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  • Rat  (758)
  • Neurologie
  • Theoretische Physik
  • Messtechnik
  • Strömungsmechanik
  • Springer  (734)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (29)
  • Oxford University Press
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
  • 1995-1999  (763)
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (734)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (29)
  • Oxford University Press
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Years
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Benzene ; Benzene metabolites ; Diabetes ; Cytochrome P-450 ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant primarily metabolized by a cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) isoenzyme, CYP-450 IIE1. A consistent induction of CYP450 IIE1 has been observed in both rat and human affected by diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes determines modifications in the metabolic pathways of benzene in rat. Benzene (100 mg/kg per day, dissolved in corn oil) was administered i.p. once a day for 5 days. Urine samples were collected every day in STZ-treated and normoglycaemic animals, treated and untreated with benzene (n = 10). Urinary levels of trans,trans-muconic acid and of phenol, catechol and hydroquinone (free and conjugated with sulphuryl and glucuronic group) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In normoglycaemic rats during the 5 days of treatment with benzene we observed a progressive and significant decrement in the urinary excretion of phenol, phenyl sulphate and glucuronide, catechol, catechol glucuronide, hydroquinone, hydroquinone glucuronide and t,t-muconic acid (P 〈 0.05). In the diabetic animals, conversely, the same metabolites showed progressively increasing urinary levels (P 〈 0.05). Catechol sulphate and hydroquinone sulphate levels were below the instrument's detection limit. In the comparison between diabetic and normoglycaemic benzene treated rats, the inter-group difference was significant (P 〈 0.05) from day 3 of treatment for t,t-muconic acid, and from day 1 for free and conjugated phenol, free and glucuronide catechol and free hydroquinone. In the normoglycaemic rat exposed to benzene the decreasing trend observed in urinary excretion of free and conjugated metabolites may be due to their capability to reduce cytochromial activity. Conversely, in the diabetic rat, urinary levels of benzene metabolites tended to increase progressively, probably due to the consistent induction of CYP-450 IIE1 observed in diabetes, which would overwhelm the inhibition of this isoenzyme caused by phenolic metabolites. Furthermore, the metabolic switch towards detoxification metabolites observed after administration of high doses of benzene is not allowed in the diabetic because of reduced glutathione-S-transferase activity. As a consequence, higher levels of hydroquinone, phenol and catechol, considered the actual metabolites responsibles for benzene toxicity, will accumulate in the diabetic rat. Extrapolating these data to human, we may thus suggest that occupational exposure to benzene of a diabetic subject poses a higher risk level, as his metabolism tends to produce and accumulate higher levels of reactive benzene catabolites.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Coherence ; Entorhinal cortex ; Cortex ; Hippocampus ; Amygdala ; 192 IgG-saporin ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Changes in brain electrical activity in response to cholinergic agonists, antagonists, or excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain may not be reflective entirely of changes in cholinergic tone, in so far as these interventions also involve noncholinergic neurons. We examined electrocortical activity in rats following bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporin (1.8 µg/ventricle), a selective cholinergic immunotoxin directed to the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75. The immunotoxin resulted in extensive loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in neocortex (80%–84%) and hippocampus (93%), with relative sparing of entorhinal-piriform cortex (42%) and amygdala (28%). Electrocortical activity demonstrated modest increases in 1- to 4-Hz power, decreases in 20- to 44-Hz power, and decreases in 4- to 8-Hz intra- and interhemispheric coherence. Rhythmic slow activity (RSA) occurred robustly in toxin-treated animals during voluntary movement and in response to physostigmine, with no significant differences seen in power and peak frequency in comparison with controls. Physostigmine significantly increased intrahemispheric coherence in lesioned and intact animals, with minor increases seen in interhemispheric coherence. Our study suggests that: (1) electrocortical changes in response to selective cholinergic deafferentation are more modest than those previously reported following excitotoxic lesions; (2) changes in cholinergic tone affect primarily brain electrical transmission within, in contrast to between hemispheres; and (3) a substantial cholinergic reserve remains following administration of 192 IgG-saporin, despite dramatic losses of ChAT in cortex and hippocampus. Persistence of a cholinergically modulated RSA suggests that such activity may be mediated through cholinergic neurons which, because they lack the p75 receptor, remain unaffected by the immunotoxin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words GABA ; Bromodeoxyuridine ; Proliferation ; Immunohistochemistry ; Retina ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The birthdates of GABAergic amacrine cells in the rat retina were investigated by immunocytochemistry using anti-GABA and anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) antisera. The ratio of co-localization of GABA to BrdU increased gradually from embryonic-day 13 (E13) and showed a peak value on E18 in the central retina and on E20 in the periphery. After birth, until postnatal-day 3 (P3), a few co-localized cells were observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL). However, in the peripheral retina, co-localized cells were observed in the INL and ganglion cell layer until P5. Our results suggest that the birthdates of GABA-immunoreactive cells vary, depending on cell-type and that there is a temporal lag in the GABA-immunoreactive cell production in the peripheral retina relative to the central retina.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Spatial function ; Water maze ; Procedural learning ; Cerebellum ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recently, we demonstrated the prevalent role of cerebellar networks in the acquisition of the procedural components of spatial information by testing hemicerebellectomized (HCbed) rats in a classical spatial task, the Morris water maze (MWM). As procedures used in the water maze are a mixture of different components (that is, general procedures, exploration procedures, direct reaching procedures), for optimally solving a spatial task all procedural components must be opportunely managed. Thus, severely impaired procedural learning of cerebellar origin can be better comprehended by fractionating the procedural facets. To this aim, a two-step water-maze paradigm was employed. Normal rats were first trained to search for a hidden platform moved to a different position in each trial, utilizing a water maze setting in which visual cues were abolished by heavy black curtains surrounding the tank. In this paradigm, normal animals solved the task by using general and exploration procedures, but they could not use direct reaching skills. A subgroup of these pretrained animals was then HCbed and, after recovery from cerebellar lesion, was tested in a water maze with normal environmental cues available, a paradigm in which normal animals develop abilities for reaching the target with very direct trajectories. Pretrained HCbed animals, however, did not display the typical spatial deficits of naive HCbed rats, persisted in exhibiting the scanning strategy learned during pretraining, and never displayed direct reaching skills. In conclusion, cerebellar networks appear to be involved in the acquisition of all procedural facets necessary for shifting behavior within the maze until direct reaching of the platform. The lack of flexibility in changing exploration strategies displayed by pretrained HCbed rats is interpreted by taking into account the well-known cerebellar frontal interplay sculpting a specific cerebellar role in the acquisition of spatial procedural steps.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Tooth pulp ; Phrenic nerve ; Electrical stimulation ; C1 spinal neuron ; Digastric electromyogram ; Somatic receptive field ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Effects of electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral tooth pulp (TP) on C1 spinal neurons were determined in 33 anesthetized rats. One hundred and seven neurons responded to TP stimulation. In 10 rats, the activity of 18 C1 spinal neurons and the amplitude of a digastric electromyogram (dEMG, n=10) increased proportionally during the TP stimulation at an intensity of 1–3 times the threshold for jaw-opening reflex (JOR). Excitatory receptive somatic fields were examined in 61 neurons. Somatic field locations of many neurons (67.2%) involved the ipsilateral face, neck, and jaw. The activity of 45 neurons was increased by both noxious pinch and brushing hair. Of the 107 C1 spinal neurons responding to TP stimulation, 55 were tested to determine the effects of electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral phrenic nerve (PN) above the heart. Twenty-eight of 55 neurons tested were excited; no change in activity was seen for the remaining 27 neurons. The activity of six neurons increased as the intensity of PN stimulation was increased. Excitatory receptive somatic fields were determined in 28 neurons, and somatic field locations of 17 neurons (60.7%) included the ipsilateral face, neck, and jaw. Both noxious pinch and brushing hair excited all 28 neurons. These results suggest that there may be the convergence of face, neck, jaw, TP, and PN afferents on the same C1 spinal neurons in the rat.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Spinal cord ; Wide-dynamic-range neurons ; Tail formalin ; Sciatic afferences ; Thermal stimulation ; Facilitation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A recent model of formalin injection in the tail induced a facilitation of the hindpaw withdrawal reflexes. In the present work we tried, after injecting formalin into the tail of the albino rat, to determine the spontaneous activity and response changes of lumbar sciatic wide-dynamic-range neurons to thermal stimulations of the paw at 45°C and 48°C (the respective thresholds for noxious and non-noxious thermal stimuli). The experiments were carried out with multiple recording electrodes placed in a comb array in the lumbar segments of the spinal cord at L4–L6 level in the sciatic projection field. A significant facilitation of the spontaneous activity was already evident 2 min after injection; at 5 min there were strong facilitations to the thermal stimuli. Stimuli at 45°C, often ineffective prior to the formalin injection, became strongly excitatory. Stimuli at 48°C evoked more conspicuous responses. This facilitatory effect on spontaneous and thermal responses followed a time-course comparable to that described for the excitations seen after paw formalin injection, but the duration was more prolonged, lasting more than 2 h. These data indicate a facilitatory role of the formalin effects on spinal sciatic neurons after injection in the tail. It is proposed that the mutual effects of spinal neurons in distant spinal segments could explain the facilitation and such a time-course, and that a role in the development of prolonged pain could be envisaged.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Acetylcholine ; Brain slices ; Cerebral cortex ; Long-term depression ; Rat ; Synaptic plasticity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The ability of layer I activation to facilitate the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in layer II/III horizontal connections of motor cortex (MI) was examined in rat brain slice preparations. Field potentials evoked in layer I and layer II/III horizontal pathways were recorded from radially aligned MI sites. While theta burst stimulation (TBS) of layer II/III pathways alone failed to induce LTP, simultaneous TBS of layer I and layer II/III inputs on alternate sides of the recording electrodes induced LTP in the layer II/III input in 8 out of 13 slices (mean change +20±6%; N=13). In the same cases, the layer I connections showed mixed effects: LTP in three cases, LTD in five cases, and no modification in five slices. Despite the facilitatory effect of layer I activation on layer II/III LTP induction, we found that the critical circuitry for this effect was outside layer I. Cutting the layer I fibers selectively in the slice did not prevent layer II/III LTP induction, while cuts preserving only layer I blocked layer II/III LTP after conjoint I+II/III TBS. Cholinergic fibers were evaluated as candidates for the facilitatory effect because they branch widely in both layers and they are thought to participate in synaptic modification. The cholinergic contribution to layer II/III LTP facilitation was investigated using bath application of muscarinic antagonists. Muscarinic blockade prevented facilitation of layer II/III LTP by layer I coactivation. Instead, conjoint stimulation in 10 µM atropine produced long-term depression (LTD) of layer II/III (–18±9%; N=11) as well as of layer I (–21±6%; N=11) horizontal responses. These results indicate that connections formed within layer I are ineffective in promoting LTP in the deeper-lying horizontal connections; the critical route by which layer I stimulation influenced LTP induction required the circuitry in the deeper layers, particularly the cholinergic system. Thus, it appears that diffuse cholinergic afferents provide an additional route to regulate activity-dependent synaptic modificaton in horizontal cortical connections.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Motor unit ; Contraction ; Stimulation pattern ; Rat ; Medial gastrocnemius
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The effects of irregularity in the pattern of stimulation on the tension produced by motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. The effects of decreasing as well as increasing the interpulse intervals were observed for each motor unit in tetani fused to different degrees. For each motor-unit type, it was found that the effects of these changes depended on the extent of tetanic fusion. Decreasing the interpulse interval produced an increase in tension during the tetanus: the more fused the profile of tetanus, the smaller the tension increase. Increasing the interpulse interval resulted in a decrease in tetanic tension. This effect was most prominent when the tetanic fusion index was approximately 0.75. This phenomenon resulted from the prolongation in relaxation when tetanic fusion increased, thereby preventing a decrease in tension when the interpulse interval increased. We also investigated the effects of introducing a short interpulse interval (”doublet”) at the beginning of the stimulation. The doublets produced increased tetanic tension with a more fused profile. However, the doublet enhanced the sensitivity of the tetanus to increases in interpulse interval and decreased its sensitivity to decreases in interpulse intervals. Slow-twitch motor units appeared to be significantly less sensitive to both increases and decreases in interpulse interval than fast-twitch units. This suggests that slow-twitch units are better suited for producing long-lasting contractions with a constant tension level. Conversely, the high sensibility of fast-twitch units to changes in stimulation frequency enhances their participation in regulation of tension of the muscular contraction.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Thyroid hormone ; RT-PCR ; p75 receptor ; trkA ; trkB ; trkC ; Septum ; Hippocampus ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Early postnatal application of thyroid hormones to rats results in morphological changes of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic and the hippocampal mossy fiber systems. Modulation in the expression of either neurotrophins and/or their receptors is postulated to be involved in these effects. In a recent study, we showed that, after thyroxine application, the mRNA expression of neurotrophins of the nerve-growth-factor (NGF) family is significantly upregulated both in septum and hippocampus. To test whether the neurotrophin receptors (the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75 and the specific high-affinity receptors trkA, trkB, and trkC) were also affected by hormone administration, newborn rats were treated daily with subcutaneous injections of thyroxine until postnatal day 12 (P12) at latest. Control animals received corresponding injections of saline. The pups were sacrificed at defined intervals from P9 to P14. The septal areas and the hippocampi were analyzed using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for quantification of p75, trkA, trkB, and trkC mRNA levels. Analysis of variance over the total investigation period revealed no significant general increases of the gene expressions of either neurotrophin receptor, neither in the septum nor in the hippocampus, although previous results have shown marked changes in neurotrophin levels. On particular postnatal days, significant upregulation could be observed in hippocampus for trkB and trkC. From these and recent data, we conclude that modulation of neurotrophin expression rather than neurotrophin-receptor expression contributes to the morphological modifications within the hippocampal mossy fiber system and the septo-hippocampal cholinergic system.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Focal cerebral ischemia ; Photothrombosis ; Reperfusion ; Spontaneous recanalization ; Cerebral blood flow ; Edema ; Penumbra ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In clinical thromboembolic stroke, spontaneous late recanalization is a common feature, but one which has been very sparsely studied experimentally. This study aimed at enabling the study of spontaneous reperfusion and exploring its consequences by modifying a recently developed photothrombotic-stroke model that focuses on the region-at-risk located within an ischemic ring-locus. The exposed crania of male Wistar rats (280–340 g) were subjected to a ring-shaped (5.0 mm outer diameter and 0.35 mm thick) laser-irradiation beam (514.5 nm; 0.89 W/cm2) for 2 min simultaneously with intravenous erythrosin B (17 mg/kg) infusion for 30 s. Transcardial carbon-black perfusion experiments revealed a ring-shaped cortical perfusion deficit at 4 h post-irradiation, which progressively increased at 10, 24, and 48 h, at which time the whole region-at-risk was pale with single distal branches of the middle cerebral artery being extensively narrowed, but not occluded. At 72 h, spontaneous reperfusion was observed in the region-at risk, which was even more pronounced at 7 and 28 days. Cortical cerebral blood flow (cCBF), measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, was distinctly reduced at 2 min post-irradiation and further decreased slightly during 4 h of recording to ca. 24% of baseline values at the ring locus and 40% in the region-at-risk. In the region-at-risk, cCBF flow values were 23–30% of the baseline at 24–48 h post-irradiation, followed by a relative cCBF increase to 71 and 77% at 72 and 96 h post-irradiation. Brain water content in the ischemic part of the cortex increased steadily from 4 to 48 h post-irradiation; at 72 h, it leveled off and returned to control values at 7 days. In conclusion, by employing a laser beam in the shape of a thin ring, critically sustained cCBF reduction was followed by late, consistent spontaneous reperfusion in the region-at-risk in this novel photochemically induced stroke-in-evolution model.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Class II MHC sequence ; Rat ; Cloning ; RT-PCR ; Polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Protein lateral mobility ; Plasma membrane of brain cells ; Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching ; Concanavalin-A-receptors ; Concanavalin-A-fluorescein conjugate ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A new method has been developed for ex vivo preparation of brain cortical cells of BN/BiRijHsd rats to make them suitable for the measurement of the lateral diffusion coefficient of the membrane components by means of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The method involves chopping the brain cortex into pieces of less than 1 mm. These parts are stained with a fluorescent label (e.g., concanavalin-A-fluorescein, Con-A-FL conjugate) and then gently pressed onto a microscope slide using the coverslip. In the resulting specimen, the largest cells of the cortex can be recognized in phase-contrast image, sufficiently stained by the label and ready for the FRAP measurement. The lateral diffusion coefficient of Con-A-receptor proteins (D p) was measured in such brain cell preparations of 15 female rats in four age groups (5.6–31.8 months) and 11 males in three age groups (13.8–31.8 months). Highly significant negative, linear age correlation of D p (R=−0.9958 in females, and −0.9956 in males) were found, the regression equations being D p,=(8.8311–0.1425 X)−10 and D p█=(9.3240−0.1630 X)−10 cm2/s, respectively, where X is age in months. The data confirm that the lateral mobility of plasma membrane proteins represents an important biomarker of cellular aging in the brain cortical cells of BN/BiRijHsd rats.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Suprathreshold heat pain ; Adapting temperature ; Temporal parameters ; Spinal dorsal horn neuron ; Descending control ; Rat ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The influence of stimulus temperature rise rate (2.5ºC/s, 5.0ºC/s, and 10.0ºC/s), adapting (baseline) temperature (25ºC, 30ºC, and 35ºC), and duration of peak stimulus temperature (1.0 s, 2.5 s, 5.0 s, and 10.0 s) on responses evoked by noxious heat stimuli of suprathreshold intensity was studied in wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. The spinal neuronal responses were compared with human psychophysical data obtained using the same stimuli. Noxious heat stimuli with a peak temperature of 54ºC were applied with a contact thermostimulator to the glabrous skin of the hindfoot in rats or to the palmar skin in humans. With the highest ramp rate and the highest adapting temperature, the sensory and spinal neuronal response latencies were decreased more than expected on the basis of the change in physical parameters of the stimulus. The magnitudes of sensory and spinal neuronal response were independent of the stimulus ramp rate, whereas pain magnitude estimates and spinal neuronal impulse counts evoked by the same peak stimulus temperature were increased with an increase in the adapting stimulus temperature. The onset latencies of pain reactions and spinal neuronal responses were independent of the peak stimulus duration, whereas the latency of the maximum discharge in spinal neurons increased with prolongation of the peak stimulus. The sensory magnitude estimate of pain and the neuronal impulse count were increased with increase in stimulus duration. Following spinalization, the spinal neuronal responses were stronger and the stimulus duration-dependent increase in the impulse count developed faster. Moreover, the peak frequency of spinal neuronal response increased significantly with prolongation of the heat stimuli after spinalization, but not in animals with an intact spinal cord. The results indicate that stimulus rise rate, stimulus duration, and the adapting temperature are important factors in determining the sensory and spinal neuronal responses to high-intensity heat stimuli. The changes in the total impulse counts evoked by varying supraliminal heat stimuli in spinal dorsal horn WDR neurons corresponded well with the changes in pain magnitude estimates in humans. Also, the changes in spinal neuronal response onset latencies were accompanied by corresponding changes in onset latencies of human pain reactions but not with pain magnitude estimates. The effect of spinalization indicated that descending pathways control not only the response magnitude in the spinal dorsal horn WDR neurons but also the temporal characteristics of the spinal neuronal response.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Striatal dopamine depletion ; Rat ; Locomotion ; Ground reaction forces ; Gait ; Unilateral ; Kinetic ; Centre of mass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Hemi-parkinsonian rats have preserved postural reflexes but are impaired in initiation of voluntary movements. Surprisingly, these rats can walk and run, suggesting that they can access some compensatory strategy to overcome the rigidity in their impaired limbs. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the locomotor compensations made by hemi-parkinsonian rats by measuring the forces exerted by the limbs on the ground throughout the stride during trotting. Rats with unilateral dopamine depletion produced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nigrostriatal bundle were trained to run back and forth in an alley for food reinforcement. Ground reaction forces were measured in three orthogonal directions using a force plate embedded in the runway. Rats were also videotaped so that limb movements were synchronized with force recordings. Although locomotion was obviously impaired, the affected limbs could support weight and provide some braking forces. In addition, the impaired hindlimb provided significant propulsive force, and a relatively large laterally directed force. Analysis of vertical movement of the centre of mass suggested that the impaired hindlimb was being used partly as a spring. The most significant abnormalities were seen during the diagonal couplet of the impaired forelimb and the unimpaired hindlimb, partly reflecting the important compensatory role of the unimpaired hindlimb. These results demonstrate that this method is useful in the analysis of hemi-parkinsonian gait and provide insights as to how rats can use an impaired limb to produce weight support and propulsion.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Opioids ; µ-Receptors ; κ-Receptors ; Aversion ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We studied the effects of morphine injected either systemically or into the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) or nucleus accumbens (NA) using conventional and ethological analyses of behavior of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze test with transparent walls. Intraperitoneal morphine (0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg) increased both standard and ethological measures, expressing general exploratory activity such as total arm entries, end-exploration, scanning, head-dipping, and rearing. Morphine 10 (7.6 µg/µl) and 30 nmol (23 µg/µl) injected into nucleus accumbens produced similar effects, which were blocked by i.p. naltrexone (2.0 mg/kg), an opioid antagonist with good affinity for µ-opioid receptors. Morphine injected into the DPAG produced either antiaversive (10 nmol) or aversive effects (30 nmol), which respectively reduced and increased entries and time spent in the open arms and behaviors associated with risk assessment (peeping out, stretched attend postures, and flat back approach). The proaversive effects were inhibited by i.p. norbinaltorphimine (2.0 mg/kg), a selective inhibitor for κ-opioid receptors. These findings support the contention that at least some of the motivational effects of morphine may be due to activation of opioid mechanisms in nucleus accumbens, and DPAG has neural substrates for antiaversive and aversive effects of morphine. Moreover, on the basis of previous and present data obtained in this laboratory, it is suggested that stimulation of µ-opioid receptors inhibits and stimulation of κ-receptors activates the neural substrate of aversion in the DPAG. On the other hand, the increase in exploratory behavior due to interaction of morphine with µ-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens may be due to the stimulation of the interface between neural substrates of motivation and motor output in this structure.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Learning and memory ; Electrical stimulation ; Parafascicular thalamic nucleus ; Two-way active avoidance ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  To evaluate whether electrical stimulation of the parafascicular nucleus (PF) can improve short-term (24 h) and/or long-term (21 days) retention of two-way active avoidance, rats were implanted with an electrode at this nucleus (experimental groups) or above it (control groups). After a single 30-trial acquisition session, experimental groups were submitted to a 10-min session of electrical stimulation. Results showed that the simple implantation of an electrode at the posterior PF enhanced by itself the acquisition of two-way active avoidance, in such a way that the subsequent stimulation of this region may have been unable to further improve the performance of the rats. On the other hand, parafascicular stimulation improved the 24-h retention of the task in a site-specific way, since this effect was mainly seen after stimulation of the central PF region. The facilitative effect on 24-h retention could also depend on the level of performance achieved during the acquisition session, because this improvement was only evidenced in poorly learning animals. No effects were found on 21-day retention. The present results confirm the involvement of the PF in learning and memory and the functional heterogeneity of this nucleus.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Medullary thyroid carcinoma ; Basement membrane ; Laminin ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from C cells, which secrete calcitonin (CT), their specific marker. C cells are located in contact with the basement membrane (BM) of the thyroid follicles, which is partly made up of the laminin-2 isoform synthesized by thyrocytes. During oncogenesis, proliferation of the C cells, invading the centre of the follicles, leads to a break in their normal contact with the BM. As specific interactions of cells with BM components, especially laminins, are important for proliferation and differentiation, we investigated the relationships of normal and neoplastic C cells with laminin in the Wag/Rij rat model of human MTC. Immunocytochemical studies showed a progressive loss of the laminin layer underlying the hyperplastic C cell nodules around the large dedifferentiated tumours. The α2, β1 and γ1 chains of the laminin-2 isoform were synthesized and secreted by rat MTC 6–23 cell cultures and the tumours induced by subcutaneous injection of these cells. In situ hybridization combined with anti-CT immunocytochemistry showed a low expression of α2 mRNA on differentiated C cells and thyrocytes, but an overexpression on immunonegative spontaneous MTC and induced intrathyroid tumours. The high level of α2 gene expression, together with tumour dedifferentiation, suggests a relationship with malignancy.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Key words Xenotransplantation ; 15-deoxyspergualin ; Guinea pig ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG), tacrolimus (FK 506) and cyclosporin A (CyA), alone or in combination, on delayed xenograft rejection (DXR). We used the guinea-pig-to-C6-deficient (C6–)-PVG-rat heart transplantation model, since in this strain combination, hyperacute rejection is avoided. In C6- control rats, the guinea pig xenografts survived for 39.2 ± 6.3 h (mean ± SD). Splenectomy alone resulted in a xenograft survival of 71.8 ± 7.8 h, but the addition of CyA or FK 506 did not further improve graft survival (73.6 ± 3.0 h and 72.0 ± 17.6 h, respectively). In contrast, DSG treatment increased graft survival to a mean of 99.8 ± 9.2 h. When CyA or FK 506 was combined with DSG, no additional effects were observed (105 ± 24.3 h and 95.1 ± 5.6 h, respectively). DSG alone or in combination with FK 506 or CyA resulted in a significant reduction in the serum IgM levels and reduced the deposits of IgM and IgG in rejected grafts. However, all xenografts were still heavily infiltrated by ED1 + macrophages, regardless of the treatment used. Thus, DSG treatment resulted in moderate prolongation of xenograft survival in C6– rats. The effect seems to be related to suppression of xenoreactive antibody production. To prolong xenograft survival further, strategies that inhibit macrophage infiltration seem required.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Hydrocephalus model ; Kaolin ; Micro-balloon ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We used three types of specialized micro-balloons 0.7–1.35 mm in outer diameter instead of kaolin to develop a reproducible rat model of hydrocephalus with a low experimental mortality. The micro-balloon was inserted 6 mm deep into the cisterna magna via a burr hole immediately behind the lambda. The angle of introduction was 50°. We also set up kaolin-induced hydrocephalic models in 25 rats as controls. The kaolin model revealed 52% mortality with an 80% induction rate of hydrocephalus, while the balloon model showed 9% mortality with a 60% induction rate. Balloon-induced hydrocephalus was maximal at 1 week and tended to decrease after 2–3 weeks. The pathological findings were not different between the two models. We concluded that the micro-balloon model for hydrocephalus is an easily reproducible model with low experimental mortality.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Key words Cadmium ; Diabetes ; VEP ; TBARS ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fifty-two healthy male Swiss albino rats, aged three months, were used in this study. They were divided into four groups: control (c), diabetic (D), cadmium (Cd), and diabetic + Cd (D+Cd). A diabetic condition was induced in D and D + Cd groups by administration of alloxane (5 mg/100 g). After this treatment, Cd and D + Cd groups were injected intraperitoneally with CdCl2 (2 mg/kg week). At the end of the 2-month experimental period, flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) of the four groups were recorded with disk electrodes attached with electrode paste 0.5 cm in front of and behind the bregma. The mean latencies off the P1, N1, P2, N2 and P3 components were significantly prolonged in the diabetic group compared with the control group. The mean latencies of P3 in the D + Cd group and of P1 and P3 in the Cd group were longer than those of the control group. P2N2 amplitude of Cd and D + Cd groups were significantly increased compared with the control group. On the other hand, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were determined as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Our data showed that Cd treatment and diabetic condition caused a significant increase of lipid peroxidation in kidney, brain, retina and lens.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Pyruvate kinase isoenzymes ; N-Nitrosomorpholine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The expression of the pyruvate kinase (PK) isoenzymes L and M2 was analysed in the livers of rats treated with the hepatocarcinogenic agent N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) in the drinking water. In control animals L-PK expression was restricted to liver parenchymal cells, whereas M2-PK was detected in bile duct epithelial, blood vessel wall, endothelial and Kupffer cells. In rats treated with NNM proliferating oval cells were consistently L-PK negative and M2-PK positive, while the ductal cells of cholangiofibroses were clearly L-PK positive and coexpressed M2-PK. However, no morphological differentiation of ductal cells into hepatocyte-like cells was observed. In the clear and acidophilic cell foci storing glycogen in excess strong staining for L-PK was observed. In glycogen-poor foci induced by NNM a shift from L-PK to M2-PK expression takes place.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Receptor cell ; Axon ; Vomeronasal organ ; Regeneration ; Rat ; HRP-WGA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium (vomeronasal neurons) regenerate following experimentally induced degeneration. Transection of the vomeronasal nerves leads to retrograde degeneration of vomeronasal neurons followed by replacement of the cell population. The projection of the axons of regenerated vomeronasal neurons was examined by horseradish peroxidase(HRP) histochemistry and electron microscopy. HRP-wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was placed on the surface of the vomeronasal organ of the rat. Dense distribution of HRP-labeled fibers was observed in the vomeronasal nerve and glomerular layers in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the intact rat. At one week after transection, HRP-labeled fibers were not found in the AOB, and no labeled fibers could be observed on the medial surface of the olfactory bulb where the vomeronasal nerve traversed. Three weeks after transection, labeled fiber bundles were observed on the medial surface of the olfactory bulb in all animals. No labeled fibers were detected in the AOB. From 12 to 32 weeks after transection, projection of HRP-labeled fibers was identified in the AOB in 8 out of 26 rats (the incidence of projection was 30%). But the number of projection fibers on the operated side was much smaller than on the control side. Electron microscopy confirmed that the HRP-labeled terminals make synaptic contacts with neurons in the AOB.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Morphogenesis ; Histochemistry ; Lectins ; Carbohydrates ; Salivary glands ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The developmental expression of salivary glycoconjugates was investigated in the rat submandibular and sublingual glands by conventional and lectin histochemistry. By the time of the first differentiation of secretory structures, in spite of similar morphological features, a different histochemical reactivity was detected, accounting for a relevant content of neutral glycoconjugates in the submandibular gland and the occurrence of both neutral and acidic glycoconjugates in the sublingual one. The use of lectins allowed the main changes of secretory components to be noted around gestational day 18. DBA and WGA lectins seemed to act as pre- and post-natal development markers while Con A lectin was indicative of post-natal differentiation. Taken together, data from lectin histochemistry indicated the transitional occurrence of glycoconjugates, probably involved in temporally restricted functions, as well as the co-existence of different secretory components that might also reflect maturational changes of single products.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Clomethiazole ; Rat ; Spinal cord-injury ; Neuroprotection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clomethiazole (CMZ) has a neuroprotective effect in experimental focal and global forebrain ischemia. This neuroprotective effect may depend on its ability to enhance GABA receptor activity. We have studied the effect of pretreatment with CMZ on motor function recovery and nerve cell damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats were randomized and 30 min before SCI they received a single intraperitoneal dose of CMZ (150 mg/kg) or saline. The spinal cord was injured with a 50 g (4.5 g/mm2) load, applied over the exposed dura, through a curved rectangular plate (2.2 × 5.0 mm) for 5 min at T8–9. The animals became paraplegic 1 day after injury. The rats were evaluated for recovery of hind limb motor function. All animals recovered to some extent over the observation period of 12 weeks. However, hind limb motor function was significantly better in the animals pretreated with CMZ. At 12 weeks the rats were killed and perfused/fixed for morphological investigations. Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining was used to stain neurons and dendrites and Luxol-fast blue to stain myelinated tracts of the white matter. The injured segment of the spinal cord showed severe atrophy, distortion, cavitation and necrosis of grey and white matter. Compared to uninjured controls the transverse sectional area was reduced to 32.7 ± 4% in untreated animals but only to 38.5% ± 4.1 in CMZ-treated animals. MAP2 staining showed that, compared to uninjured controls, grey matter was reduced to 7.4 ± 2.7% in saline-treated injured animals and to 22.7 ± 5.4% in CMZ-treated rats. Our results thus show that in this model CMZ improves hind limb motor function and attenuates the morphological damage to the spinal cord.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Development ; Internal capsule ; Nucleus basalis ; Rat ; Thalamus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This study defines several features of the early connections of the developmentally transient perireticular thalamic nucleus of rats. The neocortex of developing rats was injected with either DiI, biotinylated dextran, WGA-HRP (wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated-horseradish peroxidase), fluorescent latex beads or cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) and their brains were processed for tracer detection with standard methods. In general, tracer injections into various regions of the developing neocortex revealed no labelled neurones within the perireticular nucleus, although some of these tracers (WGA-HRP, dextran) labelled many of the amoeboid microglial cells that are found within this nucleus. There were, however, many retrogradely labelled neurones in a region adjacent to the perireticular nucleus, within the nucleus basalis of the basal forebrain (medial edge of globus pallidus). Their identity was confirmed as neurones of the nucleus basalis since they were all were similar in morphology and somal size to neurones that were immunoreactive to NGFr (nerve growth factor receptor), an antigen found only among neurones of the nucleus basalis and basal forebrain. Moreover, double labelling experiments revealed that most, if not all, of the cortically labelled neurones were NGFr-immunoreactive also. Thus, in conclusion, our results suggest that the perireticular nucleus does not project to the neocortex; the only neurones in the general vicinity of the perireticular nucleus that have a cortical projection form part of the nucleus basalis.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Coronary vasculogenesis ; Angiogenesis ; Coronary artery ; Development ; Rat ; Embryonic heart
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The aim of this work was to address spatiotemporal and morphologic patterns of coronary artery development in rats, based on immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of hearts at different stages of prenatal development. Griffonia simplicifolia I lectin and α-smooth muscle antibody were used to demonstrate endothelial cells and/or their precursors and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Ultrastructural examination was performed on ED14–16 hearts to study the morphology of the developing coronary arteries in different regions of the truncus arteriosus and adjacent myocardium. On ED14 endothelial-like cells present within the mesenchyme surrounding the outflow tract penetrated the aortic wall and the truncoconal proximal myocardium. On ED15 these penetrating cells formed vascular clusters, which were the first signs of presumptive vascular channels. Development of the coronary artery proceeded by coalescence of discontinous vascular clusters, formation of the lumen (vascular channels) and establishing a connection of the proximal part with the aorta. The second layer of cells around vascular channels (embryonic media) consisted of mesenchymal cells that were attracted to the immature vessel and were first seen on ED15. At this time no lumenized connection of the coronary artery with the aorta has been seen. After the lumenized connection of the coronary artery with the aorta had been established perivascular cells of the media started to differentiate into vascular smooth muscle, as was shown by α-smooth muscle actin-staining. Further development and differentiation of the media and adventitia proceeded distally (towards the apex).
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Sulphadimidine ; Fermented sausage ; Carbon-14-labelling ; Rat ; Bound residues
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Sulphadimidine (SDM), a drug frequently administered to pigs, is partially converted into other compounds by processing meat to produce raw, fermented sausage. With the aid of 14C-labelled SDM, evidence was obtained that part of the radioactive matter was covalently bound to the matrix. Part of these bound residues could be released in vitro by 4 M HCl at 21  °C or by 0.024 M HCl at 37  °C. Female rats were also able to release bound SDM residues and to excrete these in their urine, in amounts approaching those obtained by treatment with 4 M HCl. Both the parent compound and its main metabolite, N 4-acetyl-SDM, were observed in the urine of rats.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Anaesthesist 48 (1999), S. 630-638 
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Intrakranielle Druckmessung ; Messgenauigkeit ; Intrakranielle Drucksonden ; Messtechnik ; Compliance ; Key words ICP monitoring ; Measurement accuracy ; ICP probes ; Compliance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Goal: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has a key role within the neuromonitoring, although ICP does not monitor processes of the central neuron directly and only with delay. One of the important factors in ICP monitoring is measurement accuracy. For a better understanding of ICP probes and their differences, the function and principles of intracranial pressure transducers should be evaluated from a technical point of view. Method: The principles of ICP measurement were analyzed and compared. Practical applications of these principles were examined and examples of different ICP probes were discussed regarding their mode of pressure transformation. The technical advances of ICP monitoring were analyzed. Results: Since LUNDBERG, a variety of different types of transducers has been developed. Ventricular ICP monitoring has been supplemented by extradural and intraparenchymatous probes. An increasing miniaturization of the transducers has emerged. Additionally, fiberoptic systems have been developed. Latest developments include multifunctional ICP probes. So far, the main problem of most types of transducers consists in the inability to assess measurement accuracy of a probe during the period of patient monitoring. Conclusion: ICP probes should be tested better for correct function by the manufacturer prior to sale. External controls of the measurement accuracy should be performed more frequently to ensure constant quality. Future ICP transducers have still to be more cost- effective.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fragestellung: Die Messung des intrakraniellen Drucks hat eine Schlüsselstellung innerhalb des Neuromonitorings erhalten, obwohl durch den Hirndruck die eigentlichen metabolischen Prozesse am zentralen Neuron nicht direkt und auch nur zeitlich verzögert registriert werden können. Voraussetzung für eine zuverlässige Hirndruckmessung sind spezifische Eigenschaften von Hirndrucksonden, die im folgenden untersucht werden sollen. Diese sollen dabei aus messtechnischer Sicht analysiert und kategorisiert werden, um ein besseres Verständnis für deren unterschiedliche Funktionsweise und Messeigenschaften zu erhalten. Methodik: Es werden die verschiedenen Messprinzipien, die bislang zur Anwendung kamen, dargelegt. Es wird aufgezeigt, wie diese Prinzipien praktisch genutzt werden. Probleme der Messgenauigkeit werden aus messtechnischer und klinischer Sicht erörtert. Ergebnisse: Es wurden seit Lundberg eine Vielzahl verschiedener Transducertypen entwickelt. Die ventrikuläre Hirndruckmessung wurde ergänzt durch epidurale und intraparenchymatöse Sonden. Eine zunehmende Miniaturisierung der Transducer und eine Verbesserung der Messtechnik hat eingesetzt. Zusätzlich wurden fiberoptische Systeme entwickelt. Neueste Entwicklungen zielen auf Multifunktionssonden ab, die zusätzlich zum intrakraniellen Druck auch die Hirntemperatur und weitere Parameter gleichzeitig messen können. Hauptproblem vieler der bisherigen Sonden ist das Fehlen einer direkten Kontrolle des Messverhaltens während des klinischen Einsatzes. Schlussfolgerungen: Sonden sollten vor Gebrauch vom Hersteller noch besser auf Funktionsfähigkeit überprüft und entsprechend ausgewiesen werden. Externe Kontrollen zur Überprüfung des Messverhaltens von intrakraniellen Drucksonden sollten zusätzlich verstärkt durchgeführt werden, um die Qualitätssicherung zu verbessern. Zukünftige intrakranielle Drucksonden müssen noch kostengünstiger werden.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Cat ; Rat ; Immunocytochemistry ; NADPH-diaphorase ; Thalamus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  To gain insight into the cellular organisation of the zona incerta, we have examined the chemoarchitectonic properties of this ”uncertain zone”. The brains of Sprague-Dawley rats and common cats were processed for immunocytochemistry or NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry using standard methods. For the immunocytochemistry, antibodies to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), parvalbumin, calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, somatostatin, serotonin and glutamate were used. Two general patterns of distribution in the zona incerta were seen. First, labelled cells were restricted largely to one of the cytoarchitectonically defined sectors of the zona incerta. For instance, GABA, GAD and parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were found principally within the ventral sector, NADPH-diaphorase and glutamate-immunoreactive cells within the dorsal sector and tyrosine hydroxylase- and somatostatin-immunoreactive cells within the rostral sector. Second, labelled cells were scattered somewhat across all incertal sectors, with no clear region of concentration. This pattern included the calbindin- and serotonin-immunoreactive cell groups. These results indicate that the zona incerta is made up of many neurochemically distinct cell groups, some of which respect the well-defined cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the nucleus, whilst others do not. This rich neurochemical diversity in the zona incerta suggests that this nucleus may have differential effects on the different structures that it projects to.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Nonbacterial prostatitis ; Animal model ; Partial urethral obstruction ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pathogenesis of nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) is not understood mainly due to the lack of appropriate experimental models. We developed a new experimental model of NBP by inducing a partial obstruction of the urethra (PUO) in the rat. Male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks were used. PUO was produced by a nylon ligature on the urethra over a rubber tube. The tube was slipped out after the ligature had been tied. Two rats were examined histologically 6 h, 1 day, 3 days and 7 days after PUO. In another group, two rats were killed at 1, 3 and 7 days after the release of the PUO that had been left in place for 3 days. On day 3, another eight rats with PUO and eight control rats had 2 ml of urine in the bladder replaced by the same volume of lucifer yellow (LY; 10 μg/ml, MW 500), microperoxidase (MP; 20 μg/ml, MW 1900), horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 10 μg/ml, MW 40 000), or saline as control, respectively. Lymphocytic infiltration and interstitial edema were noted in the prostate following PUO, being most prominent on day 3. After the release of the PUO, these inflammatory changes gradually disappeared. Only LY was noted within the prostatic stroma of the rats 2 h after bladder instillation. Intraprostatic urinary reflux may be an etiologic factor in NBP. The present study showed that lower urinary tract obstruction caused NBP in the rat. Penetration of prostatic tissue by low-molecular-weight substances in the urine may trigger NBP.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Urinary bladder ; Enterocystoplasty ; Cecocystoplasty ; Innervation ; Nerve growth ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Incorporation of bowel into the bladder (enterocystoplasty) has been widely used to increase bladder capacity. It has been reported by others that the response of smooth muscle from the cystoplastic segment of the intestine shifts from that of the intestine (relaxation to α-agonists and ATP) to that of the bladder (contraction to α-agonists and ATP). This suggests a functional integration of the intestinal muscle into the bladder; the mechanisms are unknown. The aims of the present study were (1) to elucidate if there are signs of bladder nerves sprouting across the anastomosis into the intestinal segment, and (2) to study what happens with the intrinsic innervation of the intestinal segment. As a model, we used cecocystoplasty in rats. The bladder was opened and a patch of cecum with intact vascular supply was anastomosed to the bladder. After two to 11 months the rats were sacrificed and the bladders mounted as wholemounts and stained for acetylcholinesterase-containing nerves, or embedded in paraffin for histology. A pronounced degeneration of the myenteric plexus was found in the cecal segments. In some areas, this had proceeded to the extent that the ganglia were isolated ovoid lumps of cells with no apparent connection to other ganglia. Areas lacking ganglia and nerve trunks but still with muscle could be found in all specimens. Abundant axon bundles were demonstrated sprouting from the cut bladder nerves close to the anastomosis. The bundles spread out in a fan-like pattern or were organized as fewer thicker nerves. There were many nerve bundles entering the cecal segment where they branched and the diameter decreased till they no longer became visible. Some nerves reached surviving lumps of myenteric ganglion cells. The results show that the bladder nerves sprout into the anastomosed cecal segment. It is reasonable to assume that these nerves are responsible for the changes in receptor pharmacological properties of the cecal smooth muscle towards that of bladder muscle.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Ureter ; Histology ; Polyuria ; Diabetes mellitus ; Nephrectomy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of increased functional load on the macroscopical and histological appearance of the ureter was investigated. Sixty rats were divided into five groups: (1) sucrose-fed rats with non-osmotic polyuria; (2) diabetic rats with osmotic polyuria; (3) uninephrectomized rats; (4) sham-operated control rats; and (5) control rats. The 24-hour urinary volume was measured on days 7, 14 and 21. Growth of the kidney, ureter and bladder was investigated and the histological appearance of the ureter was further evaluated. Diabetic and sucrose-fed rats had comparable polyuria with a seven-fold increase in urinary output. The urinary volume for the remaining kidney was doubled in uninephrectomized rats. After 3 weeks, diabetic rats had increased weight of the kidney, ureter and bladder, sucrose-fed rats had increased weight of the bladder, whereas uninephrectomized rats had increased weight of the kidney and ureter. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ureter wall from control rats increased from the proximal to the distal portion. The size of the whole ureter from diabetic rats was dramatically increased, the CSA of the wall of the distal ureter portion being four times that of the controls. The CSA of the ureter wall from sucrose-fed rats was increased only in the distal portion, whereas the ureter from uninephrectomized rats was increased only in the proximal portion. The results demonstrate the importance of differentiating between different portions of the rat ureter when examining histological sections of this organ. Moreover, polyuria per se is shown to induce growth of the bladder and of the adjacent distal part of the ureter, whereas uninephrectomy and diabetes caused growth of the kidney and the upper parts of the ureter, in addition to the growth induced by polyuria.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Ischemia-reperfusion ; Blood flow ; Ischemia ; Prostate ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mechanisms involved in the castration-induced involution of the ventral prostate (VP) are not fully understood. It was recently reported that castration decreases blood flow in the VP in rats and that this occurs before the apoptotic involution of the organ. However, it is unknown whether a decrease in blood flow may trigger apoptosis in the VP, and this was therefore examined in this study. The right iliac artery was clamped for 1 h in adult male rats. After 24 h of reperfusion, the VPs were frozen or fixed. In situ end-labeling (ISEL) was used to identify apoptotic cells, and testosterone repressed prostatic message-2 (TRPM-2) was measured. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry was used to identify proliferating cells. Clamping the right iliac artery reduced blood flow in the right VP to 0.17 of that in the contralateral lobe. This relative ischemia resulted in a threefold increase in the volume density of apoptotic epithelial cells on the treated side, but left cell proliferation unaffected. Testosterone substitution did not change this pattern. This study suggests that a transient period of relative ischemia may induce apoptosis in the rat ventral prostate. This may be of importance for the understanding of castration-induced prostatic involution.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Taste buds ; Cytochalasin D ; Rhodamine-phalloidin ; Confocal laser microscopy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Effects of cytochalasin D on actin filaments in cells encircling taste pores were examined to clarify the functional role of actin filaments in the maintenance of taste pores in rat fungiform papillae, using a confocal laser microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Fluorescence in the taste pore cells was detected as a ring shape produced by actin staining with rhodamine-phalloidin. Treatment of fungiform papillae with cytochalasin D diminished the positive reactions in the taste pore cells and increased the inner diameter of the ring reactions. However, deformation of the taste pores in fungiform papillae was not detected under a scanning electron microscope after treatment with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that the organization of actin filaments encircling the taste pores contributes to regulation of the taste pore’s size in rat fungiform papillae.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated ; horseradish peroxidase ; Neural regeneration ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Regeneration of the mammalian central vestibular system was examined in rat. The lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST) of infant rat was transected unilaterally at the level of C1–3. After a postoperative interval of several weeks, the LVST was examined by injecting an anterograde tracer (wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase) into the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) and a retrograde tracer (Fast Blue) into the lumbar enlargement. More than half of the rats showed successful regeneration, indicating definite plasticity in the mammalian central vestibular system.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1574-4647
    Keywords: Norepinephrine ; Aging ; Free Radicals ; Antioxidants ; Cerebellum ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present review provides an overview of age-related changes in cerebellar β-adrenergic function, associated motor learning, causal agents and possible treatments. Norepinephrine acts as a neuromodulator of Purkinje cell activity. With aging, however, the ability of norepinephrine to modulate Purkinje cell activity and specifically GABAergic inhibition of Purkinje cell activity is decreased. This age-associated deficit in cerebellar noradrenergic function correlates with deficits in acquisition of a motor learning task. Aged rats are delayed in acquiring a motor learning task that requires rats to adjust footfalls in order to cross a runway. The degree of deficit in cerebellar β-adrenergic activity correlated positively with the degree of impairment in task acquisition. One possible causal agent for the β-adrenergic deficit is free radical damage. Hyperoxia, which may generate free radical damage, induces cerebellar β-adrenergic deficits in young rats but diet restriction and treatment with antioxidants can delay or reverse age-related deficits in cerebellar β-adrenergic function in old rats.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Axonal transport ; Purkinje cell ; Organotypic culture ; Microinjection ; Antimitotic drugs ; Cytoskeleton ; Dendritic transport ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Axonal and dendritic transport in single Purkinje neurons of cerebellar slice cultures was quantified as single transport distances. Examination of the cells within a vital tissue was regarded as being an approach to the in situ condition. The Purkinje cells were organotypically integrated in the in vitro tissues and extended long axonal projections connecting synapses to the target neurons. The tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was applied via microinjection to the somata of the Purkinje cells and the injected neurons were incubated thereafter for defined time-intervals. The tracer was transported anterogradely into the neuron processes. The measurements on both the axonal and the dendritic transport of microinjected HRP revealed continuous transportation with increasing times of postincubation. This transport was reduced by the use of microtubule-depolymerizing drugs. The axonal transport of the tracer was either retarded in colchicine-treated cells or continuously reduced for up to 50% in vinblastine-treated neurons. Thus, a correlation of axonal transport to the microtubules was demonstrated. The dendrites were filled with the tracer after 60 min of postincubation. Dendritic transport was reduced by the use of vinblastine, and not significantly by colchicine. The results strongly support the dependence of neuronal transport on microtubules as a component of the cytoskeleton.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Transgenic ; Rat ; EGP-2 ; GA733-2 ; Immunotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EGP-2), also known as 17-1A or Ep-CAM, is a 38-kDa transmembrane antigen, commonly used for targeted immunotherapy of carcinomas. Although strongly expressed by most carcinomas, EGP-2 is also expressed in most simple epithelia. To evaluate treatment-associated effects and side-effects on tumor and normal tissue respectively, we generated an EGP-2-expressing transgenic Wistar rat. To express the cDNA of the EGP-2 in an epithelium-specific manner, the 5′ and 3′ distal flanking regions of the human keratin 18 (K18) gene were used. EGP-2 protein expression was observed in the liver and pancreas, whereas EGP-2 mRNA could also be detected in lung, intestine, stomach and kidney tissues. In this rat, EGP-2-positive tumors can be induced by injecting a rat-derived carcinoma cell line transfected with the GA733-2 cDNA encoding EGP-2. Transgenic rats were used to study specific in vivo localization of an i.v. anti-EGP-2 monoclonal antibody, MOC31, applied i.v. Immunohistochemical analyses showed the specific localization of MOC31 in s.c. induced EGP-2-positive tumors, as well as in the liver. In contrast, in EGP-2-transgenic rats, MOC31 did not bind to EGP-2-negative tumors, the pancreas, or other normal tissues in vivo. In conclusion, an EGP-2-transgenic rat model has been generated that serves as a model to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a variety of anti-EGP-2-based immunotherapeutic modalities.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Anhedonia ; Amphetamine ; Depression ; Progressive ratio ; Psychostimulant ; Rat ; Sucrose solution ; Withdrawal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Numerous studies have shown that withdrawal from sustained high doses of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine or d-amphetamine produces depressive-like symptoms in both rats and humans. The majority of experiments with rodents have assessed the effects of amphetamine withdrawal on reinforcing electrical self-stimulation in different brain regions, but relatively few have examined effects on responding for natural reinforcers. In the present study, two groups of mildly food and water deprived male rats were trained to respond on a lever for a 4% sucrose solution under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. One group was subsequently administered a 4-day regimen of injections of increasing doses of d-amphetamine based on a schedule shown previously to reduce self-stimulation behaviour. Break points were significantly reduced for up to 4 days after the termination of drug administration, suggesting a decreased motivation to obtain the natural reward. A further experiment demonstrated that the identical drug regimen produced no effect upon consumption of the 4% sucrose solution when it was freely available. These results demonstrate that the progressive ratio procedure may be a useful technique for evaluating changes in motivation for natural reinforcing stimuli following withdrawal from psychostimulant drugs.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Methamphetamine ; Dopamine ; Serotonin ; Phentermine ; Fenfluramine ; Drug-discrimination ; Self-administration ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  To analyze the involvement of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release in the stimulus properties of methamphetamine, two amphetamine analogs that selectively release either brain DA (phentermine) or 5-HT (fenfluramine) were tested for their ability to substitute for methamphetamine in rats discriminating methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) from saline. They were subsequently tested for their ability to alter IV methamphetamine (0.06 mg/kg per injection) self-administration in the same species when given as a pretreatment. The DA releaser phentermine, like methamphetamine itself, decreased methamphetamine self-administration (to 70% of baseline responding), but only at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg that fully generalized to the methamphetamine stimulus in the discrimination study. The 5-HT releaser fenfluramine attenuated methamphetamine self-administration to a much larger extent than phentermine (to 37% of baseline responding) at a dose of 1.8 mg/kg that did not generalize to methamphetamine and did not decrease rate of responding in the discrimination study. Tolerance developed to the inhibitory effect of 1.8 mg/kg fenfluramine on methamphetamine self-administration when it was given repeatedly over four consecutive daily sessions. The fenfluramine-induced decrease in methamphetamine self-administration was also attenuated when it was given together with the small 1.0 mg/kg dose of phentermine. These results suggest that DA release plays a dominant role in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. However, stimulation of 5-HT release can strongly modify methamphetamine self-administration.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Ethanol ; Self-administration ; Dopamine ; Acetylcholine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the present study, the reactivity of striatal dopamine and dopamine-sensitive neurons in superfused striatal slices of ethanol-experienced rats was compared to that of ethanol-naive rats, 3 weeks after oral ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition phase (17 days), rats were offered increasing concentrations of ethanol (from 2 to 10%, 24 h per day) on an alternate-day schedule in a free choice with water. Following 2 weeks of unrestricted 10% ethanol consumption, the highest and lowest drinkers (representing about 25% of the upper and lower extremes of the total population) were selected. Preliminary experiments revealed that both groups of rats displayed a profound increase in ethanol consumption and preference 3 weeks after cessation of ethanol self-administration (deprivation effect). This deprivation effect was associated with an increase in electrically evoked release of [3H]dopamine from superfused nucleus accumbens slices, whereas the evoked [3H]dopamine release from caudate putamen slices remained unchanged. In slices of the caudate putamen, but not in nucleus accumbens slices, postsynaptic dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP production was also enhanced. In addition, prior ethanol consumption enhanced the electrically evoked release of [14C]acetylcholine release in both striatal regions. Interestingly, the magnitude of these long-term neuroadaptations correlated with the amount of daily ethanol consumption, i.e. neuronal hyperresponsiveness in the striatum was more profound in the high than in the low ethanol drinkers. These data show for the first time that unrestricted free-choice ethanol consumption in rats is associated with a long-term increase in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. These (and other) neuroadaptations may underlie the enhanced motivation to self-administer ethanol and the maintenance of ethanol consumption long after deprivation.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Nicotine ; Mecamylamine ; Tolerance ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Chronic injections of nicotine in rats produce upregulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. It has been proposed that this upregulation is a reflection of receptor desensitization and is the basis of functional tolerance. Mecamylamine, a non-competitive antagonist that blocks activation of nicotinic receptors, does not prevent upregulation produced by nicotine injections. This suggests that receptor activation is not a prerequisite for nicotine-induced receptor upregulation. Therefore, the present experiments tested whether mecamylamine would also fail to prevent the development of tolerance to nicotine. Six daily pairings of mecamylamine (1 mg/kg SC) with nicotine did block the development of tolerance to nicotine-induced antinociception (0.35 mg/kg) and to the ability of nicotine to suppress milk intake (0.66 mg/kg). In another experiment, six daily injections of mecamylamine, when given alone, did not alter the effects of a subsequent, acute injection of nicotine (0.35 mg/kg) in inducing antinociception in rats. There was no evidence that after six pairings of mecamylamine with nicotine, the cues associated with mecamylamine delivery took on conditioned antagonistic properties. These findings suggest that, unlike the receptor upregulation that results from either continuous or repeated nicotine administration, the tolerance following a short series of intermittent nicotine injections is dependent on receptor activation.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Amphetamine ; Behavioral sensitization ; MK-801 ; NMDA receptor ; State-dependency ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Many laboratories have reported that coadministration of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with psychomotor stimulants prevents the development of behavioral sensitization and therefore concluded that NMDA receptor transmission is necessary for sensitization. According to an alternative ”state-dependency” interpretation, NMDA receptor antagonists do not prevent sensitization. Rather, they become a conditioned stimulus for the sensitized response, i.e., it is only elicited in response to combined administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist and the stimulant. This hypothesis is supported by progressive augmentation of the locomotor response to the drug combination during the induction phase, and expression of sensitization when challenged with the combination but not the stimulant alone. To test this hypothesis, rats were treated during a 6-day induction phase with amphetamine (Amph) alone or in combination with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CGS 19755 (10 mg/kg) or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg). When CGS 19755 was coadministered with Amph, there was no progressive augmentation of response to the drug combination. When challenged with Amph alone, rats did not exhibit the biphasic pattern of locomotor activity characteristic of Amph sensitization. No sensitization of stereotyped behaviors was evident, although the ambulatory response was greater than that exhibited by naive rats. Results with MK-801 were complex, but progressive augmentation of response to the drug combination appeared to in part reflect sensitization to MK-801 and could be dissociated from the ability of MK-801 to prevent the development of sensitization as assessed by response to challenge with Amph alone. Many of these findings are inconsistent with predictions of the ”state-dependency” hypothesis. Moreover, the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to prevent biochemical and electrophysiological correlates of sensitization is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensitization develops in the presence of NMDA receptor blockade but cannot be expressed. Together, these findings suggest that the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to prevent Amph sensitization reflects a requirement for NMDA receptor transmission during its induction.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Antinociception ; Butorphanol ; Relative efficacy ; Opioid ; Rat ; Stimulus intensity ; Tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: A common treatment strategy for the management of severe pain involves the co-administration of multiple opioid analgesics. Due to the increasing popularity of this practice, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the interactions between clinically employed opioids under a wide range of conditions. Objective: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of opioid combinations following acute and chronic administration of the low-efficacy mu-opioid butorphanol, and to determine if the effects of these combinations are modulated by the intensity of the nociceptive stimulus. Methods: In a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure, rats were restrained and the latencies to remove their tails from 50°C (low temperature) and 55°C (high temperature) water were measured following both acute and chronic administration of butorphanol. Opioids possessing both high (etorphine, levorphanol, morphine) and low [dezocine, (–)-pentazocine, nalbuphine] relative efficacy at the mu receptor were examined. Results: Under acute conditions, etorphine, levorphanol, morphine and dezocine increased tail-withdrawal latencies at both low and high temperatures, whereas (–)-pentazocine, nalbuphine and butorphanol increased latencies only at the low temperature. A dose of 30 mg/kg butorphanol increased the effects produced by these opioids at the low temperature, but antagonized the effects of etorphine, levorphanol, morphine and dezocine at the high temperature. During chronic treatment with 30 mg/kg per day butorphanol, tolerance was conferred to the antinociceptive effects of all the opioids examined, with greater degrees of tolerance conferred to those opioids possessing low efficacy at the mu receptor. During butorphanol treatment, etorphine, levorphanol and morphine increased tail-withdrawal latencies at both water temperatures, dezocine increased latencies at only the low temperature, and (–)-pentazocine, nalbuphine and butorphanol failed to increase latencies at either temperature. A dose of 30 mg/kg butorphanol antagonized the antinociceptive effects of etorphine, levorphanol, morphine and dezocine during chronic treatment, and these effects were observed at both water temperatures. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the interactions between butorphanol and other mu opioids vary quantitatively between low and high stimulus intensities, and between acute and chronic conditions. In most instances, however, these interactions can be predicted from the effects of the drugs when administered alone.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words SR141716 ; Hyperphagia ; Rat ; Pre-feed ; Eating ; Appetite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: Central cannabinoid systems have been implicated in appetite regulation by the respective hyperphagic actions of exogenous cannabinoids, such as Δ9-THC, and hypophagic effects of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists. Objective: This study examined whether an endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, could induce overeating, via a specific action at central (CB1) cannabinoid receptors. Methods: Pre-satiated male rats (n=18), received subcutaneous injections of anandamide (0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg) before 3-h, nocturnal food intake tests. In a second series of intake tests (n=8), anandamide injection (1.0 mg/kg) was preceded by injection of the specific CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716 (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg SC). Results: All doses of anandamide induced significant overeating, with 1.0 mg/kg being most potent. Additionally, hyperphagia induced by 1.0 mg/kg anandamide was dose-dependently attenuated by SR141716 pretreatment. Conclusion: This first demonstration of anandamide-induced, CB1-mediated, overeating provides important evidence for the involvement of a central cannabinoid system in the normal control of eating.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words MDMA (3 ; 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) ; Serotonin ; Psychopathology ; Human ; Rat ; Prepulse inhibition ; Habituation ; Schizophrenia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rationale: Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle refers to the reduction in the startle response when the startling stimulus is preceded by a weak prepulse stimulus. This phenomenon provides an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that has been found to be reduced in patients with schizophrenia and rats treated with serotonin agonists or serotonin releasers. Objective: In this study, we compared the effects of a serotonin releaser, MDMA, on prepulse inhibition in laboratory rats and healthy human volunteers. In particular, we investigated whether MDMA disrupts PPI in humans as observed in animal studies. Methods: Rats were tested after placebo and MDMA in a counterbalanced order at an interval of 1 week, with separate groups of rats being used for each dose of MDMA (1.7, 5.4 and 17.0 mg/kg). On each test day, rats were first tested after no injections and retested 2 h later, 10 min after a subcutaneous injection of placebo or MDMA. For the human study, a placebo-controlled within-subject design and double-blind procedures were used. Subjects were examined twice at a 2 to 4 week interval after either placebo or drug administration (order being counterbalanced). On each test day, subjects underwent baseline testing including psychological and PPI measures. Ninety minutes later, subjects received placebo or MDMA (1.7 mg/kg PO) and were retested after 75 min during the peak of behavioral effects of MDMA. Results: As expected, MDMA decreased prepulse inhibition in a dose-related fashion in rats. In contrast, a typical recreational dose of MDMA (1.7 mg/kg, orally) increased prepulse inhibition in subjects experiencing robust psychological effects. Conclusions: This surprising disparity between the effects of the drug in rats and humans may reflect a species-specific difference in the mechanism of action of MDMA or in the behavioral expression of a similar pharmacological effect, or both.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Male sexual behavior ; Sexual impotence ; Plant extracts ; Turnera diffusa ; Pfaffia paniculata ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impotent male rats were treated orally with different amounts of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata fluid extracts (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 ml/kg). While having no effect on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent rats, both plant extracts – singly or in combination – improved the copulatory performance of sexually sluggish/impotent rats. The highest dose of either extract (1 ml/kg) (as well as the combination of 0.5 ml/kg of each extract) increased the percentage of rats achieving ejaculation and significantly reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, post-ejaculatory interval and intercopulatory interval. Neither extract affected locomotor activity. These results seem to support the folk reputation of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata as sexual stimulants.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Nicotinic receptor ; Dorsal hippocampus ; Anxiety ; Phobia ; Elevated plus-maze ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: The elevated plus-maze provides a test situation in which distinctive states of anxiety are elicited on trials 1 and 2 and the dorsal hippocampus has previously been shown to mediate the anxiogenic effects of (–)-nicotine in the social interaction test. Objective: To determine the effects of a wide dose range of (–)-nicotine on trial 1 and 2 in the plus-maze after systemic administration and whether the dorsal hippocampus is a site mediating the anxiogenic effect of nicotine. Methods: (–)-Nicotine (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was injected IP 30 min before testing for 5 min in the plus-maze. Rats receiving dorsal hippocampal infusions received bilateral infusions of 0.5 μl of artificial CSF or (–)-nicotine (0.1, 1, 4 or 8 μg). The needle was left in place for 50 s after injection and testing took place 3 min later. Rats tested on trial 1 were naive to the plus-maze, those tested on trial 2 had received a previous 5-min undrugged exposure to the maze 48 h earlier. Results: Low doses of (–)-nicotine (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, IP) were without effect on either trial, but higher doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, IP) had anxiogenic effects on both trials, as shown by decreases in percentage time spent and percentage entries onto the open arms. Infusion of (–)-nicotine (0.1, 1, 4 and 8 μg) bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus was without effect on trial 1, but 1 μg had an anxiolytic effect on trial 2, shown by an increased percentage time spent on the open arms. Conclusions: The results on both trials in the plus-maze after systemic administration of nicotine add to previous reports from the social interaction test that high doses of nicotine have anxiogenic effects. However, the effects of nicotine in the dorsal hippocampus are different in all three anxiety tests (anxiogenic in social interaction, ineffective on trial 1, anxiolytic on trial 2) showing that nicotinic cholinergic control in this brain region may vary depending on the state and/or type of anxiety generated by the test. The brain region(s) underlying the anxiogenic effects of IP nicotine on both trials in the plus-maze remain to be identified.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Acquisition ; Cocaine ; Heroin ; Rat ; Self-administration ; Sex difference
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: Despite numerous reports that male and female animals differ in behavioral responses to drugs, few studies have investigated sex differences in drug-reinforced behavior. Objectives: Acquisition of IV cocaine and heroin self-administration was compared in 20 female and 22 male Wistar rats. Methods: An autoshaping procedure was used to train rats to press a lever that resulted in either a 0.2 mg/kg infusion of cocaine or a 0.015 mg/kg infusion of heroin under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR 1) schedule. Daily sessions consisted of six 1-h autoshaping components followed by a 6-h self-administration component. During each autoshaping component, a retractable lever briefly (15 s) extended into the test chamber on a random interval schedule with a mean of either 90 s (cocaine groups) or 480 s (heroin groups) and either ten (cocaine groups) or five (heroin groups) computer-automated infusions were delivered each hour. During each 6-h self-administration component, the lever remained extended and each response on the lever resulted in an infusion of either cocaine (0.2 mg/kg) or heroin (0.015 mg/kg). The criterion for acquisition of cocaine self-administration was a mean of at least 100 infusions and the criterion for heroin self-administration was a mean of at least 20 infusions during the self-administration component over five consecutive sessions. Results: Female rats acquired both cocaine and heroin self-administration more rapidly than males. Acquisition of cocaine self-administration occurred in a greater percentage of female rats compared to males. Female rats self-administered more cocaine than males after acquisition criteria had been met. Conclusions: These findings indicate that female rats were more vulnerable than males to the acquisition of cocaine and heroin self-administration under the conditions of the present experiment.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Heroin ; Self-administration ; Dependence ; Naloxone ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: Non-dependent and dependent opiate users appear to be driven by two distinct motivational factors: the primary reinforcing properties of the drug, and the negative reinforcing effects associated with relieving the negative affective component of opiate withdrawal in the dependent state. Objective: To investigate the motivational significance of opioid dependence on heroin self-administration (HSA) in rodents. Methods: Rats were trained to self-administer heroin intravenously (0.06 mg/kg per infusion; FR1), and opiate dependence was induced by subcutaneous implantation of two morphine (75 mg base) pellets.Rats in a non-dependent control group received placebo pellets. Three days after pellet implantation, HSA was resumed in daily 3-h sessions until baseline criteria were met and testing was conducted with subcutaneous injections of vehicle or naloxone (0, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03 mg/kg) 115 min into the session. Results: Morphine-dependent rats significantly increased HSA upon 0.01 mg/kg naloxone treatment, but decreased response rates at 0.03 mg/kg. Placebo pellet-implanted rats increased heroin intake at the 0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg doses. In a second experiment, the HSA session was shortened to 1 h and the training dose reduced to 0.03 mg/kg per infusion in new groups of animals. HSA in placebo pellet-implanted rats was increased only following the highest dose of the antagonist, while dependent rats were still affected by naloxone doses of 0.003–0.03 mg/kg. When subjected to a progressive-ratio schedule (experiment 3), breaking point values in dependent animals were 198% above baseline. Conclusions: The present study supports the hypothesis that dependence-induction by morphine-pellet implant in rats resulted in increased sensitivity to very small naloxone doses, as measured by changes in HSA. Taken together, these data suggest that opiate dependence, as measured by changes in sensitivity to naloxone, is a continuum which can contribute to the motivational state of drug-seeking.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ; ABT-418 ; Methylphenidate ; Basal forebrain ; 192 IgG-saporin ; Sustained attention ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: Loss of telencephalic cholinergic projections has been postulated to contribute significantly to the cognitive decline associated with aging and dementia. Objective: The effects of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-418, a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of the age- and dementia-associated cognitive disorders, were tested in an animal model of the cortical cholinergic deafferentation-induced impairments in sustained attention. Methods: Animals were trained in an operant task designed to test sustained attention performance. A partial loss of cortical cholinergic inputs was produced by infusions of 192 IgG-saporin into the basal forebrain. The effects of the systemic administration of ABT-418 (0.04, 0.13, 0.39 mg/kg) and the psychostimulant methylphenidate (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg) were assessed. Results: Compared with sham-lesioned animals, this lesion resulted in a decrease in the relative number of hits while the relative number of correct rejections remained unaffected. Administration of ABT-418 significantly improved the relative number of hits. Furthermore, this effect of ABT-418 interacted with the effects of the lesion. Unexpectedly, this interaction was based on a significant enhancement of the performance of sham-lesioned animals while no effects were found in 192 IgG-saporin-lesioned animals. Administration of methylphenidate did not affect performance. Conclusions: While these data do not support the hypothesis that administration of ABT-418 attenuates the impairments in attentional performance that result from loss of cortical cholinergic inputs, they support previous notions about this drug’s ability to enhance cognitive processes in intact subjects.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Hippocampus ; Lesion ; Glutamate receptor and release ; Dopamine receptor ; Locomotor activity ; Schizophrenia ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In 6-week and 8-week-old rats (pre- and postpubertally) with neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus with ibotenic acid (IBO), we have studied apomorphine-induced motor activity and glutamate and dopamine D1 and D2 binding sites in the hippocampus, striatum, nc. accumbens and frontal cortex as well as K+-stimulated (3H)-D-aspartate release from hippocampal and frontal cortical slices. Specific glutamate binding was enhanced in the frontal cortex of 8-week-old IBO-treated animals, whereas that in other brain regions remained unchanged. Both D1 and D2 binding sites were downregulated in the striatum without changes in other brain structures. In 6-week-old rats, neither the glutamate nor the dopamine binding sites were altered. The amino acid release from hippocampal and frontal cortical slices of adult IBO treated rats was significantly decreased in comparison to controls, whereas in 6-week-old rats, no significant alterations were detectable. The additionally monitored motor activity was enhanced only in adult IBO-lesioned rats after apomorphine pretreatment. The present data are in agreement with the hypothesis of hyperactive dopamine and hypoactive glutamate systems in schizophrenia and are discussed in the light of schizophrenia-like behavioral changes in rats after postnatal hippocampal IBO lesion.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Cocaethylene ; Cocaine ; Alcohol ; Interaction ; Schedule-controlled responding ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: Cocaethylene is a unique metabolite of cocaine, produced only in the presence of alcohol. This metabolite is pharmacologically, physiologically and behaviorally active. Further, it has been reported to interact pharmacokinetically with both cocaine and alcohol, an interaction that may mediate, in part, the interaction of cocaine and alcohol. Although cocaethylene has been shown to interact with both cocaine and alcohol, behavioral assessments of these interactions are limited. Objectives: To examine directly the behavioral interactions between cocaethylene and cocaine and between cocaethylene and alcohol, the present study assessed the effects produced by these combinations on schedule-controlled responding. Methods: Rats were first administered cumulative doses of cocaethylene, cocaine and alcohol to assess their effects alone on responding. Following this, doses of cocaethylene were combined with cumulative doses of cocaine or alcohol. Additionally, doses of cocaine or alcohol were given in combination with cumulative doses of cocaethylene. Results: When administered alone, cocaethylene, cocaine and alcohol produced dose-related decreases in responding. Further, cocaethylene shifted the dose–response functions for both cocaine and alcohol to the left and down, while cocaine and alcohol shifted the dose–response function for cocaethylene to the left and down. An isobolographic analysis revealed that these interactions were additive in nature. Conclusions: The present study suggests behavioral interactions between cocaethylene and cocaine and between cocaethylene and alcohol. The contribution of cocaethylene to the enhanced effects produced by the co-administration of cocaine and alcohol was discussed.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Nicotine ; Nornicotine ; Behavioral sensitization ; Locomotor activity ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: Nicotine, a tobacco alkaloid, is known to be important in the acquisition and maintenance of tobacco smoking. Nornicotine, an active nicotine metabolite, stimulates nicotinic receptors and may produce psychomotor effects similar to nicotine. Objective: The present study determined the effects of acute and repeated administration of nornicotine on locomotor activity and compared its effects with those of nicotine. Methods: R(+)-Nornicotine (0.3–10 mg/kg), S(–)-nornicotine (0.3–10 mg/kg), S(–)-nicotine (0.1–1 mg/kg) or saline was administered s.c. to rats acutely or repeatedly (eight injections at 48-h intervals). Activity was recorded for 50 min immediately after each injection. Results: S(–)-Nicotine produced transient hypoactivity, followed by dose-related hyperactivity. Repeated S(–)-nicotine administration resulted in tolerance to the hypoactivity and sensitization to the hyperactivity. Subsequent testing following a saline injection revealed evidence of conditioned hyperactivity. Acute administration of 0.3 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg R(+)- or S(–)-nornicotine produced no effect. Transient hypoactivity was observed at 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg R(+)-nornicotine and at 10 mg/kg S(–)-nornicotine. However, rebound hyperactivity was not observed following acute administration of either nornicotine enantiomer, suggesting that nornicotine-induced psychomotor effects differ qualitatively from those of S(–)-nicotine. Repeated R(+)-nornicotine resulted in tolerance to the transient hypoactivity, however hyperactivity was not observed. Repeated S(–)-nornicotine resulted in tolerance to the hypoactivity and the appearance of hyperactivity. Repeated administration of either nornicotine enantiomer resulted in a dose-dependent alteration in response to a 1 mg/kg S(–)-nicotine challenge, suggesting some commonalities in the mechanism of action. Conclusion: Nornicotine likely contributes to the neuropharmacological effects of nicotine and tobacco use.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Delayed non-matching to position task ; Scopolamine ; ENA 713 ; Exelon ; Working memory ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: The disruption of working memory in the delayed non-matching to position (DNMTP) task by the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, is considered to be a model of the spatial working memory deficit in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Objective: To investigate whether ENA 713 (Exelon) (0.1, 0.5 mg/kg, IP), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, would reverse the effects of scopolamine in the DNMTP task. Methods: Male Lister Hooded rats were trained to criterion in an operant DNMTP task (0- to 16-s delay intervals) before receiving vehicle, scopolamine (0.05 mg/kg, SC) alone, ENA 713 (0.1, 0.5 mg/kg, IP) alone, or combinations of scopolamine and ENA 713, in two variations of the task – with and without barriers inserted between the food magazine and the two levers. Barriers were inserted to prevent the use of positional strategies to perform the task, since this behaviour may confound the conclusions of the effect of drugs on working memory. Results: It was found that: (i) scopolamine significantly reduced choice accuracy delay-dependently in both test situations while modifying non-mnemonic measures of task performance delay-independently, indicating an impairment of working memory; (ii) ENA 713 (0.5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of working memory and significantly reduced the scopolamine-induced changes in some non-mnemonic measures of task performance; (iii) the presence of barriers did not alter the effects of scopolamine and ENA 713 on working memory. Conclusion: ENA 713 reversed the working memory deficit induced by scopolamine. These results are consistent with the attenuation of learning and memory disruptions due to cholinergic dysfunction by ENA 713 in other preclinical assays, and predict a drug-induced improvement in working memory in AD patients.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Serotonin ; Sensitization ; Rat ; Dopamine opiate ; Movement disorder
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Rationale: Repeated high doses of morphine in the rat cause stereotypic gnawing behavior that can be re-expressed by a low dose of morphine weeks and even months after the initial treatment. The determination of the role of serotonin in this sensitized morphine-induced behavior has both empirical and theoretical relevance. Objectives: To determine whether the serotonin-reuptake blocker fluoxetine will block the development and/or the expression of this opiate-induced stereotypy. Methods: Rats were given four 10-mg/kg injections of morphine alone or with 5.0 mg/kg fluoxetine over a 36-h period. At weekly intervals for 6 weeks after the last of the sensitizing morphine doses, all rats were challenged with 4.0 mg/kg morphine. At week 2 and week 4, however, the morphine was co-administered with fluoxetine. Results: Fluoxetine completely blocked the expression of the morphine-induced stereotypy; however, when the morphine/fluoxetine-treated rats were challenged with morphine alone, they expressed similar degrees of stereotypy as the rats that initially only received morphine. Conclusions: The results indicate that increasing synaptic serotonin will block the expression but not the development of sensitization to the oral stereotypic effects of repeated high doses of morphine. Also, despite the complete blocking of the morphine effect by fluoxetine during the sensitization phase, the presence of significant biting by these rats during the challenge with morphine alone argues that conditioning factors are not a necessary component for the morphine sensitization to develop.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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