolymers with preferential incorporation of 2 and a tendency towards alternating copolymers with increasing amounts of 1 in the feed (1 : 1.13 with a 9 : 1 feed ratio of monomers 1 : 2). The glass transition temperatures of the amorphous polymers are in the range from 100-70°C, with a Tg of poly(trimethylsilyl methacrylate) being 135°C. Desilylation occurs in the presence of water, causing an exothermal reaction above the glass transition temperature probably with formation of amides, a reaction that can be used for crosslinking. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 611-616, 1998
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: AMGLU ; A6BMG ; A6TMG ; ring-opening polymerization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new 1,4-anhydro-glucopyranose derivatives having different hydroxyl protective groups such as 1,4-anhydro-2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose (AMGLU), 1,4-anhydro-6-O-benzyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose (A6BMG), and 1,4-anhydro-2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-trityl-α-D-glucopyranose (A6TMG) were synthesized from methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in good yields. Their polymerizability was compared with that of 1,4-anhydro-2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-glucopyranose (ABGLU) reported previously. The trimethylated monomer, AMGLU, was polymerized by a PF5 catalyst to give 1,5-α-furanosidic polymer having number-average molecular weights (M̄n) in the range of 2.8 × 103 to 6.8 × 103. The 13C-NMR spectrum was compared with that of methylated amylose and cellulose. Other anhydro monomers, A6BMG and A6TMG, gave the corresponding 1,5-α furanosidic polymers having M̄n = 17.1 × 103 and 1.8 × 103, respectively. Thus, the substituents at the C2 and C6 positions were found to play an important role for the ring-opening polymerizability of the 1,4-anhydro-glucose monomers. In addition, debenzylation of the tribenzylated polymer gave free (1 → 5)-α-D-glucofuranan. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 841-850, 1998
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane ; 4,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane ; cyclic ketene acetal ; cationic polymerization ; ring-opening polymerization ; ring-retained polymerization ; copolymerization ; boron trifluoride etherate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: BF3·OEt2-initiated polymerizations of 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane gave polymers composed of both ring-retained and ring-opened structures. The ring-opening content increased with an increase in polymerization temperature. Poly(4,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane) propagated slower during BF3·OEt2-initiated polymerization and had a lower ring-opened content than poly(2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane). The type of acid initiator used also affected the amount of ring opening observed. Stronger acids gave less ring opening. Attempted BF3·OEt2-initiated copolymerizations of these seven-membered ring cyclic ketene acetals with isobutyl vinyl ether at room temperature resulted in formation of the two homopolymers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 873-881, 1998
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane ; 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane ; 4,4,6-trimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane ; 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ; 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ; 4,5-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ; cationic copolymerization ; reactivity ratio ; relative reactivity ; ring-retained polymerization ; cyclic ketene acetals ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cationic copolymerizations of 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 2 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 1 (M2); of 4,4,6-trimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 3 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 1 (M2); of 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 5 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 4 (M2); and of 4,5-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 6 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 4 (M2) were conducted. The reactivity ratios for these four types of copolymerizations were r1 = 1.73 and r2 = 0.846; r1 = 2.26 and r2 = 0.310; r1 = 1.28 and r2 = 0.825; r1 = 2.23 and r2 = 0.515, respectively. The relative reactivities of these monomers towards cationic polymerization are: 3 〉 2 〉 1; and 6 〉 5 〉 4. With both five- and six-membered ring cyclic ketene acetals, the reactivity increased with increasing methyl substitution on the ring. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 861-871, 1998
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: fluorine ; perfluoropolyether ; polyester ; segmented ; thermoplastic ; interfacial synthesis ; thermal transitions ; dynamic-mechanical properties ; chemical resistance ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Linear segmented polyesters containing soft perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and hard aromatic segments are obtained by an interfacial polycondensation reaction of an acyl chloride-ended fluorinated prepolymer with various aromatic diphenols in the presence of phase transfer catalysts (PTC) as accelerators. Experimental conditions for reaching high molecular weights are discussed. The calorimetric analysis (DSC) of all the polyesters synthesized shows a typical biphasic morphology, where a very low Tg (〈 -110°C) corresponding to the segregated PFPE moiety, is always accompanied by another Tg or a higher melting temperature, depending on the nature of the hard phase. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) has been carried out confirming the DSC results and suggesting diversified mechanical behaviors at the various temperatures in line with the amorphous or semicrystalline nature of the polymer. Chemical resistance was finally tested by dipping in several solvents and chemicals. The new polyesters show high contact angles, a moderate swelling in many organic solvents and excellent stability in aggressive hydrolytic environments. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 939-947, 1998
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: processable polyimide ; bulky pendent ether groups ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of aromatic diamines containing pendent methoxy, phenoxy, and biphenoxy moieties were synthesized. By the reaction of diamines with 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA), several kinds of polyimides having bulky pendent ether groups were synthesized. Thermal properties and processability such as melt processability and solubility in organic solvents of obtained polyimides were investigated by focusing on the chemical structures of their repeating structure units. It was found that the thermal stability and melt processability of the polyimides did not strongly depend on the existence of bulky pendent phenoxy and biphenoxy moieties. Their solubility in organic solvents, however, was improved by introducing the bulky pendent ether groups such as methoxy, phenoxy, and biphenoxy moieties into their repeating structure units. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 971-978, 1998
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma polymers ; methyl methacrylate ; oxidation ; long-term stability ; XPS ; FTIR ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Plasma polymer films were deposited from methyl methacrylate (MMA) vapor under various plasma conditions and XPS and FTIR used to study the changes to the compositions of the films as they were stored in air for longer than 1 year. The plasma power input per monomer mass unit (W/FM) markedly affected the composition of the freshly deposited MMA plasma polymers. A low value of W/FM led to a high degree of retention of the original monomer structure, whereas a high value of W/FM resulted in substantial monomer fragmentation and the formation of a partially unsaturated material considerably different to conventional PMMA. As the MMA plasma coatings were stored in ambient air after fabrication, all showed spontaneous oxidative changes to their composition, but the extents and reaction products differed substantially. Deposition at low W/FM led to moderate oxidative changes, whereas high power led to a pronounced increase in the oxygen content over time and resulted in a wide range of carbon-oxygen functionalities in the aged material. As the initial compositions/plasma deposition conditions thus influenced the oxidative postdeposition reactions, MMA plasma polymers deposited under different conditions not only varied in their initial composition but then became even more diverse as they aged. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 985-1000, 1998
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: free volume ; autoacceleration ; inhibition ; tertiary amines ; friction coefficient ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The epoxy-diamine cure process was studied. We found that the mechanism can be described in three steps: (i) initiation up to 20-25% of conversion. (ii) autoacceleration and (iii) inhibition. It has been observed that after the initiation there is a clear autoacceleration effect which has been explained in terms of free volume, considerations: the volume occupied by the products of reaction diminishes the available volume increasing the “local concentration” of the reactants and therefore the rate of reaction. The reaction was followed by FTIR (near infrared) as the main technique. We used a purified epoxy resin as well as phenyl glycidyl ether cured with m-xylenediamine. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1001-1016, 1998
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: acid-catalyzed deprotection mechanism ; chemically amplified resist ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A mechanism of acid-catalyzed deprotection of poly(4-tert-butyloxycarbonyloxy-styrene), PBOCST, in chemically amplified resists has been elucidated in terms of elementary processes by means of semiempirical molecular orbital calculations. It is concluded that the overall deprotection of tert-butyloxycarbonyl (t-BOC) group proceeds stepwise; i.e., (a) the first products are an acid carbonate and a tert-butyl cation; (b) a phenolic compound is the secondary and final product from the acid carbonate, which is realized by assistance with a counter anion accompanied by acid; (c) the counter anion also assists acid regeneration from the tert-butyl cation to produce isobutylene. The yield rate of the phenol is proportional to the product of concentrations of the polymer, the catalytic acid, and the counter anion. The activation energy (21 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step (a) is in good agreement with an experiment. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1035-1042, 1998
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: anionic polymerization ; absolute rate constants ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Claims have recently been made that absolute rate constants for chain propagation of the unassociated active centers can be made in systems where a high degree of association is present. Anionic polymerization of styrene in nonpolar solvents with lithium as counterion is a typical case. The conditions required to obtain these constants (and the associated aggregate dissociation constants) are described using data from styrene polymerization with lithium and potassium as counterions and data from o-methoxystyrene polymerization. The conclusion reached must be that the kp and Kds values obtained for styrene with counterion lithium cannot be obtained from existing literature data and are simply artifacts of the computer analysis. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1065-1068, 1998
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: ion-conducting polymers ; silicon ; synthesis ; stability ; conductivity ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Trifunctional carbosilanes containing hydroxy and cyano groups have been synthesized in good yields and incorporated into polyether-based electrolytes. The new linear and cross-linked modified PEOs have been characterized by DSC and conductivity measurements. The effect of silane content, the length of the PEO block, glycerol concentration, and temperature on glass transition temperature and conductivity of lithium salts complexes of these materials has been evaluated. The new materials showed improved conductivity (∼ 10-5 S cm-1) at ambient temperatures compared with unmodified polyethers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1093-1106, 1998
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma polymerization ; polyaniline ; free radicals ; surface characterization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The radio-frequency plasma polymerization technique was used to polymerize aniline onto polymer substrates including perfluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer. The plasma-polyaniline films were characterized by ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle measurements. Preliminary conductivity measurements were also carried out. It was demonstrated that the chemical and physical characteristics of the plasma-polymerized poly-aniline films changed significantly with discharge conditions, indicating the possibility for tailoring the structure and properties of the polyaniline films by optimizing the discharge conditions. In particular, the contents of quinoid sequences and aliphatic crosslinking moieties were found to increase with increasing power input and/or discharge duration. By contrast, the number of free radicals trapped in the polyaniline films and their mobility were shown to increase with decreasing the power input and/or discharge duration within the plasma conditions covered in this study. Furthermore, a correlation was found between surface hydrophilicity of the resultant plasma-polyaniline films and the atomic ratio of C to N. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 633-643, 1998
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polyamides ; adamantane ; diamantane ; synthesis ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This work synthesized a series of new polyamides by direct polycondensation of 1,3-bis[4-(4-carboxyphenoxy)phenyl]adamantane (I) with various diamines. The diacid I was synthesized from 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)adamantane in two steps. Polyamides III were soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), and pyridine. The polyamides had medium inherent viscosities of 0.30-0.55 dL/g and number-average molecular weights (Mn) of 22,000-36,000. The polyamides IIIa and IIIb had tensile strengths of 59.8 and 77.5 MPa, elongation to breakage values of 5.8 and 7.6%, and initial moduli of 1.9 and 1.8 GPa, respectively. Their glass transition temperatures were found to be 219-295°C by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) reveals that the incorporation of rigid and bulky diamantane into polyamides IIIa and IIIb leads to high glass transition temperatures (Tgs), at 299 and 286°C, respectively. The decomposition temperatures of polyamides III at a 5% weight loss ranged from 388 to 416°C in air and from 408 to 435°C in N2 atmosphere. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 785-792, 1998
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: molecular weight distribution ; polyethylene ; soluble metallocene/MAO catalysts ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A critical look at the possibility of controlling the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polyolefins by combining metallocene/methylalumoxane (MAO) catalysts is offered. Catalysts investigated were bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride (Cp2ZrCl2), its titanium and hafnium analogues (Cp2TiCl2 and Cp2HfCl2), as well as rac-ethylenebis(indenyl)zirconium dichloride (Et(Ind)2ZrCl2). As observed by other researchers, the MWD of polyethylene can be manipulated by combining soluble catalysts, which on their own produce polymer with narrow MWD but with different average molecular weights. Combined in slurry polymerization reactors, the catalysts in consideration produce ethylene homopolymer just as they would independently. Unimodal or bimodal MWDs can be obtained. This effect can be mimicked by blending polymers produced by the individual catalysts. We demonstrate how a variability in catalyst activity translates into a variability in MWD when mixing soluble catalysts in polymerization. Such a variability in MWD must be considered when setting goals for MWD control. We introduce a more quantitative approach to controlling the MWD using this method. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 831-840, 1998
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polyvinyl chloride ; peroxide modification ; crosslinking ; degradation ; electron spin resonance ; kinetics ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Peroxide induced crosslinking and degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were experimentally investigated using an on-line electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique. The reaction variables included temperature, peroxide type and concentration. A single line ESR spectrum was observed with its peak-to-peak width decreasing during the reaction. The mechanism involved in the reaction was elucidated based on the radical information. The radical concentration versus reaction time profile exhibited two distinct regions: the chemically initiated reaction continued by the thermal initiation. The addition of peroxide induced and significantly enhanced the thermal initiated crosslinking and degradation. The radical concentration data coupled with the extent of dehydrochlorination gave an estimate of the rate constant of polyene propagation. A significant decrease of the rate constant was observed during the reaction. The gel content and swelling ratio were also measured to provide additional information to the reaction process. The initial gelation rate increased with the increase of temperature and/or peroxide concentration. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 851-860, 1998
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: temperature sensitive ; particle ; emulsion polymerization ; morphology ; adsorption ; enzyme ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two kinds of temperature-sensitive composite polymer particles were prepared by seeded emulsion copolymerizations of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate with 0.14 μm-sized polystyrene and 0.26 μm-sized poly(methylmethacrylate) seed particles. To evaluate the usefulness as a carrier for biomolecules, the enzymatic activities of trypsin adsorbed on these two composite polymer particles were measured at temperatures above and below each lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In both cases, adsorbed trypsin retained its enzymatic activity during repeated adsorption/desorption measurements. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 883-888, 1998
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: (1→6)-2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol ; HPLC ; optical resolution ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The cyclopolymerization of 3,4-di-O-allyl-1,2 : 5,6-dianhydro-D-mannitol (1) was carried out using BF3·OEt2 and t-BuOK. The polymer obtained by the polymerization with BF3·OEt2 mainly consisted of (1→6)-bonded 3,4-di-O-allyl-2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol as the five-membered constitutional repeating unit, though it contained a small amount of other cyclic repeating units. On the other hand, during the polymerization using t-BuOK, the stereoregular polymer (1→6)-linked 3,4-di-O-allyl-2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (2) was synthesized via a regio- and stereoselective mechanism. Cleavage of the allyl ether linkage in polymer 2 occurred to produce the polymer consisting of only 2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol units, i.e., (1→6)-2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (3). Chromatographic enantioseparation of chloroquine and tröger base has been performed on (3,5-dimethylphenyl)carbamate and 4-methylbenzoate derivatives of 3 as a chiral stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 901-909, 1998
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: liquid crystalline epoxy resin ; substitution ; curing ; network ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of an aromatic ester based liquid crystalline epoxy resin (LCE) with a substituent in the mesogenic central group is described. Chlorine and methyl groups were introduced as substituents. The curing behaviors of three epoxy resins were investigated using diaminodiphenyl ester as the curing agent. The curing rate and heat of curing of LCE were measured with dynamic and isothermal DSC. The chlorine substituent accelerated the curing of LCE, while the methyl substituent decelerated the curing of LCE. The heat of curing of substituted LCE was diminished compared to LCE with no substituent. Glass transition temperature and elastic modulus of LCE decreased with increasing the size of the substituent. Three liquid crystalline epoxy resins based on aromatic ester mesogenic groups formed a liquid crystalline phase after curing, and the liquid crystalline phase was stable up to the decomposition temperature. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 911-917, 1998
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: hydrogenation ; α-alumina support ; Ru metal ; amine ; water ; polyalcohol ; ethylene CO copolymer ; radical initiator ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new polymer (polyalcohol) was synthesized by hydrogenation of an ethylene carbon monoxide (CO) copolymer produced by a radical method with a catalyst and H2. The Ru/α-alumina catalyst systems showed an excellent activity for hydrogenation of the radical copolymer of CH2=CH2 and CO. Films prepared by melting and pressing the synthesized polyalcohol had a high gas barrier property and high tensile modulus. This new polymer has hydroxymethylenic units [—CH(OH)—] and ethylenic units [—CH2CH2—] in its molecular structure. The new functional polymer poly(hydroxymethylene-co-ethylene), —[—CH(OH)—]n[—CH2CH2—]m—, is amorphous and has excellent and important properties as a high oxygen gas barrier film for wrapping and storage. This may be attributed to the new structure of poly(hydroxymethylene-co-ethylene) (PHME as an IUPAC name), or ethylene methine alcohol copolymer (EMOH as a generic name), compared to the other ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH as a generic name), —[—CH2CH2—]m—[—CH2CH(OH)—]n—, which is used as one of the highest gas barrier polymers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 889-900, 1998
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: lactitol ; hydrogel ; polyether polyol ; PEO and PPO linkage ; swelling degree ; thermosensitivity ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of new thermosensitive polymer hydrogels were prepared by reacting acylated poly(ethylene glycol) bis(carboxymethyl) ether (PEGBCOCl) with lactitol-based polyether polyols (LPEP). The polyether polyols were generated from propoxylation of lactitol and have molecular weights ranging from 1337 to 4055 g/mol. The hydrogels absorb water up to 1000% of their dry weight and expel free water at temperatures at and above 30°C. The wide ranging swelling behavior and excellent thermosensitivity depend closely on the degree of crosslinking and the propylene oxide lengths in the polyols. Differential scanning calorimetry of the hydrogels showed two endotherms associated with the phase transitions of PO and EO segments in the hydrogel structures. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 979-984, 1998
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: electroconductive polymer ; polyimide-carbon black composite ; direct polycondensation ; salt monomer method ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This paper discusses the poly(ethylene-co-p-methylstyrene) copolymers prepared by metallocene catalysts, such as Et(Ind)2ZrCl2 and [C5Me4(SiMe2NtBu)]-TiCl2, with constrained ligand geometry. The copolymerization reaction was examined by comonomer reactivity (reactivity ratio and comonomer conversion versus time), copolymer microstructure (DSC and 13C-NMR analyses) and the comparisons between p-methylstyrene and other styrene-derivatives (styrene, o-methylstyrene and m-methylstyrene). The combined experimental results clearly show that p-methylstyrene performs distinctively better than styrene and its derivatives, due to the cationic coordination mechanism and spatially opened catalytic site in metallocene catalysts with constrained ligand geometry. A broad composition range of random poly(ethylene-co-p-methylstyrene)copolymers were prepared with narrow molecular weight and composition distributions. With the increase of p-methylstyrene concentration, poly(ethylene-co-p-ethylstyrene)copolymer shows systematical decrease of melting point and crystallinity and increase of glass transition temperature. At above 10 mol % of p-methylstyrene, the crystallinity of copolymer almost completely disappears. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1017-1029, 1998
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly-para-phenylene ; quinoid structure ; IR spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The structure of vacuum-deposited poly-para-phenylene (PPP) films prepared from a high-molecular-weight PPP powder has been investigated by IR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that in IR spectra of PPP films exhibiting intense luminescence an extremely strong band at 1375 cm-1 is observed, which is not typical for currently known PPP modifications. Based on the IR spectral data, the model of formation of a PPP chain with quinoid fragments in the ground electronic state is proposed. The structure of defects that inevitably spring up during the benzenoid-quinoid transition is discussed. High intensity of the band at 1375 cm-1 is associated with the change in the order of the “defect” C—C bond between adjacent quinoid and benzenoid units. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1043-1052, 1998
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: free radical grafting ; polypropylene ; glycidyl methacrylate ; styrene ; maleic anhydride ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The free radical grafting reactivity of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene (PP) in the molten state is low. This article shows that adding styrene as a second monomer (or comonomer) increases both the rate and yield of GMA grafting and reduces PP chain scission. The proposed mechanism is that when St is added to the PP/GMA/peroxide grafting system, St reacts first with PP macroradicals to form stable styryl macroradicals. These latter then react (or copolymerize) with GMA to form GMA grafted PP. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1053-1063, 1998
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butylbenzene (BADTB) ; polyamides ; direct polycondensation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The diamine 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butylbenzene, containing symmetric, bulky di-tert-butyl substituents and a flexible ether unit, was synthesized and used to prepare a series of polyamides by the direct polycondensation with various aromatic dicarboxylic acids in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) using triphenyl phosphite and pyridine as condensing agents. All the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities of 0.32-1.27 dL g-1. Most of these polyamides, except IIa, IId, and IIe, showed an amorphous nature and dissolved in polar solvents and less polar solvents. Polyamides derived from 4,4′-sulfonyldibenzoic acid, 4,4′-(hexafluoro-isopropylidene)dibenzoic acid, and 5-nitroisophthalic acid were even soluble in a common organic solvent such as THF. Most polyamide films could be obtained by casting from their N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solutions. The polyamide films had a tensile strength range of 49-78 MPa, an elongation range at break of 3-5%, and a tensile modulus range of 1.57-2.01 GPa. These polyamides had glass transition temperatures ranging between 253 and 276°C, and 10% mass loss temperatures were recorded in the range 402-466°C in nitrogen atmosphere. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1069-1074, 1998
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(amide-imide)s ; 2,2′-bis(4-trimellitimidophenoxy) biphenyl ; solubility ; 2,2′-bis(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new dicarboxylic acid having a kinked structure was synthesized from the condensation of 2,2′-bis(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl and trimellitic anhydride. A series of biphenyl-2,2′-diyl-containing aromatic poly(amide-imide)s having inherent viscosities of 0.23-0.94 dL/g was prepared by the triphenyl phosphite activated polycondensation from the diimide-diacid II with various aromatic diamines in a medium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), pyridine, and calcium chloride. Most of the resulting polymers showed an amorphous nature and were readily soluble in a variety of organic solvents including NMP and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Transparent, flexible, and tough films of these polymers could be cast from DMAc or NMP solutions. The glass transition temperatures of these polymers were in the range of 227-261°C and the 10% weight loss temperatures were above 520°C in nitrogen. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1169-1177, 1998
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: sulfonation ; proton exchange membrane ; poly(phenylquinoxaline) ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(arylene ether) ; poly(arylene thioether) ; poly(arylene sulfone) ; polyimide ; pendent group ; one-pot polymerization ; thiocarbamate ; thermal stability ; high-performance polymer ; oxidation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Novel poly(arylene ether)s, poly(arylene thioether)s, and poly(arylene sulfone)s were synthesized from the dihydroxy(imidoarylene) monomer 1. The syntheses of poly(arylene ether)s were carried out in DMAc in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3 by a nucleophilic substitution reaction between the bisphenol and activated difluoro compounds. Poly(arylene thioether)s were synthesized according to the recently discovered one-pot polymerization reaction between a bis(N,N′-dimethyl-S-carbamate) and activated difluoro compounds in the presence of a mixture of Cs2CO3 and CaCO3. The bis(N,N′-dimethyl-S-carbamate) 3 was synthesized by the thermal rearrangement reaction of bis(N,N′-dimethylthiocarbamate) 2, which was synthesized from 1 by a phase-transfer catalyzed reaction. The poly(arylene thioether)s were further oxidized to form poly(arylene sulfone)s, which would be very difficult, if not impossible, to synthesize by other methods. All of the polymers described have extremely high Tgs and thermal stability as determined from DSC and TGA analysis. Poly(arylene sulfone)s have the highest Tgs and they are in the range of 298-361°C. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1201-1208, 1998
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: cyclotriphosphazene ; aromatic poly(ether ketone) ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Bis(4-oxybenzoic acid) tetrakis(phenoxy) cyclotriphosphazene (IUPAC name: 4-[4-(carboxyphenoxy)-2,4,6,6-tetraphenoxy-1,3,5,2λ5,4λ5,6λ5-triazatriphosphinin-2-yl]oxy-benzoic acid) was synthesized and direct polycondensed with diphenylether or 1,4-diphenoxybenzene in Eaton's reagent at the temperature range of 80-120°C for 3 hours to give aromatic poly(ether ketone)s. Polycondensations at 120°C gave polymer of high molecular weight. Incorporation of cyclotriphosphazene groups in the aromatic poly(ether ketone) backbone greatly enhanced the solubility of these polymers in common organic polar solvents. Thermal stabilities by TGA for two polymer samples of polymer series ranged from 390 to 354°C in nitrogen at 10% weight loss and glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranged from 81.4 to 89.6°C by DSC. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1227-1232, 1998
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: living anionic polymerization ; poly(styryl)lithium ; functionalization ; aromatic carboxylation ; N,N-diisopropylamide ; N,N-diisopropyl-4-(1-phenylethenyl)-benzamide ; substituted 1,1-diphenylethylenes ; functionalized polystyrene ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The novel syntheses of N,N-diisopropyl-4-benzoylbenzamide, N,N-diisopropyl-4-(1-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)benzamide, and N,N-diisopropyl-4-(1-phenylethenyl)benzamide (1) are described. ω-Amidopolystyrene (2) was synthesized in quantitative yields by the reaction of poly(styryl)lithium with stoichiometric amounts of N,N-diisopropyl-4-(1-phenylethenyl)benzamide (1) in toluene/tetrahydrofuran (4 : 1 v/v) at -78°C. Deblocking of the amide protecting group by acid hydrolysis quantitatively provides the corresponding aromatic carboxyl chain-end functionalized polystyrene (3). The functionalization agent and functionalized polymers were characterized by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, vapor phase osmometry, spectroscopy (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FTIR), potentiometry, and elemental analysis. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1233-1241, 1998
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: one-pot syntheses ; sulfur-containing polymers ; dithiol ; bifunctional five-membered cyclic dithiocarbonates ; diisocyanates ; acid dichlorides ; dibromoalkane ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Novel one-pot syntheses of sulfur-containing polymers from a bifunctional five-membered cyclic dithiocarbonate (1a) were carried out. Polythiourethanes were obtained by the polyaddition of 4,4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), tolylene 2,6-diisocyanate, and hexamethylene diisocyanate with a dithiol (2a) obtained by the reaction of 1a and benzylamine under mild conditions. Polythioesters were also obtained by the polycondensation of terephthaloyl and succinyl chlorides with 2a. Further, polythioether was obtained by the polycondensation of α,α′-dibromo-p-xylene with 2a. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1189-1195, 1998
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(methyl methacrylate) ; pyrene ; pulse radiolysis ; radical ion decay ; ion recombination ; fluorescence ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A pulse radiolysis study of poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of pyrene has been carried out in the temperature range 100-295 K. The concentration of pyrene was changed from 10-3 to 10-1 mol dm-3. The absorption/emission spectra and kinetics of solute excited states and solute radical ions were investigated. It was found that pyrene excited states were formed as a result of their radical ion recombination in a time scale up to seconds. The decay of solute radical ions was influenced by photobleaching and can be described by a time-dependent rate constant. The activation energy of Py ions decay was temperature dependent and was equal to 35.7 and 1.2 kJ/mol for temperatures 〉Tγ and 〈Tγ, respectively, where Tγ ∼ 175 K represented the transition temperature responsible for γ-relaxation. The reaction mechanism was proposed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1209-1215, 1998
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polypropylene ; pyrene ; two-solute system ; pulse radiolysis ; solute ionic species ; solute excited states ; low-temperature radiolysis ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A pulse radiolysis study of isotactic polypropylene (PP) film has been carried out with the main aims of investigating charge trapping in an undoped system and solute radical ion generation in an pyrene (Py) doped matrix. In PP, pulse radiolysis gives electron-positive hole pairs. The electron can be stabilized in the undoped system as a trapped electron, et-. The transient absorption spectrum of et- in the near-IR (up to 1800 nm) was observed in the temperature range 30-100 K. This IR absorption was not detected in the case of oxidized PP. In such a matrix electrons can be scavenged by oxidation products generating respective radical-anions (absorption in the UV RANGE, λ 〈 350 nm). In a doped matrix transient absorption bands centered at 450 and 500 nm were observed which can be assigned to the Py radical cation and anion, respectively. The recombination of these ionic species leads to monomer excited-state formation observed during and after the 17 ns pulse. Contrary to the Py-doped polyethylene no excimer emission was detected at room temperature even if Py content in PP was close to 0.02 mol dm-3. The rate of Py radical-ion decay was found to be temperature dependent. Two linear parts of the Arrhenius plot were observed which intersected at ca. 240 K, the glass transition temperature, Tg, for PP. The activation energies calculated for two parts of Arrhenius plot were equal to 111 and ca. 0.78 kJ mol-1 for T 〉 Tg and T 〈 Tg, respectively. Some preliminary results concerning the ionic processes in PP containing two solutes (Py, 3,3′-dimethyldiphenyl) were presented. The mechanism of ionic recombination in PP will be proposed and discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1217-1226, 1998
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: semirigid copolyurethanes ; biphenyl unit ; fluorine-containing diols ; alkylene diphenyl dicarbamates ; melt polycondensation ; nematic phase ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New semirigid thermotropic liquid crystalline (LC) copolyurethanes 4 and 5 made up of biphenyl units and partially fluorinated aliphatic chains in the backbones were synthesized by melt polycondensation of a mixture of a dioxydihexanol of biphenyl 1 and two fluorine-containing diols 2a,b taken in definite feed mole ratios with alkylene diphenyl dicarbamates 3a-i having various lengths of aliphatic chains. The assigned structures of copolyurethanes 4 and 5 were identified by FTIR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, and elemental analyses. The thermal and mesogenic properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal mechanical analyses (TMA), polarizing microscopy, and temperature-changeable X-ray analyses, whose measurements indicated that the copolymers 4 and 5 form thermotropic nematic phases and have glass transition steps around room temperature. It is suggested that the incorporation of partially fluorinated aliphatic chains into the backbones has no drastic effect on the LC formation in the semirigid copolyurethanes 4 and 5. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1243-1249, 1998
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  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma polymerization ; glow discharge ; controlled particle energy ; polymer films ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new type of reactor for plasma polymerization was developed in order to achieve an effective control of styrene polymerization process. Electrons and ions were extracted from the radio frequency (rf) glow discharge region to the downstream region to generate plasma polymerization. The energy of extracted ionized particles was controlled by the bias voltage of a screen grid unit. Deposited polymer thin films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the polarity and energy of the extracted particles had considerable effect on the deposition rate and structure of the deposited films. At each bias polarity there was a maximum deposition rate vs. voltage magnitude, and the maximum at the positive voltage was higher. In addition, the bulk aromaticity of the film deposited at the negative bias was lower than at the positive bias; the surface aromaticity of the films was much higher than that of the films prepared by usual rf discharge. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1265-1270, 1998
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: copolymerization ; maleimide ; ethyl α-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate ; characterization ; incomplete crystallinity ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Copolymerization of maleimide (MI) and ethyl α-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate (EHMA) was performed at 60°C with AIBN as the initiator in THF. The monomer reactivity ratios were determined as r1 (MI) = 0.13 and r2 (EHMA) = 2.20. As the molar fraction of MI in the monomer feed increased, the initial rate of copolymerization decreased. TGA diagrams suggested the crosslinking reaction of the copolymer on heating. DSC and WAXD results suggested the existence of incomplete crystallinity in the copolymer. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1291-1299, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: glycine ; synthesis ; biodegradation ; poly(ester amide)s ; thermal analysis ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of aliphatic poly(ester amide)s derived from 1,6-hexanediol, glycine, and diacids with a variable number of methylenes (from 2 to 8) have been synthesized and characterized. Infrared spectroscopy shows that the studied polymers present a unique kind of hydrogen bond that is established between their amide groups. Thermal properties as melting, glass transition, and decomposition temperatures are reported. The data indicate that all the polymers are highly crystalline. Thus, different kinds of spherulites (positive and/or negative) were obtained depending on the preparation conditions and on the polymer samples. Moreover, all the polymers crystallized from dilute diol solutions as ribbonlike crystals where a regular folding habit and a single hydrogen bond direction could be deduced. A test of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed to assess the potential biodegradability of these polymers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1271-1282, 1998
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: vapor phase deposition ; polybenzoxazoles ; poly(phenylenebenzoxazole) ; thermal depolymerization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Vapor phase deposition was carried out on multifunctional aliphatic and aromatic benzoxazoles to yield powdered samples of poly(dimethylenebenzoxazoles). Representative aliphatic and aromatic poly(dimethylenebenzoxazoles) were also synthesized through solution methods using 4-amino-3-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid and 2-(4-(bromomethyl)phenyl)-6-(bromomethyl)benzoxazole, respectively, as monomers. Both aromatic and aliphatic polybenzoxazoles containing —CH2CH2— units in the polymer backbone displayed catastrophic weight loss over a very narrow temperature range. This is in contrast with other polybenzoxazoles which show a gradual weight loss over 500-1000°C. Vapor phase deposition carried out under vacuum on the polymers gave similar polymers in the collection zone suggesting the catastrophic weight loss is attributed to thermal depolymerization of the polymer through a diradical intermediate similar to the thermolysis and polymerization of [2.2]paracyclophane. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1317-1328, 1998
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polysulfone ; step polymerization ; end-capping ; end group titration ; multiple end groups ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The preparation of amine-terminated polysulfone by step polymerization of the monomers bisphenol A and dichlorodiphenyl sulfone in the presence of end-capping reagent 4-aminophenol was investigated. A persistent problem with end-capping strategy as applied to step polymerization is the presence of end groups other than those introduced by the end-capping reagent. These unintended end groups, which can persist in the polymer product even when 100% of the end-capping reagent has reacted, are associated with a proportionate decrease in polymer chain length. This situation renders quantitative analysis of a single type of end group invalid as a method for molecular weight determination. The presence of unintended end groups does not appear to correlate with a particular set of reaction conditions; unintended end groups were found to occur in polymerizations conducted under strong base conditions (NaOH), under weak base conditions (K2CO3), and with a wide range of monomer feed ratios. A scheme for unambiguous quantification of chain ends and molecular weight for end-capped polysulfone is described. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1309-1316, 1998
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: radical copolymerization ; p-t-butoxystyrene ; dibutyl maleate ; penultimate effect ; ESR ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The copolymerization of p-tert-butoxystyrene (TBOSt) (M1) and di-n-butyl maleate (DBM) (M2) with dimethyl 2,2′-azobisisobutyrate (MAIB) in benzene at 60°C was studied kinetically and by means of ESR spectroscopy. The monomer reactivity ratios were determined to be r1 = 2.3 and r2 = 0 by a curve-fitting method. The copolymerization system was found to involve ESR-observable propagating polymer radicals under practical copolymerization conditions. The apparent rate constants of propagation (kp) and termination (kt) at different feed compositions were determined by ESR. From the relationship of kp and f1 (f1 = [M1]/([M1] + [M2])) based on a penultimate model, the rate constants of five propagations of copolymerization were evaluated as follows; k111 = 140 L/mol s, k211 = 3.5 L/mol s, k112 = 61 L/mol s, k212 = 1.5 L/mol s, and k121 = 69 L/mol s. Thus, a pronounced penultimate effect was predicted in the copolymerization. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1449-1455, 1998
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: sulfinated/sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) ; partial oxidation ; crosslinked membranes ; S-alkylation of sulfinate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New mixed sulfinated/sulfonated polysulfone PSU Udel has been produced by partial oxidation of sulfinated PSU with NaOCl. From the mixed sulfinated/sulfonated PSU, thin crosslinked polymer films have been produced by S-alkylation of the residual sulfinate groups with α,ω-diiodoalkanes having 4-10 —(CH2)— units. The advantages of the partial oxidation process using NaOCl are as follows: (1) The desired oxidation degree can be adjusted finely. (2) No side reactions take place during oxidation. (3) The partially oxidized polymers is stable at ambient temperature. By variation of the oxidation degree of the sulfinated/sulfonated prepolymer and by variation of the chain length of the diiodo crosslinker, crosslinked membranes with a large range of properties in terms of ionic conductivity, swelling, and permselectivity have been produced. The partially oxidized polymers have been characterized by redox titration, 1H-NMR, and FTIR. The crosslinked membranes have been characterized in terms of ionic conductivity (resistance), permselectivity, and swelling in dependence on ion-exchange capacity and oxidation degree of the prepolymers. In addition, the thermal stabilities of the membranes have been determined by TGA, and FTIR spectra have been recorded on the crosslinked films. Selected membranes show low ionic resistances, low swelling, and good temperature stability which makes them promising candidates for application in (electro)membrane processes. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1441-1448, 1998
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: sulfonyl isocyanate ; acrylamide ; hydrogen-transfer polymerization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: ibuprofen ; ketoprofen ; naproxen ; copolymer reactivity ; thermal stability ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-propionic acid (ibuprofen), 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (ketoprofen), and 2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-propionic acid (naproxen), were covalently linked with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The drug-linked HEMA (M1) (ibuprofen-linked HEMA abbreviated as HI; ketoprofen-linked HEMA as HK, and naproxen-linked HEMA as HN), were respectively copolymerized with methacrylic acid (M2), MA, to obtain macromolecular prodrugs. The compositions of the copolymers were determined by means of a 1H-NMR spectroscopy and monomer reactivity ratios were estimated using the Kelen-Tüdös linear differential equation. The reactivity ratios are: r1 = 0.101 ± 0.012, r2 = 1.071 ± 0.065 for HI-MA; r1 = 0.344 ± 0.066, r2 = 0.966 ± 0.032 for HN-MA, and r1 = 0.650 ± 0.182, r2 = 1.032 ± 0.106 for HK-MA, respectively. The monomer reactivity toward to MA radical estimated from 1/r2 values is almost same for all three monomers (1/r2 ∼ 1). The glass transition temperatures of three drug-linked homopolymers go hand in hand with the steric hindrance of three drugs, i.e., ketoprofen 〉 naproxen ≫ ibuprofen calculated the minimum energy by computer molecular modeling. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1481-1490, 1998
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: methylene blue ; dye-sensitized photopolymerization ; magnetic field ; triplet state ; acrylamide ; methyl methacrylate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Methylene blue sensitized photopolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) using triethanolamine or the sodium salt of EDTA as a reducing agent has been investigated under the influence of a magnetic field (0-7.3 kG). There was no effect of the magnetic field (MF) on the polymerization of AM and MMA in aqueous medium. However, in the water-methanol mixture (1 : 1) the yield of polymer decreases and the molecular weight increases in both cases under MF. This has been explained on the basis of the triplet mechanism. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1509-1513, 1998
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: thermotropic polymers ; liquid crystalline polymers ; semirigid spacers ; melt spinning ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A thermotropic, liquid crystalline copolyester, based on 2-chlorohydroquinone, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and terephthaloyl chloride, has been synthesized and melt spun. The cyclohexanedimethylene moiety acts as a semirigid spacer, introducing flexibility while preserving the thermotropic nature of the polymer. Melt-spun fibers were observed to have a high degree of molecular alignment owing to the nematic nature of the melt. Both polymer and fiber properties have been characterized. Characterization techniques used to this end include elemental analysis, hot-stage polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dilute solution viscometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1473-1480, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe) ; methacryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (MA-ProOMe) ; porous gel membranes ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thermoresponsive porous gel membranes were synthesized by a simultaneously occurring process consisting of radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking in aqueous solutions at various concentrations of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester(A-ProOMe) without a crosslinker. Permeation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) through a thermoresponsive porous gel membrane obtained at a monomer concentration of 80% (w/w) drastically reduced around 14°C, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of linear poly(A-ProOMe) in water, from 0.60 × 10-3 cm/min at 10°C to no permeation at 18°C, accompanied by changes in both size and shape of pores associated with gel shrinkage. Moreover, it was found that porous gel membranes with a porosity of approximately 60% had a greater PNP permeability constant through porous gel membranes with mutually connected pores obtained at a monomer concentration of 50% (w/w) than individually supported pores obtained at a monomer concentration of 70% (w/w). © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1495-1500, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: sulfonyl isocyanate ; acrylamide ; sulfonylurea ; radical polymerization ; hydrolysis ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The radical polymerization of N-acryloyl-N′-(p-tolylsulfonyl)urea (2), prepared easily by the reaction of p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate with acrylamide, was carried out in DMF, DMSO, or NMP at 60°C by use of AIBN as an initiator to give a polymer 3 in a good yield. Copolymerization parameters of 2 were evaluated by the copolymerization with MMA. Polymer 3 was readily hydrolyzed in an aqueous NaOH solution (1M) at room temperature to give poly(acrylic acid). The reason for the higher activity for hydrolysis of 3 compared to an ordinary amide is discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1515-1519, 1998
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polymer microspheres ; monodisperse ; crosslinked ; porosity ; porogen ; precipitation polymerization ; divinylbenzene ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The precipitation polymerization of commercial divinylbenzene in acetonitrile containing up to 40 vol. % toluene or other cosolvents is shown to produce novel porous monodisperse poly(divinylbenzene) microspheres. These microspheres have diameters between 4 and 7 μm, total pore volumes of up to 0.52 cm3/g, and surface areas of up to 800 m2/g. As no surfactant nor stabilizer was used in the preparation of these particles, their surfaces are free of any such residues. The particles were slurry-packed into stainless steel columns for size exclusion chromatography evaluation, and the results show an exclusion limit at molecular weights of 500 g/mol. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1543-1551, 1998
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: seeded emulsion polymerization ; gel effect ; radical entry ; particle size sensor ; semibatch model ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The modeling of the semibatch emulsion polymerization of styrene and its validation against data obtained from a reactor facility is presented. The model, which describes the growth of a monodisperse polystyrene seed as neat monomer is fed to the reactor, incorporates recent findings in radical diffusion and kinetics. The current controversy surrounding radical absorption into particles is handled by considering absorption via propagation, diffusion, and collision in the model. Simulation results including weight fraction polymer inside the particles and particle diameter are compared to data obtained from a custom-designed and built automated reactor control facility capable of on-line density and on-line particle diameter measurements. Good agreement between simulation results and experimental data are obtained for any of the three absorption mechanisms considered by varying only one adjustable parameter located in the absorption rate coefficient relation. A sensitivity analysis of the model to this adjustable parameter, using the program ODESSA, is also presented and shown to be an important tool in the validation procedure. Lastly, an analysis of the dynamics of the process shows the variety of phenomena that can be obtained in a semibatch reactor including regions that exhibit pseudosteady states, autoacceleration of the rate, and limiting conversion. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1553-1571, 1998
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: optical emission spectroscopy ; cascade arc ; surface modification ; fluorination ; plasma polymerization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) was used to identify reactive species and their excitation states in low-temperature cascade arc plasmas of N2, CF4, C2F4, CH4, and CH3OH. In a cascade arc plasma, the plasma gas (argon or helium) was excited in the cascade arc generator and injected into a reactor in vacuum. A reactive gas was injected into the cascade arc torch (CAT) that was expanding in the reactor. What kind of species of a reactive gas, for example, nitrogen, are created in the reactor is dependent on the electronic energy levels of the plasma gas in the cascade arc plasma jet. OES revealed that no ion of nitrogen was found when argon was used as the plasma gas of which metastable species had energy less than the ionization energy of nitrogen. When helium was used, ions of nitrogen were found. While OES is a powerful tool to identify the products of the cascade arc generation (activation process), it is less useful to identify the reactive species that are responsible for surface modification of polymers and also for plasma polymerization. The plasma surface modification and plasma polymerization are deactivation processes that cannot be identified by photoemission, which is also a deactivation process. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1583-1592, 1998
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: bivalent organolanthanides ; polymerization ; methyl methacrylate ; stereomultiblock polymer ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Bivalent organolanthanides with unbridged substituted indenyl or fluorenyl ligands (1-SiMe3Ind)2YTHF (I), (9-SiMe3Flu)2YTHF (II), were found to efficiently catalyze the stereoregular polymerization of methyl methacrylate. The microstructure of resultant polymers was shown to be dependent of a conformation that the ligands adopt at the polymerization temperature. The formation of isotactic rich PMMAs from complex II was proposed to be associated with the fluctuation of the 9-trimethylsilylfluorenyls around a C2 symmetric twisted-conformation. The formation of the multi(syndioPMMA-block-iso-PMMA) polymers from the mixture of rac- and meso-isomers of I was rationalized on the basis of competing conjugate addition and inversion of the metallocene conformation. Surprisingly, both rac- and meso-isomers of I were found to operate with similar activity and stereospecifity, although the stereospecific operation of the meso-form was not completely understandable. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1599-1606, 1998
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: chemically modified polymers ; addition reactions ; unsaturated betaines ; reaction kinetics ; pyridine ; imidazole ; photocrosslinking polymers ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Unsaturated macromolecular carboxybetaines were obtained by reaction of poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(N-vinylimidazole) with propiolic acid. A kinetic model was presented for 4-methylpyridine. It consists of three coupled reactions: neutralization, addition which involves two molecules of acid and leads to a cation-anion pair structure, where the cation results from the addition of the amine nitrogen to the triple bond of acid, and an equilibrium reaction between the ion-pair structure and the betaine structure. The addition rate was found to be higher for poly(4-vinylpyridine) than for poly(N-vinylimidazole); it was also higher in water than in a water-methanol mixture. The reaction with acetylenedicarboxylic acid was carried out on poly(N-vinylimidazole), but the transformed units showed the structure that results from propiolic acid. The betaine products from 4-methylpyridine did not polymerize by radical initiation. The polymeric products show characteristics of photocrosslinking polymers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1615-1623, 1998
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) ; plasma ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of different types of low and atmospheric pressure plasma on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been studied in terms of changes in molar mass and molar mass distribution. Apart from a variation of plasma gases (oxygen, helium) different types of plasma (microwave, radio frequency, corona discharge) were used for the plasma surface modification. The changes in molar mass and types of functional end groups of lower molar mass products were investigated by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), whereas the high-molar mass fraction was analyzed by means of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The formation of crosslinked products during exposure to a helium plasma, which emits preponderately energy-rich and intense ultraviolet radiation, was proved by means of thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). This method combined with a multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector allows detection of weakly crosslinked polymers and microgels. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1639-1648, 1998
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: radical polymerization ; acrylamide ; helical peptide ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: hyperbranched polymer ; dendrimers ; comb-burst dendrimers ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: It has been about 10 years since the first intentional preparation of hyperbranched polymer was disclosed. Hyperbranched polymers, as well as dendrimers, may find utilities in the areas where the structural uniqueness of these polymers gives merit. There has been much progress in the structural understanding and the methods of synthesis of these polymers. However, functional understanding and utility of these polymers are still in infancy. Better understanding on physical properties of these polymers, such as solubility and miscibility of these polymers in solvents or with polymers, and functional group dependency to the thermal relaxation process are needed for further development of the subject. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 36: 1685-1698, 1998
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: crosslinked copoly (styrene-p-nitrophenylacrylate) ; nucleophilic substitution ; primary amines ; diaminoalkanes ; amino alcohols ; amino acids ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Crosslinked copoly(styrene-p-nitrophenylacrylates), containing 2% (1) or 4% DVB (2) were converted with various diaminoalkanes (1,2-diaminoethane 3a, 1,4-diaminobutane 3b, 1,8-diaminooctane 3c) to amides. The degree of additional crosslinking depended on the chain length of the diaminoalkane, the molar ratio of ester function in 1 or 2 to diaminoalkane, solvent polarity (dimethylformamide, chloroform, toluene), while reaction temperature (50 or 100°C) had only a minor effect. 2 was also converted with various amines bearing additional functional groups (ethanolamine, 3-amino-1-propanol, 4-aminomethylpyridine, 2-(2-aminoethylamino)-ethanol, 2-(2-aminoethoxy)-ethanol, 6-aminocaproic acid, N-propylaminomorpholine, 3-N,N-diethylamino-1-propylamine) to the corresponding amides. The swelling ability of the resins depended on the crosslinking of the starting copoly(styrene-p-nitrophenylacrylate) (1, 2), the structure of the amide, the degree of additional crosslinking, and solvent polarity (chloroform, dimethylformamide, methanol, toluene). The accessibility of nitrogen atoms in the polymer matrix was examined by EtX functionalization of the 3-N,N-diethylamino-1-propylamine derivative (10) and 4-aminomethylpyridine derivative (13), and more than 85% functionalization was found. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1699-1706, 1998
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: crosslinked polymer ; template polymerization ; noncovalent molecular imprinting ; testosterone ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In this study, molecular imprinting was used to develop a method based on noncovalent interactions for synthesis of a testosterone-specific polymer. The effect of the different template-monomer ratios, the particle sizes of polymers, and chromatographic mobile phases on steroid-polymer interactions are discussed. The polymer obtained was found to interact specifically with testosterone, while other steroids under study were eluted close to the void volume in the HPLC experiments. Batch rebinding studies in acetonitrile were undertaken to quantitatively evaluate the affinity of the polymer for testosterone. During this experiment, the testosterone concentration was measured in two ways: spectrophotometrically and by HPLC on a column with testosterone-specific imprinted polymer synthesized by us. Both methods resulted in similar values of association constants and the number of binding sites. However, the second method has obvious advantages when the analyzed solution contains a mixture of optically dense compounds. The results obtained focus on the two-point binding nature of the imprinted polymer-testosterone interaction and the significant role of hydrogen bonds between the OH group of testosterone and carboxy group of methacrylic acid residues inside specific recognition sites of the imprinted polymer. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1725-1732, 1998
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