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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (1,716)
  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (485)
  • Engineering General  (189)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (106)
  • Rat  (66)
  • 1970-1974  (2,562)
  • 1973  (2,562)
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  • 1970-1974  (2,562)
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 30 (1973), S. 187-198 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Plasma Iron Level ; Side Effect of Drugs ; Rat ; Amphetamine ; Chlorpromazin ; Haloperidolum ; Guanethidin ; Reserpine ; α-Methyltyrosine. ; Plasmaeisenspiegel ; Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen ; Ratte ; Amphetamin ; Chlorpromazin ; Raloperidol ; Guanethidin ; Reserpin ; α-Methyltyrosin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 4 Std nach einmaliger Gabe von 24 mg/kg d,l-Amphetamin i.p. kommt es bei Ratten zu einem Abfall des Eisens im Plasma um 40 bis 60 %. Die Reaktion ist nicht mit dem amphetaminbedingten Anstieg von Körpertemperatur und Skeletmuskelarbeit zu erklären, da sie durch Vorbehandlung mit α-Methyltyrosin, Chlorpromazin, Haloperidol, Guanethidin und Reserpin nicht unterdrückt werden kann. Jedes der zur Vorbehandlung verwandten Medikamente löst selbst bei entsprechend hoher Dosierung eine Hyposiderämie aus. 4 Std nach einmaliger Gabe von 200 mg/kg α-Methyltyrosin vermindert sich der Eisenspiegel im Plasma um 55 %, nach 10 mg/kg Chlorpromazin um 11 %, nach 5 mg/kg Haloperidol um 28 % und nach 20 mg/kg Guanethidin um 50 %. Dieser Effekt ist am ausgeprägtesten mit einer Plasmaeisenverminderung um 69 % 20 Std nach Gabe von 20 mg/kg Reserpin. Als möglicher Pathomechanismus der arzneimittelbedingten Hyposiderämie wird die Wirkung der untersuchten sämtlich zentralnervös aktiven Medikamente als “non-specific stressfull agents” sowie der durch ihre toxische Konzentration in Gang gesetzte Entgiftungsmechanismus im RES diskutiert.
    Notes: Abstract Four hours following a single dose of 25 mg/kg of d, 1-Amphetamine in rats, a 40 to 60 % drop of plasma iron level occurred. This reaction cannot be explained by the Amphetamine-induced rise in body temperature and motor activity, since when pretreated with α-Methyltyrosine, Chlorpromazin, Haloperidolum, Guanethidin and Reserpin this was not observable. All the drugs applied for pretreatment in adequately high doses also induced hyposideremia. Four hours following a single dose of 200 mg/kg of α-Methyltyrosine, plasma iron level was reduced by 55 %, after 10 mg/kg of Chlorpromazin by 11 %, after 5 mg/kg of Haloperidolum by 28 % and after 20 mg/kg of Guanethidin by 50 %. The most pronounced effect (69 % fall) was obtained by 20 hour pretreatment with 20 mg/kg of Reserpin. As possible pathomechanism of the drug induced hyposideremia the applied drugs may be regarded as “non-specific stressfull agents”, or as another possibility, the detoxifying mechanism in RES induced by toxic concentrations of the applied drugs can be considered as responsible for this phenomena.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Nigro-neostriatal tract ; Rat ; Survival time ; Fink-Heimer method ; Terminal degeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the morphological demonstration of the nigro-neostriatal tract, there might be some discrepancies between the results by the histofluorescence method and by the degeneration silver method. The present investigation was undertaken to fill the gap by using the modified Nauta Method (Fink-Heimer) to rats surviving for varying periods after unilateral destruction of the substantia nigra. With survival time of 2–3 days, the Fink-Heimer method could demonstrate evenly and densely distributed argyrophilic spheroidal granules in the ipsilateral caudate putamen. These degenerating granules might represent the terminal degeneration of the nigro-neostriatal tract and probably correspond to the result by the histofluorescence method. From 4 days on the terminal degeneration rapidly decreased in amounts or disappeared, leaving a moderate number of beaded coarse fibers, which remained till 2 weeks. The result indicates the possibilities that the degeneration silver method could also be applicable to the demonstration of amine fibers by choosing staining condition and survival time optimal to each animal species and fiber tract.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Past and slow principal cells ; Recurrent inhibition ; Lateral geniculate body ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In urethane-anesthetized albino rats studies were made on mass potentials and/or unit activities of the lateral geniculate body (LGB) in response to single shock stimulation of optic tract (OT) and visual cortex (VC). The previous finding that LGB mass responses to stimulation of the optic nerve comprise at least two postsynaptic waves (r1 and r2) with different peak times was confirmed by OT stimulation. It was found that the r1 wave had a lower threshold and a more rapid recovery process than the r2 wave. Unit responses of principal (P) cells to maximal OT stimulation consisted of short-latency, single spikes (initial spike, IS), followed by long-latency, grouped discharges (late discharge, LD) repeated more than twice (LD1, LDr2 and so forth). Spontaneous discharges were almost completely suppressed after IS and each LD, suggesting that following these evoked discharges P cells underwent a phase of depressed excitability. The latency histogram of IS based upon 212 P cells had two peaks well-corresponding in time to the peaks of the r1 and r2 waves of the mass response, respectively. P cells were divided into the fast and slow groups according to whether their ISs occurred earlier or later than the trough separating the r1 and r2 waves. Typically, the fast cells had lower thresholds than the slow cells. The duration of the post-excitatory depression following IS and LD1 were shorter in the fast cells than in the slow cells. This same was found true with regard to the duration of depressed excitability following the antidromic firing. Examining the response patterns to OT stimulation of weak intensities, one characteristic difference between the two groups of P cells was found; the fast cells showed the IS without the succeeding LDs whereas the slow cells showed the LDs without the preceding IS. A discussion was made on functional significance of the differentiation of P cells into two types.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Rat ; Lateral vestibular nucleus ; Giant cells ; Gap junctions ; Electrotonic coupling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Correlation of morphological and electrophysiological data strongly suggest that in rat, the giant cells of the lateral vestibular nucleus (L.V.N.) are electrotonically coupled. 1. in addition to “active zones” large terminals synapsing on the perikaryon and/or the main dendritic trunk of the cells bear “gap” junctions which are interpreted as low electrical resistance pathways between neurons. 2. electrical activity of the giant cells was recorded intracellularly as the vestibulo-spinal tract was stimulated. Graded antidromic stimulation produced graded antidromic depolarizations (G.A.Ds) in 69% of cells with high threshold axons. 3. the latency of the G.A.Ds was too short to allow for chemical transmission through afferents or recurrent collaterals. 4. collision experiments demonstrated that directly evoked spikes blocked the antidromic spikes but did not block the G.A.Ds which thus were accounted for by activation of cells others than the impaled ones. 5. lesion experiments indicated that afferent fibers from the spinal cord terminate exclusively in the dorsal part of the L.V.N. Since G.A.Ds were recorded all throughout the nucleus, they were not excitatory post synaptic potentials (EPSPs) from spinal afferents. 6. when the strength of the spinal cord stimulation was increased EPSPs were also generated but they were distinct from the G.A.Ds by their latencies, time course and maximum amplitude. 7. since no direct contact is observed between neurons it is inferred that, as in other documented cases, coupling between giant cells is mediated by way of presynaptic fibers.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Neuroglia ; Radio-autography ; Myelination ; Optic tract ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Une étude, basée sur l'identification et la quantification histologique des cellules névrogliques, a été entreprise dans le tractus optique du Rat sur radio-autographies après injection de thymidine tritiée. Ce bilan a été effectué entre 2 jours et demi et 20 jours après la naissance. D'un point de vue qualitatif, trois catégories cellulaires peuvent être distinguées: les oligodendrocytes, euxmêmes subdivisés en trois classes (grands, moyens, petits), les astrocytes et d'autres varieties cellulaires parmi lesquelles la microglie. D'un point de vue quantitatif, les oligodendrocytes, en particulier les petits, sont largement majoritaires. En effet, sur toute la période examinée les oligodendrocytes représentent près de 81% de la population totale. Sur le plan radio-autographique, l'index de marquage prédomine dans la classe des moyens oligodendrocytes. Ces résultats sont discutés, notamment par rapport aux processus de myélinisation dont les phénomènes de gliose constituent le préambule direct.
    Notes: Summary A study based on the histological identification and quantifying of the neuroglia cells, was carried out in the optic tract of the Rat on radioautographs after injection of tritiated thymidine. The assessment was made two and a half days and twenty days after birth. Qualitatively speaking, three cellular categories can be distinguished: the oligodendrocytes, themselves divided into three sorts (big, medium., small) the astrocytes and other cellular varieties including the microglia. Quantitatively speaking the oligodendrocytes, in particular the small ones, are decidedly more numerous. In fact, over the whole period under consideration the oligodendrocytes represent nearly 81% of the total population. From the point of view of the radio-autography the labeling index predominates in the medium oligodendrocyte group. These results are discussed with reference in particular to the myelination process which is preceded directly by the phenomena of gliosis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Growth retardation ; Hypothalamus ; Dorsomedial lesions ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Weanling rats received bilateral electrolytic lesions destroying the areas of the ventromedial (VMN) and dorsomedial (DMN) hypothalamic nuclei, respectively. Trunk blood was collected at sacrifice (Experiment 1 and 2∶ 31 days, Experiment 3∶ 14 days) for the determination of plasma growth hormone (GH) by radioimmunoassay. Rats with DMN lesions showed consistently normal to slightly elevated plasma GH levels while animals with VMN lesions showed significantly reduced plasma GH levels. Linear growth was reduced by both types of hypothalamic lesions but body weight gains and food intake were reduced only in the DMN lesioned rats. Carcass fat was greatly elevated in VMN lesioned rats, moderately elevated in one experiment in the DMN animals and normal in another experiment. These data confirm a previous hypothesis that growth retardation in DMN rats is not due to low circulating GH level but rather represents a hypocaloric-type dwarfism.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Self-emptying loop ; Mucosal atrophy ; Small intestine ; Luminal nutrition ; Morphology ; Glucose-absorption ; Rat ; Selbstentleerende Blindschlingen des Jejunums ; Schleimhautatrophie ; Topische Ernährung ; Morphologie ; Glucoseresorption ; Ratte
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Um Möglichkeit und Ausmaß der Reversibilität einer Dünndarmschleimhautatrophie zu prüfen, wurden operativ ausgeschaltete, atrophische Jejunalschlingen nach Rückverlegung in die Dünndarmpassage morphologisch und funktionell untersucht. Ergebnisse: 1 Monat nach Rückverlegung hatte sich die Schleimhautatrophie zurückgebildet. Morphometrisch fand sich darüber hinaus eine Hypertrophie aller Wandschichten. Der Schleimhauthypertrophie entsprach eine Steigerung der Glucoseresorption.
    Notes: Summary Self-emptying blind loops of the small intestine in the rat were restored to functioning intestine in order to investigate the reversibility of mucosal atrophy. Results: 1 month after restoration of normal anatomical conditions atrophy was no longer demonstrable. In addition, the morphometric data indicated mucosal hypertrophy and increase in thickness of all layers of the intestinal wall. These changes were associated with a significant increase of glucose-absorption.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: D-penicillamine ; L-cysteine ; Serum proteins ; Rat ; D-Penicillamin ; L-Cystein ; Serumproteine ; Ratte
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In vitro-Untersuchungen zeigten, daß D-Penicillamin durch Serumproteine, in erster Linie durch Albumin, gebunden wird. Aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach ist die Bildung gemischter Disulfide hierfür verantwortlich. Cystin, L-Cystein und andere Thiole sowie N-Äthylmaleinimid hemmen die Proteinbindung von D-Penicillamin. Verabfolgt man Ratten vor Injektion des D-Penicillamins L-Cystein, resultiert eine vorübergehende Erhöhung des Gehalts an freiem D-Penicillamin in Serum und in einigen Geweben, während die Ausscheidung mit dem Urin verzögert wird. Die theoretische und praktische Bedeutung der Befunde wird diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary Studiesin vitro show that D-penicillamine is bound by serum proteins, mainly albumin; the formation of a mixed disulfide is the most likely explanation. Cystine, L-cysteine and other thiols as well as N-ethylmaleinimide were found to inhibit the protein binding of D-penicillamine. Administration of L-cysteine to rats prior to D-penicillamine brings about a transient increase of the amount of free D-penicillamine in serum and in some tissues as well as a delay in its urinary excretion. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cleavage stages ; Egg-cylinder ; Mouse ; Rat ; Hydrolytic enzymes distribution ; Differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The time of appearance and the distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase was investigated in cleavage and early postimplantation stages of mouse and rat embryos. Alkaline and acid phosphatase appeared for the first time in 8-cell embryos. Activity of both enzymes grew progressively stronger to blastocyst stage. Acid phosphatase activity was revealed in the form of fine and coarse granules distributed evenly in the cytoplasm. Alkaline phosphatase was predominantly localized in plasma membranes. There was no difference in intensity of reaction between trophoblastic cells and the inner cell mass. After implantation acid phosphatase was localized in coarse granules in the apical portion of entodermal cells. With the appearance of mesoderm, the cells of embryonal entoderm became flattened and devoid of acid phosphatase activity which was restricted to cells of extraembryonic entoderm. The activity of nonspecific esterase was not detected in preimplantation stages. In postimplantation embryos it roughly corresponded to the activity of acid phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase was localized in cell membranes of ectodermal cells. The mesodermal cells of mouse embryo displayed a somewhat weaker activity than ectodermal cells, while in the rat embryo the same layer remained completely nonreactive. Our findings on the distribution of the enzymes mentioned did not reveal any kind of polarity or bilateral symmetry in preimplantation stages. In postimplantation stages acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase are probably bound to lysosomes and play an important role in embryonic nutrition. The absence of alkaline phosphatase from entodermal cells is somewhat puzzling and suggests that the process of molecular transport in those cells is most probably restricted to endocytosis. Our results suggest that all blastomeres are identical with respect to enzyme distribution and that the first signs of differentiation of enzyme content appear with the formation of germ layers.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat ; Tongue ; Myogenesis ; Neurogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Um die Entwicklung des Bewegungsapparates der Rattenzunge im Verhältnis zu morphogenetischen Vorgängen im Gesichtsbereich, besonders zur Gaumenentwicklung, beurteilen zu können, wurde die Zungenanlage des Rattenembryos ab Tag 13 p.c. bis Tag 6 p.p. lichtmikroskopisch, histochemisch und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. In einem Blastem von embryonalen Mesenchymzellen, Capillaren und Neuritenbündeln differenzieren sich ab Tag 15 p.c. Myoblasten, die miteinander zu mehrkernigen Muskelfasern verschmelzen. In deren Cytoplasma bilden sich an Ribosomenketten Myofilamente, die zu Myofibrillen mit Z-Streifen organisiert werden. Ab Tag 19 p.c. ordnet sich die Querstreifung zu Registern, das Transversolongitudinalsystem lagert sich an. Neuritenbündel legen sich quer zur Längsachse an die Muskelfasern an und ab Tag 17 p.c. finden sich myoneuronale Kontakte. Typische motorische Endplatten wurden bis Tag 6 p.p. nicht gefunden. Zum Zeitpunkt des Gaumenschlusses am Tag 17 p.c. sind geordnete Muskelfasersysteme, primitive myoneuronale Kontakte mit Acetylcholinvesikeln und ein typisches Enzymmuster der Acetylcholinesterase ausgebildet. Damit bestehen vor Schluß des harten Gaumens die strukturellen und enzymatischen Voraussetzungen für eine gerichtete Bewegung der Zunge. Die Hypothese, daß motorische Aktivität zum Gaumenschluß notwendig sei, wird mit Beschreibungen embryonaler Bewegungen, mit der Literatur klinisch-pathologischer Befunde der Gaumenspalte und teratologischen Experimenten verglichen. Danach scheint ein direkter kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen Bewegungen im Kopfbereich und Gaumenschluß nicht vorzuliegen.
    Notes: Summary In order to be able to evaluate the development of the motor system of the rat tongue with respect to the morphogenetic processes in the region of the face, especially palate development, we studied the tongue anlage of the rat embryo from day 13 p.c. to day 6 p.p. histochemically and under the light and electron microscope. From day 15 p.c. onwards myoblasts differentiated out of a blastema consisting of embryonic mesenchymal cells, capillaries and neurite bundles. The myoblasts then fused together to form multinuclear muscle fibres. On the ribosome chains in the cytoplasm myofilaments were formed, which were then organized to myofibrils with Z-lines. From day 19 p.c. onwards the cross-striations came to lie next to each other and the transversolongitudinal system was added. Neurite bundles were added at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the muscle fibres, and from day 17 p.c. myoneural contacts were found. No typical motor endplates were found up to day 6 p.p. At the time of palate closure on day 17 p.c. regular muscle-fibre systems, primitive myoneural contacts with acetylcholine vesicles and a typical acetylcholine-esterase enzyme pattern had been developed. Therefore before closure of the hard palate the structural and enzymatic preconditions existed for a coordinated movement of the tongue. The hypothesis that motor activity is necessary for palate closure is compared with descriptions of embryonic movements, with clinical-pathological results in papers on the cleft palate and with teratogenic experiments. In this respect there does not seem to be any direct causal connection between movements in the head region and palate closure.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Central monoamine neurons ; Ontogeny ; Rat ; Fluorescence histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of all monoamine-containing neuron systems in the rat brain throughout the last seven days of gestation, i.e. from the 15th day to term, crown rump length (CRL) 16 mm to 42 mm, has been followed using the Falck-Hillarp method for fluorescence histochemistry. Serial sagittal, horizontal and transverse sections through whole brains of fetuses from MAO-inhibited mothers have been carefully analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, and drawings of almost all sections depicting specific fluorescence have been collected from 10 of the 16 analyzed brains. Thus, all the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neuron systems have been mapped, both regarding the cell groups, the formation of axon pathways and the development of terminal plexuses in the whole brain prenatally. Together with a previous report (Olson and Seiger, 1972a) the present data have made it possible to determine the common origin of groups A1–A3, A4–A7, A8–A10, B1–B3 and B4–B9, respectively (nomenclature according to Dahlström and Fuxe, 1964). These findings and an estimation of the number of visible fluorescent cells in all monoamine cell complexes throughout the prenatal period of development have been summarized in a flow-chart. In the full-term fetus all monoamine neurons and their axon pathways, except for the hypothalamic cell groups, are very well developed. Thus, the new neuroanatomical data presented, in all probability hold true also for the adult state. A comprehension of the innervation course of neostriatum by DA nerve terminals from the 14th day of gestation to adult hood is given.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 141 (1973), S. 3-37 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: CNS ; Cortical plate ; Neuroblasts ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the cortical plate of the late prenatal rat fetus the neuroblasts can be considered to be of three types: mature neuroblasts which are prominent in the lower levels of the cortical plate and have some of the cytoplasmic and nuclear features of neurons, immature neuroblasts that have recently completed their migrations into the cortical plate, and migrating neuroblasts that are still in the process of moving to their definitive positions. Both of these latter types have darker cytoplasm than the mature neuroblasts. All of the neuroblasts have an apical process that extends directly towards the pial surface of the cortical plate and a basal process that is directed towards the intermediate zone of the developing hemisphere. In Golgi preparations some of these basal processes, particularly those of neuroblasts situated in the lower levels of the cortical plate, seem to have formed axons that pass through the intermediate zone to enter the developing white matter, in which they turn at right angles away from, and rarely toward, the midline. Other elements traversing the cortical plate are the ascending processes of spongioblasts that branch in the molecular layer and form expansions at the surface of the hemisphere. In the molecular layer the spongioblast terminal branches intertwine with the apical tufts of the ascending neuroblast processes and with thin processes that have the features of axons, to form a loose neuropil. In the cortical plate the spongioblast processes are usually closely and preferentially surrounded by the dark migrating neuroblasts and by the immature neuroblasts. Both of these latter may partially encompass spongioblast processes. Hence it is concluded that the spongioblast processes act as guides along which the migrating neuroblasts ascend through the cortical plate.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat ; Columns ; Swirls ; Interneurons ; Projection neurons ; Subdivisions ; Morphology ; Golgi ; Nissl ; Axons ; Dendrites ; Cerebellum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The lateral nucleus in the rat is investigated with several variants of the rapid Golgi method and in Nissl preparations. The neurons are divided into two classes according to their size and the disposition of their axons. The smaller neurons or interneurons have cross sectional areas less than 180 μm2, and short axons that ramify in the vicinity of the cell bodies. Small neurons have also been seen on rare occasions with longer axons that may leave the nucleus. The larger cells (areas greater than 180 μm2) have long axons that leave the nucleus and emit short, beaded, recurrent collaterals. In the rostral and caudal poles of the lateral nucleus, the large projection neurons as well as the small neurons are multipolar with swirled dendritic arborizations. Neurons in the dorsal rim and ventral third of the nucleus have similar dispositions of their dendrites. In the central columnar zone, the projection neurons have dendrites that are arranged in columns directed diagonally across the body of the nucleus in the 4 to 10 o'clock direction in the right lateral nucleus and the 8 to 2 o'clock direction in the left nucleus. A collection of small neurons is generally found in the medial hilus zone. In each part of the lateral nucleus, the neurons are arranged in characteristic ways.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat ; Uterus ; Stroma ; Ultrastructure ; Sex steroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of progesterone and oestrogen on the central uterine stroma has been examined in order to analyze what changes occur when the uterus is hormonally prepared for implantation. Both progesterone and oestrogen, when given separately, cause nucleolar enlargement and growth of the granular endoplasmic reticulum. However, after progesterone treatment the nuclei are large and spherical whereas they are spindle-shaped after oestrogen treatment. When oestrogen is administered to the progesterone-treated rat little change occurs in the stromal morphology. There is little morphological support to the view that oestrogen acts on the stroma to increase endometrial sensitivity. Further, progesterone seems to stimulate the synthesis of RNA and of cellular protein only in the stromal cell while oestrogen has a similar effect in all cell types of the uterus.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Capillaries ; Endothelial cell ; Ontogenesis ; Morphometry ; Cerebral cortex ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Während der postnatalen Entwicklung wurde die Capillarlänge im Einheitsvolumen (CL), die Verzweigungsdichte (N⊥) und die mittlere Länge der Capillarendothelzellen (LE) in der Lamina IV des senso-motorischen Cortex von insgesamt 64 Rattengehirnen bestimmt. Als Capillaren wurden alle Gefäße unter 8 μm Durchmesser akzeptiert. Die CL bestimmten wir in 1–2 μm dicken Epon-Schnitten nach der Methode von Saltikov. Die Verzweigungen wurden durch Tusche-Gelatine-Injektion dargestellt und in Kryostat-Schnitten visuell gezählt. Im Verlauf des postnatalen Capillarwachstums, das die Bildung von Verzweigungen durch Sprossung und die Verlängerung der bestehenden Geäße umfaßt, nimmt die CL von ca. 200 mm auf 1100 mm pro mm3 Gewebe zu. Die Verzweigungszahl im gleichen Volumen steigt von 1200 kurz nach der Geburt auf ein Maximum von 11500 am Tag 20 und fällt dann allmählich auf den adulten Wert von 9500 ab. Am Ende der ersten Woche p.n. bewirkt die intensive Capillarsprossung eine starke Erhöhung der N⊥. Darauf folgt in der zweiten Woche p.n. die schnelle Zunahme der CL. Die Veränderungen der N⊥ laufen parallel mit Veränderungen im oxidativen Metabolismus. Aus dem Verhältnis N⊥ zu CL läßt sich der Vernetzungsgrad der Capillaren, d.h. die Verzweigungszahl pro mm Capillarlänge, berechnen. Dieser erreicht zwischen Tag 10 und 20 p.n. ein Maximum und sinkt danach bis zum erwachsenen Tier wieder beträchtlich ab. 1 Monat p.n. sind das Wachstum und die Reifung der Hirnrinde bei der Ratte weitgehend abgeschlossen. Die Bildung neuer Sprosse hört auf, und das weitere Kapillarwachstum erfolgt weniger durch Zellteilung als vielmehr durch Verlängerung des Endothels. Die Phase der intensiven Capillarsprossung entspricht zeitlich der vulnerablen Periode der Hirnentwicklung (“brain-growth-spurt”, nach Dobbing). Unsere Befunde lassen die Vermutung zu, daß in dieser Periode Störungen der Capillarsprossung indirekt das weitere Hirnwachstum beeinflussen können.
    Notes: Summary The average length of the capillary endothelial cells (L E ), the capillary length (CL) and the number of vascular ramifications (N⊥) per unit volume in layer IV of the sensorymortor cortex from the brains of 64 Sprague Dawley rats were determined during postnatal development. All vessels less than 8 μm in diameter were accepted as capillaries. The CL was calculated according to the method of Saltikov, by counting capillary profiles in 1–2μm Epon sections. The number of ramifications per test volume were counted in 30 μm frozen sections of India-ink injected brains. Capillary growth involves both the formation of ramifications by sprouting, and the elongation of the existing vessels. During the postnatal period CL increases from 200 to 1100 mm per cubic mm tissue, the extent of branching per unit volume rises from 1200 at birth to a peak of 11500 per cubic mm at day 20 after birth, and then declines to 9500 in adults. Intensive capillary sprouting results in a marked increase in N⊥ at the end of the first week, followed by a rapid increase in CL in the second week. The changes in the ramification density run parallel with the changes in aerobic metabolism during postnatal development. The ratio N⊥/CL, i. e. the number of ramifications per mm capillary length, corresponds to the degree of arborization of the capillary net. This value rises to a maximum level between days 10 and 20 after birth and declines until maturity is attained. After 1 month the growth of rat brain is almost accomplished and the cortical structure has attained its adult characteristics. The formation of new ramifications ceases and further capillary growth occurs to a larger extent by elongation of endothelial cells and not by cell division. The phase of extensive capillary sprouting corresponds to the vulnerable period of brain development (called “brain-growth-spurt” by Dobbing). Our findings lead to the assumption that disturbances during the period of capillary proliferation can indirectly influence further brain development
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cerebral ventricles ; Perinatal period ; Subependymal cells ; Rat ; Light and electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Gehirne von 93 Ratten (letzte Embryonalwoche bis zum 30. postnatalen Tag) wurden licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Am Ende der zweiten Embryonalwoche treten im mittleren Teil des III. Ventrikels Zellen auf, deren Cytoplasma sich mit einer Perjodsäure-Bisulfit-Aldehydthionin-Methode blau anfärben läßt. Die blauen Zellen werden nach der Geburt auch an anderen Abschnitten des III. Ventrikels sowie am Aquaedukt und IV. Ventrikel ausschließlich in einer lockeren subependymalen Gliazone gefunden. Zwischen dem 14. und 17. Tag nimmt ihre Zahl ab, um den 22. postnatalen Tag sind die blauen Zellen völlig verschwunden. Gleichzeitig wird die subependymale Auflockerungszone dichter. Elektronenmikroskopisch werden die blauen Zellen als fortsatzreiche Elemente identifiziert, die viele Mitochondrien und unterschiedlich große Vacuolen und Cytosomen enthalten. Die Fortsätze umschließen subependymale Räume, die ein feinflockiges Material enthalten. Die Zellen werden als mikrogliäre Elemente angesehen, ihre Funktion mit dem Verschwinden der subependymalen Auflockerungszone in Verbindung gebracht.
    Notes: Summary The brains of 93 rats (of between the last week of pregnancy up to the 30th postnatal day) were investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. At the end of the second week of pregnancy, subependymal cells, the cytoplasm of which is blue after staining with a periodic-acid-bisulfit-aldehydethionine-method, begin to appear in the middle part of the IIIrd ventricle. After birth, the blue cells can also be demonstrated in other parts of the IIIrd ventricle as well as in the wall of aquaeduct and the IVth ventricle. The cells are exclusively found in a loosely textured subependymal tissue. Between the 14th and the 17th day the number of the blue cells decreases and around the 22nd postnatal day they disappear completely. Simultaneously, the texture of the subependymal tissue becomes more compact. The blue cells can be identified by electron microscopy. They are characterized by the presence of several processes and contain many mitochondria, different sized vacuoles and cytosomes. The cell processes enclose subependymal cavities containing a loose flocculose material. The cells are considered as microglia cells. Their function is considered in relation to the disappearance of the loose texture of the subependymal zone.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Synapses ; Rat ; Interneuron ; Axons ; Perikarya ; Neuroglia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Profiles of large neurons in the lateral nucleus range from 16 μm to 35 μm in diameter with dimpled nuclei, large Nissl bodies, and well developed Golgi apparatus. Two types of perikarya are distinguished, those that are smooth and those with irregular somatic and dendritic protuberances. About 86% of all large neuronal somata are covered with axosomatic synapses, predominantly with terminals of Purkinje axons and a few belonging to axons of the small neurons. The remaining 14% have no axosomatic synapses. The thick, fleshy dendrites of these cells are covered with terminals, the majority of which synapse directly upon the dendritic shaft. A few are present on spines. The initial segment of the large neuron is thick and robust and receives synapses upon its shaft or upon a spinous projection. The small neurons measure less than 12 μm in diameter and have very lobulated nuclei in a sparse cytoplasm characterized by small Nissl bodies and a poorly elaborated Golgi apparatus. About 52% of all small neuronal somata bear no synapses whereas the remaining 48% are covered with axosomatic synapses, mainly from the axons of Purkinje cells and a few axons of other small cells. The slender long dendrites of both large and small cells bear synapses with six classes of axons in the neuropil. Synaptic protuberances of two varieties occur on the surfaces of both perikarya and dendrites, (a) dome-shaped ones capped with a pronounced asymmetrical synaptic junction and (b) ones with thin long necks and bulbous heads having synapses on both parts. Frond-like dendritic excrescences are borne on the processes of some small and large neurons and they are postsynaptic to many axon terminals clustered around them.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 142 (1973), S. 103-115 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Dentinogenesis ; Dentinal globules ; Alkaline phosphatase ; Calcification ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary At the submicroscopic level, extracellular globular membrane-delimited structures have been observed in the matrix in early dentin formation in the rat. Within these “dentinal globules”, needle-like crystallites are found before apatite crystals appear in the filamentous-amorphous ground substance. In sections incubated for alkaline phosphatase, reaction products are closely associated with these globules. The possible role of the globules in initial dentin formation is discussed.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuronal Inclusions ; Cerebrum ; Cholesterol Inhibitor ; Rat ; Electron Microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intraperitoneal injections of a hypocholesterolemic drug, AY9944 produced neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the brain of Wistar strain of rats. The inclusions were numerous and larger in size in the younger age groups but gradually decreased in number and size after 30 days of age. Only a few small inclusions were seen in rats of 35 days of age or older, in spite of continuous injection of the drug. Inclusions gradually decreased in number after discontinuation of the drug in a relatively younger age group. Injection of the drug in adult rats produced only a few small neuronal inclusions. Ultrastructurally, concentrical lamellar structures were the predominant ones in younger age groups but other types of inclusions were seen in older animals and those receiving lesser amounts of the drug or those which were examined after discontinuation of the drug. This observation suggests that morphologically different inclusions can be formed by basically the same treatment if there is any difference in the metabolic activity of the target cell or the amounts of the drug. Biochemical analysis of the sterols revealed a consistently high level of 7-dehydrocholesterol up to 69 days of age, when AY9944 was administered continuously, despite the fact that there was a decrease in the number and size of the abnormal neuronal inclusions.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: S-100 Protein ; Experimental Neurogenic Tumors ; Nitrosourea ; Rat ; Complement Fixation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary S-100 protein, a soluble protein restricted to the nervous system, was measured by complement fixation in 51 neurogenic and non-neurogenic tumors produced by either methylnitrosourea or ethylnitrosourea in three different strains of rats. Nineteen of the 51 neurogenic tumors were neoplasms of the central nervous system (18 of the brain, 1 of the spinal cord). They were diagnosed morphologically as 5 mixed gliomas, 4 anaplastic gliomas, 4 glioependymomas, 1 ependymoma, 3 gliosarcomas, and 2 unclassified tumors. With the exception of one anaplastic glioma and one gliosarcoma, all other central nervous system tumors contained S-100 protein, ranging from 0.005–0.13% of the total 35000 g supernatant protein. S-100 protein was also demonstrated in 21 of the 22 tumors of the peripheral nervous system, originating from the trigeminal nerves, the spinal roots, and from peripheral nerves. The average S-100 protein content of these tumors was 0.2% (range 0.02–1.6%). A possible correlation between S-100 protein content and tumor differentiation must be evaluated. S-100 protein was detected in only one of 10 neoplasms morphologically classified as non-neurogenic (7 sarcomas, 2 carcinomas, and 1 hemangioendothelioma). On the basis of its S-100 protein content, one tumor was reclassified as a neurosarcoma. The sensitivity and the high degree of specificity of the S-100 protein assay makes it a useful biochemical tool for the identification of neurogenic tumors. The presence of S-100 protein must be considered as a definitive indication for neural cell participation in neoplastic growth.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Kinetics ; Growth ; Epiphyses ; Hypophysectomy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La largeur de la métaphyse tibiale, la zone indifférenciée, la zone sériée et les cellules en dégénerescence ont été observées chez des rats Sprague-Dawley normaux et hypophysectomisés. La production cellulaire de la métaphyse est déterminée sur la base de la croissance osseuse longitudinale déterminée par l'oxytétracycline et la taille des cellules en dégénérescence. La diminution de la croissance osseuse longitudinale, en fonction de l'augmentation de l'âge et après hypophysectomie, est due partiellement, à la diminution de production cellulaire et partiellement à une décroissance de la taille des cellules en dégénérescence dans la métaphyse. L'influence de la production cellulaire et de l'activité mitotique prédomine.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Breite der proximalen Wachstumsplatte der Tibia, deren undifferenzierter und säulenförmiger Zone und die Größe der nahe bei der Metaphyse auftretenden degenerativen Zellen wurden in normalen und hypophysektomierten Sprague-Dawley-Ratten bestimmt. Die Zellproduktion in der Wachstumsplatte wurde aus dem longitudinalen Knochenwachstum berechnet, welches mittels Oxytetracyclin und der Größe der degenerativen Zellen bestimmt wurde. Es wurde festgestellt, daß die Abnahme des longitudinalen Knochenwachstums bei zunehmendem Alter und nach Hypophysektomie zum Teil einem Rückgang in der Zellproduktion, zum Teil einer Verminderung der Größe der degenerativen Zellen in der Wachstumsplatte zuzuschreiben ist. Der Einfluß der Zellproduktion, und somit der mitotischen Aktivität, herrscht vor.
    Notes: Abstract The width of the proximal growth plate of the tibia, its undifferentiated and columnar zone and the size of the degenerative cell close to the metaphysis, were determined in normal and hypophysectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The cell production in the growth plate was calculated from the longitudinal bone growth determined with oxytetracycline and the degenerative cell size. It was found that the decrease in longitudinal bone growth with increasing age and after hypophysectomy, is due partly to a decrease in cell production, and partly to a decrease in degenerative cell size in the growth plate. The influence of cell production and thus the mitotic activity predominates.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 220 MHz PMR spectrum of car-3-ene (3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[4,1,0]hept-3-ene) is interpreted and a conformation deduced. In contrast to previous work, which has discussed a highly buckled structure for the 6 membered ring, the present work finds this ring to be essentially planar.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: The PMR spectra of the title 1,3,2-oxazaphospholane derivatives present an ABKLX pattern. The subspectral analysis of such a system shows that there are eight solutions. INDOR experiments permit the establishment of the energy diagram and the selection of the correct solution.
    Notes: Les dérivés de l'oxazaphospholane-1,3,3 du titre donnent des spectres de RMP du type ABKLX. L'analyse sous-spectrale d'un tel système montre qu'on a le choix entre huit solutions. Des expériences d'INDOR permettent d'établir le diagramme d'énergie et de choisir la bonne soultion.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: The empirical calculation of chemical shifts of methyl-1,3-dioxans leads to consistent results. Deviations from the experimental value are correlated with ring deformation. This method is applied to 4 or 6-ethyl, -isopropyl and tertiary butyl-1,3-dioxans. With no substituent at C5, the 4-tertiary butyl group causes no more deformation than at the 2 or 5 position. Interactions of this group with one or two methyl groups at C5 are examined.
    Notes: Le calcul empirique des déplacements chimiques de méthyl dioxannes-1,3 conduit à des résultats cohérents. L'écart avec la valeur expérimentale a pu être corrélé à la déformation du cycle dioxannique. La méthode a été étendue aux substituants éthyle, isopropyle et tertibutyle en position 4 ou 6 sur ce cycle.En l'bsence de substituant en 5, le groupe tertiobutyle n'induit pas plus de déformation du cycle en position 4 qu'en 2 ou 5. Les interactions particulières de ce groupement avec un ou deux méthyles en 5 sont mises en relief.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The out-of-cage CIDNP effects, and kinetics of the out-of-cage reactions between the methyl radicals and the other radicals produced from the donor admixtures have been studied during the thermal decomposition of di-t-butylperoxalate (DTBPO). The DTBPO decomposition proves to be a good source of methyl radicals.The CIDNP effects on the methyl protons and on the nuclei of the other alkyl radicals are determined both by the out-of-cage radical collisions and the kinetics of out-of-cage recombination.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 28 (1973), S. 87-94 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Psychopharmacology ; Intragastric ; Self-Administration ; Benzodiazepines ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A technique for intragastric self-administration in rats is presented. Intravenous self-administration of morphine was compared with intragstric self-administration during 6 consecutive days. There was no difference between the two routes in the total rate of injections. Medazepam was given for intragastric self-administration at three different doses (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/injection respectively) and compared with saline. There was an increased response rate at the dose 10 mg/kg/injection. Medazepam placebo solution (solvent alone) was also compared with medazepam 10 mg/kg/injection. Among the seven experimental rats, six responded higher on medazepam than on the solvent.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Δ 9-THC and Δ 8-THC ; Water Intake ; Food Intake ; Body Weight ; Vocalization ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Water intake was studied in water deprived albino rats at various time intervals after injections of two tetrahydrocannabinols (Δ 9-THC and Δ 8-THC) and solvents. The dose levels used were: 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg of Δ 9-THC and 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg of Δ 8-THC. The results show a clear, dose dependent inhibitory effect on water intake as compared to the controls. Reduced intake of food was seen at 1 day post injection. This effect was, however, significant only for the groups treated with 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg of Δ 8-THC. A decreased body weight was also recorded after the drug treatment, especially with Δ 8-THC. With respect to cannabis-induced vocalization the data suggest an increased possibility of its appearance with increasing dosages of THC.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: δ 1-THC ; Copulation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mating behavior of 15 male rats was measured after treatment with δ 1(2)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and propylene glycol (vehicle). Administration of either 2 mg per kg or 3 mg per kg body weight of THC was followed by significant increases in latency to the first mount, latency to ejaculation, and latency to the first mount following ejaculation. No significant changes were found in the number of intromissions or mounts. The deterioration in sexual performance is interpreted as reflecting a decreased motivation to copulate under the influence of the drug.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 32 (1973), S. 351-358 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Fenfluramine ; FR Responding ; Behavioural Tolerance ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two experiments on the effects of fenfluramine on FR responding are reported. In Experiment 1 two rats were trained on an FR 10 schedule of reinforcement. After more than 30 h training, intraperitoneal injection of saline, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg fenfluramine were given. Disruption of the initial stages of responding was noted after 2 and 4 mg/kg, with complete disruption of responding in 1 animal after 8 mg/kg administration. In Experiment 2, 2 rats trained on an FR 30 schedule of reinforcement received chronic 15 days administration of 4 mg/kg fenfluramine. Disruption of responding was noted after the first administration. The degree of disruption lessened by the fifteenth day of administration.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity for CO ; Cardiac Output ; Oxygen Dissociation Curve ; High Altitude ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In rats born in the low pressure chamber from sea level parents a higher hypoxic steady-state pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO was found as compared with controls of similar body weight. This difference could be explained by a difference in age or by an increase of blood O2 capacity. There was no difference in alveolar ventilation and alveolar-arterial O2 pressure differences, a lower cardiac output, no difference in arterial O2 tension, no difference in arterial O2 content but a decreased mixed-venous O2 content as compared with control rats measured at hypoxia. A shift of the standard blood O2 dissociation curve to the right was found in the simulated high altitude exposed rats. Calculated mixed-venous O2 pressure was not altered in these rats; since arterial O2 pressure was the same no difference in mean tissue capillary O2 pressure may be presumed as compared with control animals. The results suggest that the first generation of rats exposed to simulated high altitude for their whole life is not only less adapted than animals exposed in their youth (as described in previous work) but that the ability to promote the O2 transport in time of need in rats born in the low pressure chamber is probably even inferior to that of the controls.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Myoglobin ; Heart ; High Altitude ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Reynafarje's (1963) spectrophotometric method was modified for the study of myoglobin concentration in rat hearts. The influence of age and body weight was evaluated and the age was found to be better correlated with myoglobin concentration than the weight. The influence of simulated altitude of 3500 m was studied in animals exposed to hypoxia at the age of about 34 days and in animals born in the low pressure chamber. In the first group a higher myoglobin concentration was found but only in the right ventricle, together with unilateral hypertrophy, as compared with control animals. In the group of animals born at simulated altitude a severe cardiomegaly developed which was most pronounced in the right ventricle. The myoglobin concentration in the hearts from this group was unchanged in the right ventricle and was lower in the left ventricle and septum.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Lithium ; Social Isolation ; Spontaneous Activity ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Group-housed rats, injected with an acute dosage of 3 meq/kg lithium chloride, were tested on an activity platform either alone or in pairs 20 min or 3 h after drug administration. Contrary to previous findings, rats administered lithium were less active than those treated with saline after both post-injection periods. However the activity of the saline control animals tested alone after 3 h was considerably less than that exhibited by the same group after 20 min. This activity difference, which could be interpreted as a lithium-social or lithium-time interaction, is more simply explained in terms of the effects of the social isolation occuring between drug administration and testing.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Methamphetamine ; Rat ; Conditioned Aversion ; Saccharin Solution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Holtzman (Sprague-Dawley) rats which were injected in amounts ranging from 0.50–3.0 mg/kg i.p. of methamphetamine avoided a 0.1% saccharin solution which had been paired temporally with the injection, and drank water in a subsequent two-bottle choice situation under non-drug conditions. The aversion persisted for the duration of the experiment, which lasted and obtained whether the animals were fluid-deprived or fluid-satiated. Saline-injected controls, on the other hand, exhibited a 90% saccharin solution preference. Rats which received 0.25 mg/kg contiguous with the drug, or animals given 3.0 mg/kg paired with water, exhibited as extreme a preference for the saccharin solution as did the saline controls. It was concluded that neither a drugmediated taste quality change nor physiological cues associated with thirst were adequate axplanations for the avoidance behavior exhibited, but that the drug was perceived as a noxious stimulus at levels above 0.50 mg/kg under the conditions described above.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Schedule-Controlled Behavior ; Adjunctive Behavior ; Licking ; Drinking ; Methamphetamine ; Chlordiazepoxide ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of methamphetamine (0.03–1.7 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (3.0–30.0 mg/kg) were studied in a situation in which the same motor response, licking a water-filled tube, served as a schedule-controlled and as an adjunctive behavior. Rats responded under a 3-min fixed-interval (FI) schedule of food presentation in which the required response was a lick on the tube (schedule-controlled); licking also occurred following every food presentation (adjunctive). Adjunctive licking occurred at a high, steady rate, but schedule-controlled licking was emitted at a changing rate over time, characteristic of FI schedules. Both drugs had little effect on overall adjunctive licking, except for decreases at the highest doses, but there were changes in the pattern of adjunctive licking. Methamphetamine produced only decreases in schedule-controlled licking, but chlordiazepoxide produced dose-dependent increases. In general, the magnitude of drug effect on local rates of responding within the FI was related to control rates of responding within the same periods, but there were instances in which the magnitude of effect depended also on whether licking was adjunctive or schedule-controlled.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Rearing ; Locomotion ; Exploratory Behaviour ; Psychotropic Drugs ; Anxiolytics ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The “staircase” is a simple and rapid test and was used to study two components of exploratory behaviour in the rat. The scores of rearing and the number of steps climbed during three minutes were recorded. Various psychotropic drugs were tested, which modified these two parameters. Neuroleptic induced a parallel decrease of both, while benzodiazepines, meprobamate, amobarbitone and ethanol decreased the rearing at doses which left the steps climbed unchanged. At high doses, there was a parallel decrease of both parameters. Amphetamine, at lower doses, increased the rearing score alone. The comparison of the studied psychotropic drug effects with those of two muscle relaxants (by a comparison of the slopes of regression lines) suggests that either the observed benzodiazepine effects were only partly due to their myorelaxant action, or, that both myorelaxants have some anxiolytic action. The effect of amphetamine at low doses can be viewed as a demonstration of increased anxiety.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ; Predatory Aggression ; Rat ; Serotonin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits predatory aggression in rats. Increases in the degree of inhibition are obtained with increasing dosages of the drug. Although sex and strain of the subjects varied nonsystematically, inhibition of predatory aggression uniformly was found to be dose related. Readministration of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol did not effect motor activity measures at dose levels which inhibit aggression. Administration of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol increases whole brain serotonin, while norepinepherine is largely unaffected, indicating that the anti-aggressive effect may be mediated, in part, by serotonergic mechanisms.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Locomotor Activity ; α-Methyl-Para-Tyrosine ; Reserpine ; l-Dopa ; Ontogenesis ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Effect of catecholamine depletion on normal hyperactivity in the neonatal rat was examined. Both α-methyl-para-tyrosine and reserpine significantly depressed behavioral arousal at 15 days postpartum, the age of greatest excitability. Heightened activity could be restored in drug-treated animals by administration of l-Dopa. These results indicate that the ontogenetic hyperactivity effect is a result of accelerated catecholamine function.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Yohimbine ; Intraventricular Administration ; Rat ; Locomotor Activity ; Temperature ; Narcosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of yohimbine injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle on the behaviour of white Wistar rats was investigated. Yohimbine in low doses (1–5 Μg) produced excitatory effects but in high doses (20–100 Μg) it induced central depression.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Neuroleptics ; Dopamine ; Drinking Behaviour ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hypodipsia produced by injection of d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.8 mg/kg) in rats, was partially antagonized by two DA-specific neuroleptic drugs, Pimozide and Spiramide, respectively. Pimozide revealed a maximal amphetamine-antagonistic effect at dose levels between 0.1–0.4 mg/kg. Hypodipsia could also be produced by Pimozide alone in doses greater than 1.0 mg/kg. Pretreatment of the apomorphine-induced hypodipsia with 0.05 mg/kg Spiramide also reliably counteracted drinking deficits. The interaction of water deprivation combined with the presence or absence of food in the test situation was also examined, but no effect was found. The possibility that perseverative rearing on the hind legs under d-amphetamine might interfere with drinking was tested with high vs. low drinking-tubes in the Pimozide-amphetamine experiments. There was evidence for a slight initial effect of drinking position, but the general form of the dose-response curve was not greatly altered. It was concluded that dopamine effects cannot easily be excluded from a role in the control of drinking, and that the primary role often accorded norepinephrine in relation to amphetamine effects should be re-examined with respect to the specific behavioural functions which are altered.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: 6-Hydroxydopamine ; Catecholamine Hypothesis of Depression ; Animal Model ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two levels of permanent central norepinephrine depletion were obtained in rats by lesioning these neurons with small quantities of intraventricularly-applied 6-hydroxydopamine, and the effects of these lesions on a variety of standard tests of activity and emotional reactivity were studied. Both lesioned groups showed altered emotional reactivity; however, only the animals with less extensive lesions were hyperactive in running wheels, showed heightened shock-elicited aggression, were hyper-responsive to handling, and had a potentiated amphetamine-activation effect. It is suggested that these exaggerated behaviors reflected the sensitization and regeneration of partially lesioned noradrenergic circuits. These data are discussed in terms of the catecholamine hypothesis of depression.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Gastrosecretagogue ; Gastrin ; Rat ; Bile
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of GSP, a gastrosecretagogue fraction extracted from hog pancreas, on bile secretion has been studied in rats provided with a bile duct canula and compared with the effect of antral gastrin. GSP showed no effect on bile secretion, concentration and output of bilirubin and electrolytes in the bile. On the other hand gastrin is significantly increasing bile output, bilirubin concentration and output in the bile. No effect of gastrin on the excretion rate of sodium and potassium in the bile has been observed.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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