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  • RISK  (8)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; DIET ; CALCIUM ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; ELDERLY-MEN ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; IGFBP-3 ; FACTOR SYSTEM ; VITAMIN-D ; insulin-like growth factor-I ; insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 ; milk ; NUTRITIONAL FACTORS ; SOMATOMEDIN-C
    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 in women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects: The population are 2109 women who were control subjects in a case-control study of breast cancer nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Control subjects were randomly chosen among risk sets consisting of female cohort members alive and free of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at the time of diagnosis of the index case. Matching criteria were age at enrolment, follow-up time, time of the day of blood collection and study centre. Diet was measured through validated questionnaires. Serum hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The relationship between serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and intake of nutrients and foods was explored by linear regression in models adjusted for energy intake, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, centre and laboratory batch. Results: Serum IGF-I levels were positively related to protein intake (P-trend 〈 0.001), but not related to energy, fat or carbohydrate intake. Positive relationships were observed with the intake of milk (P-trend = 0.007), calcium (P-trend 〈 0.001), magnesium (P-trend = 0.003), phosphorus (P-trend 〈 0.001), potassium (P-trend = 0.002), vitamin B6 (P-trend = 0.03), vitamin B2 (P-trend = 0.001) and inverse relationships with vegetables (P-trend = 0.02) and beta-carotene (P-trend = 0.02). IGFBP-3 was not related with most of the nutrients and foods in this study. Conclusions: In this population, circulating IGF-I is modestly related with the intake of protein and minerals, and with milk and cheese, while IGFBP-3 does not appear to be related with diet
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16900085
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; PHOSPHORUS ; NEOPLASIA ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; DIETARY ; CALCIUM ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; RECALL ; IRON ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; POTASSIUM ; MAINTENANCE ; 24-h dietary recall ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; magnesium ; minerals ; nutrient intakes
    Abstract: Background/objectives: Adequate mineral intake is important for the maintenance of bone health, cellular function and general metabolism, and possibly in the aetiology of cancer and other chronic diseases. This study aimed at investigating variation in intakes of selected minerals across 10 European countries participating in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Methods: Nutrient intakes for 36 034 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in 27 centres were obtained using standardized 24-h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). Mean intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium were calculated by centre and weighted by season and day of the week and were also stratified by age group. The contribution of food groups to total nutrient intake was calculated. Results: There was clear geographical variability in intakes, with differences ranging from 35% for magnesium to 90% for iron in men and 36% for potassium to 75% for calcium in women, and a twofold difference in sources of haem iron (meat and fish). There was a geographical gradient in iron intake, with higher intakes in Southern than in Northern Europe and also around a twofold north-south gradient in the contribution of fruits and vegetables to potassium intake. Compared with reference intakes, the majority of age groups and centres had intakes above the recommended levels. Dairy foods and products contributed the most to calcium and phosphorus intake in almost all centres. Cereals and cereal products contributed the most to magnesium and iron intakes, except in Greece and Germany. Conclusions: Intakes of minerals vary substantially throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888269
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; ACID ; WOMEN ; MEN ; fatty acids ; DIETARY ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; antioxidants ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; WEST-GERMANY ; asthma ; EAST-GERMANY ; EPIC-GERMANY ; FATTY-ACID ; ADULT ; ADULTS ; HAY-FEVER ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; INTERVAL ; dietary intake ; dietary fat ; HDL CHOLESTEROL ; LUNG-FUNCTION ; ONSET ASTHMA ; RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS ; YOUNG-ADULTS
    Abstract: Objective: Within a prospective study, we explored the associations between dietary intake of fatty acids, antioxidants and relevant food sources of these nutrients on the clinical manifestation of asthma in adulthood. Method: A total of 105 newly physician-diagnosed cases of asthma from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort were identified during follow-up and matched with 420 controls. Baseline dietary intake was obtained by means of validated food frequency questionnaires. The association of dietary intake variables and asthma risk was explored by unconditional logistic regression models. Results: A high intake of oleic acid (C18: 1 n-9) was positively associated with asthma (P-value for trend 0.035), while no significant associations were found for the other dietary fatty acids. Most prominently, a high margarine intake increased the risk of onset of asthma in adulthood ( adjusted odds ratio ( OR) 3rd tertile: 1.73 (95% confidence interval ( 95% CI): 1.05 - 2.87), P for trend = 0.050), the effect being stronger in men (2nd tertile: OR = 1.66, 3rd tertile: OR = 2.51) than in women ( 2nd tertile: OR = 0.91; 3rd tertile: OR = 1.47). The dietary intake of antioxidants and their main food sources had no effect on asthma risk. Conclusions: In summary, the present results provide evidence that even in adulthood a high margarine intake increases the risk of clinical onset of asthma. Whether oleic acid may serve as a proxy for margarine-derived trans-fatty acids ( C18: 1 t9) remains to be clarified
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15329676
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; risk factors ; DIET ; nutrition ; NUTRIENTS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; elderly ; OLDER-ADULTS ; alcohol intake ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; N-3 FATTY-ACIDS ; OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES ; hip fractures ; PREVENT FRACTURES ; PROTEIN-INTAKE ; RANCHO BERNARDO ; VITAMIN-D SUPPLEMENTATION
    Abstract: Background/Objectives: Evidence on the role of diet during adulthood and beyond on fracture occurrence is limited. We investigated diet and hip fracture incidence in a population of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Subjects/Methods: 29 122 volunteers (10 538 men, 18 584 women) aged 60 years and above (mean age: 64.3) from five countries were followed up for a median of 8 years and 275 incident hip fractures (222 women and 53 men) were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary questionnaires. Data were analyzed through Cox proportional-hazards regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: No food group or nutrient was significantly associated with hip fracture occurrence. There were suggestive inverse associations, however, with vegetable consumption (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.01), fish consumption (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.02) and polyunsaturated lipid intake (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.02), whereas saturated lipid intake was positively associated with hip fracture risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99-1.29). Consumption of dairy products did not appear to influence the risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.93-1.12). Conclusions: In a prospective study of the elderly, diet, including consumption of dairy products, alcohol and vitamin D, did not appear to play a major role in hip fracture incidence. There is however, weak and statistically non-significant evidence that vegetable and fish consumption and intake of polyunsaturated lipids may have a beneficial, whereas saturated lipid intake a detrimental effect.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20948558
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  • 5
    Keywords: BLOOD ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; DESIGN ; MEMBRANE ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; fatty acids ; DIET ; DIETARY ; CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; nutrition ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; asthma ; SERUM ; FATTY-ACID ; ADULT ; ADULTS ; RE ; immunoglobulin ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; allergic sensitisation ; INTERVAL ; allergic rhinitis ; ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID ; ATOPIC DISEASES ; dietary intake ; FISH-OIL ; IGE ; n-3 fatty acids ; red blood cell (RBC) membrane ; sensitisation ; SYMPTOMS
    Abstract: Objective: Due to inconsistent results based on dietary intake data, unsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) membranes and diet were used to investigate their association with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting: Bavarian Nutrition Survey II ( 2002 - 03), Germany. Subjects: A total of 568 adult participants, 325 women and 243 men. Methods: By means of logistic regression models, the relation of fatty acids to (i) allergic sensitisation as defined by means of specific serum immunoglobulin E analysis (CAPSX1 class 〉= 2), and ( ii) self-reported allergic rhinitis was examined. Results: A high cell membrane level of eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA, 20: 5 n-3) was inversely associated with allergic sensitisation, the adjusted odds ratio ( OR) and 95% confidence interval ( 95% CI) were 0.52 (0.30 - 0.90) for the highest ( vs lowest) quartile. A similar effect was observed for allergic rhinitis with an OR ( 95% CI) of 0.50 (0.24 - 1.03; P = 0.027 for trend). A higher dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid ( ALA, 18: 3 n-3) was associated with a decreased risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis with ORs ( 95% CIs) of 0.51 (0.28 - 0.93) and 0.43 (0.20 - 0.93), respectively, in the highest quartiles. No other dietary or cell membrane unsaturated fatty acid was significantly associated with the outcome variables, nor was the n-6/n-3 ratio. The strongest effects were observed among subjects under the age of 40 y. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study among adults, a high content of n-3 fatty acids in RBC membranes ( EPA) or in the diet ( ALA) is associated with a decreased risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16015268
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; DIETARY ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; EPIC PROJECT ; VITAMIN-C ; VITAMINS ; dietary intake ; STANDARDIZATION ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; water-soluble vitamins
    Abstract: Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. Conclusions: This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888270
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; BREAST-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; Mediterranean diet ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; RECALL ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; dietary patterns ; VITAMIN-C ; RECALLS ; energy intake ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; WEIGHT-GAIN ; PROCESSED FOODS ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; EPIC-soft ; nutrient intakes ; industrial foods ; MAJOR DIETARY PATTERNS ; nutrient patterns ; PALEOLITHIC NUTRITION ; standardisation
    Abstract: Objectives: To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35-74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g/day) were computed according to their degree of food processing (that is, highly, moderately and non-processed foods) using a specifically designed classification system. The contribution (%) of highly processed foods to the centre mean intakes of diet and 26 nutrients (including energy) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database (ENDB). The effect of different possible confounders was also investigated. Results: Highly processed foods were an important source of the nutrients considered, contributing between 61% (Spain) and 78-79% (the Netherlands and Germany) of mean energy intakes. Only two nutrients, beta-carotene (34-46%) and vitamin C (28-36%), had a contribution from highly processed foods below 50% in Nordic countries, in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, whereas for the other nutrients, the contribution varied from 50 to 91% (excluding alcohol). In southern countries (Greece, Spain, Italy and France), the overall contribution of highly processed foods to nutrient intakes was lower and consisted largely of staple or basic foods (for example, bread, pasta/rice, milk, vegetable oils), whereas highly processed foods such as crisp bread, breakfast cereals, margarine and other commercial foods contributed more in Nordic and central European centres. Conclusions: Highly industrially processed foods dominate diets and nutrient patterns in Nordic and central European countries. The greater variations observed within southern countries may reflect both a larger contribution of non/moderately processed staple foods along with a move from traditional to more industrialized dietary patterns.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888275
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; prevention ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; nutrient intake ; RECALL ; METAANALYSIS ; SURVIVORS ; VITAMINS ; RECALLS ; 24-h dietary recall ; COLLECTION ; Dietary Supplements ; BENEFIT ; minerals ; nutrient intakes ; ADVERSE EVENTS ; ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTS ; MULTIVITAMIN ; NORWEGIAN WOMEN
    Abstract: Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Specific questions on dietary supplement use were asked as a part of single 24-h recalls performed on 36 034 men and women aged 35-74 years from 1995 to 2000. Results: Between countries, the mean percentage of dietary supplement use varied almost 10-fold among women and even more among men. There was a clear north-south gradient in use, with a higher consumption in northern countries. The lowest crude mean percentage of use was found in Greece (2.0% among men, 6.7% among women), and the highest was in Denmark (51.0% among men, 65.8% among women). Use was higher in women than in men. Vitamins, minerals or combinations of them were the predominant types of supplements reported, but there were striking differences between countries. Conclusions: This study indicates that there are wide variations in supplement use in Europe, which may affect individual and population nutrient intakes. The results underline the need to monitor consumption of dietary supplements in Europe, as well as to evaluate the risks and benefits.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888276
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