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  • Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  (2,271)
  • Rat  (1,234)
  • 1990-1994  (2,532)
  • 1970-1974  (696)
  • 1965-1969  (277)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spinal cord ; Synaptic transmission ; GABAB receptors ; Baclofen agonists and antagonists ; Rat ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The actions of a series of derivatives of 3-aminopropyl-phosphinic acid as baclofen agonists and antagonists have been examined on the synaptic excitation of neurones by impulses in primary afferent fibres in the lumbar spinal cords of pentobarbitone-anaesthetised cats and rats. Both the pre-and postsynaptic inhibitory actions of microelectrophoretic (-)-baclofen were reduced by similarly administered CGP 35 348, 36 742, 46 381, 52 432, 54 626 and 55 845, the latter being the most potent antagonist. None of these antagonists either decreased or increased the excitability of spinal neurones, and the inhibitory action of GABA was reduced only by local concentrations of antagonists which also reduced the action of piperidine-4-sulphonic acid, a GABAA agonist. Although the weak inhibitory effect of 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid in both the rat and the cat was not reduced by these baclofen antagonists, the pre-and postsynaptic inhibitory effects of 3-aminopropyl-methyl-osphinic acid (CGP 35 024), which was more potent than (-)-baclofen, were reduced by the antagonists. Like (-)-baclofen, CGP 35 024 was relatively ineffective in reducing transmitter release in the cord from the terminals of excitatory spinal interneurones, the terminals of excitatory tracts in the dorsolateral funiculus and the cholinergic terminals of motor axon collaterals. In both rat and cat cords, receptors for (-)-baclofen could not be demonstrated to be activated by microelectrophoretic GABA, possibly because of the predominantly dendritic location of GABAB receptors. Spinal pre-and postsynaptic baclofen receptors appeared to be pharmacologically similar but differed from those in the higher central nervous system of the rat, where 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid has been reported to be an effective baclofen agonist. The compounds tested, particularly CGP 55 845 and 46 381, will be of use in further investigations of the physiological relevance of baclofen receptors at central synapses where GABA may be the transmitter.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hippocampal formation ; Parahippocampal cortex ; Perforant pathway ; Limbic system ; Neuroanatomy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relations between the inputs from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum and the cells in the entorhinal cortex that give rise to the perforant pathway have been studied in the rat at the light microscopical level. Projections from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum were labeled anterogradely, and, in the same animal, cells in the entorhinal cortex that project to the hippocampal formation were labeled by retrograde tracing and subsequent intracellular filling with Lucifer Yellow. The distribution and the number of appositions between the afferent fibers and hippocampal projection neurons in the various layers of the entorhinal cortex were analyzed. The results show that layers I–IV of the entorhinal cortex contain neurons that give rise to projections to the hippocampal formation. The morphology of these projection neurons is highly variable and afferents from the presubiculum and the parasubiculum do not show a preference for any specific morphological cell type. Both inputs preferentially innervate the dendrites of their target cells. However, presubicular and parasubicular projections differ with respect to the layer of entorhinal cortex they project to. The number of appositions of presubicular afferents with cells that have their cell bodies in layer III of the entorhinal cortex is 2–3 times higher than with cells in layer II. In contrast, afferents from the parasubiculum form at least 2–3 times as many synapses on the dendrites of cells located in layer II than on neurons that have their cell bodies in layer III. Cells in layers I and IV of the entorhinal cortex receive weak inputs from the presubiculum and parasubiculum. Not only is the presubiculum different from the parasubiculum with respect to the distribution of projections to the entorhinal cortex, they also differ in their afferent and efferent connections. In turn, cells in layer II of the entorhinal cortex differ in their electrophysiological characteristics from those in layer III. Moreover, layer II neurons give rise to the projections to the dentate gyrus and field CA3/CA2 of the hippocampus proper, and cells in layer III project to field CA1 and the subiculum. Therefore, we propose that the interactions of the entorhinal-hippocampal network with the presubiculum are different from those with the parasubiculum.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: GABA receptors ; Benzodiazepine receptors ; Stress ; Corticosterone ; Sex differences ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Since many hormonal indices of stress responsiveness are sexually dimorphic in rats, we examined sex differences and the effects of gonadectomy on the stress-related changes in GABAA/benzodiazepine receptors in rats. Intact or ovariectomized female rats displayed a markedly greater corticosterone response and a more pronounced increase in benzodiazepine receptors than males (intact or orchidectomized) after acute handling or swim stress. Swim stress increased benzodiazepine receptor density without modifying affinity in cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Corticosterone treatment induced benzodiazepine receptor levels comparable to those seen after swim stress in all hormone groups. Handling stress also enhanced cortical low-affinity GABAA receptor levels in males and ovariectomized females. Both GABA and benzodiazepine receptor levels were positively correlated with circulating corticosterone levels in female, but not male, groups. GABA/benzodiazepine coupling was unaffected by stress or hormonal status. These sexual dimorphisms in hormonal responses to stress may help elucidate the causes and consequences of stress-induced changes in the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: 6-Hydroxydopamine ; Ibotenic acid ; Rotation ; Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lesions of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal tract produce a range of motor and sensorimotor deficits. One of the simplest and most reliable is the rotational response of the animal following activation with drugs that stimulate the dopaminergic network, most notably amphetamine and apomorphine. Consequently, the rotation test has been extensively used in assessing the success of treatments designed to restore dopaminergic function, including neural transplants. The present study investigates whether rotation induced by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal bundle in rats is modified by additional lesions in the neostriatum. It was found that apomorphine-induced rotation can be reduced by ibotenic acid lesions of the dopamine-deafferented striatum, and that the extent of the reduction was proportional to the size of the lesions. In contrast, such lesions produced a non-significant reduction in amphetamine-induced rotation, although the correlation between the extent of the reduction and the size of the lesion was again apparent. Since the pattern of change was similar in direction, albeit smaller in magnitude, than the previously reported effects of intrastriatal transplantation in rats with similar nigrostriatal lesions, rotation tests alone do not provide an unequivocal test of graft survival and function.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Striatum ; Ventral mesencephalic grafts ; Voltammetry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An in vivo voltammetric technique was used to monitor dopamine (DA) release in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat striatum reinnervated by grafts of ventral mesencephalon containing DA neurons. Extracellular levels of DA were measured during the administration of D1 or D2 DA receptor antagonists. In addition, changes in DA levels induced by agonists and antagonists of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors were studied to verify the possible existence of a host glutamatergic control on the grafted DA cells in the ‘transplanted’ rats. Two months after the grafts were performed, the voltammetric signal measured under baseline conditions in the grafted striata was found to be almost similar to that recorded on the contralateral control side. Likewise, in another group of transplanted rats, the turnover of the amine, as expressed by the DOPAC/DA tissue level ratio, was found to have become “normalized” after grafting, compared with the lesion-only group. The increase in the voltammetric signal observed after administering the D2 antagonist sulpiride (100 mg/kg i.p.) was lower in the grafted striata than on the contralateral side, however. This suggests that some D2 autoreceptor subsensitivity may have helped to maintain the baseline level of dopaminergic transmission. Adaptive processes of this kind might compensate for the partial DA reinnervation of the host striatum found to occur on the basis of the tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining patterns. After administration of either the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.1 mg/kg s.c.), or injection of EAA receptor agonists-1-glutamate, quisqualate and N-methyl-d-aspartate (all 10 nmol i.c.v.) — and antagonists — amino-phosphono-valeric acid (10 nmol i.c.v.) and dizocilpine (MK801, 0.2 mg/kg i.p.) — no significant differences between the two striata were detected in the voltammetric signals. These results suggest that, in the grafted rats, neurons belonging to the host population, such as the striatal cells bearing D1 receptors or the corticostriatal afferents presumed to contain glutamate, might modulate the DA levels, as was found to occur under normal conditions.
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  • 6
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    Experimental brain research 100 (1994), S. 170-174 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Withdrawal reflexes ; Motion analysis Nociception ; Pain ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To use sensory information from the skin to guide motor behaviour the central nervous system must transform sensory coordinates into movement coordinates. As yet, the basic principles of this crucial neural computation are unclear. One motor system suitable as a model for the study of such transformations is the spinal withdrawal reflex system. The spatial organization of the cutaneous input to these reflexes has been characterized, and we now introduce a novel method of motion analysis permitting a quantitative analysis of the spatial input-output relationship in this motor system. For each muscle studied, a “mirror-image” relationship was found between the spatial distribution of reflex gain for cutaneous input and the pattern of cutaneous unloading ensuing on contraction. Thus, there is an “imprint” of the movement pattern on this motor system permitting effective sensorimotor transformation. This imprint may indicate the presence of a learning process which utilizes the sensory feedback ensuing on muscle contraction.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Epilepsy ; GABA ; Noradrenaline Graft ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing polymer matrices were implanted bilaterally, immediately dorsal to the substantia nigra, in rats previously kindled in the amygdala. Two days after implantation, rats with GABA-releasing matrices exhibited only focal limbic seizures in response to electrical stimulation, whereas animals with control matrices devoid of GABA had generalized convulsions. GABA release from the polymer matrices was high during the first days after implantation, as demonstrated both in vitro and, using microdialysis, in vivo. The anticonvulsant effect was no longer observed at 7 and 14 days at which time GABA release was found to be low. In a parallel experiment, polymer matrices containing noradrenaline (NA) were implanted bilaterally into the hippocampus of rats with extensive forebrain NA depletion induced by an intra-ventricular 6-hydroxydopamine injection. No effect on the development of hippocampal kindling was observed, despite extracellular NA levels exceeding those of rats with intrahippocampal locus coeruleus grafts that have previously been shown to retard kindling rate. The results indicate that GABA-releasing implants located in the substantia nigra region can suppress seizure generalization in epilepsy, even in the absence of synapse formation and integration with the host brain. In contrast, the failure of NA-releasing polymer matrices to retard the development of seizures in NA-depleted rats suggests that such an effect can only be exerted by grafts acting through a well-regulated, synaptic release of NA.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Ion channels ; Patch clamp ; Hypoglossal ; Vagus ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It is well known that neuronal firing properties are determined by synaptic inputs and inherent membrane functions such as specific ionic currents. To characterize the ionic currents of brainstem cardio-respiratory neurons, cells from the hypoglossal (XII) nucleus and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX) were freshly dissociated and membrane ionic currents were studied under whole-cell voltage and current clamp. Both of these neurons showed a TTX-sensitive Na+ current with a much larger current density in XII than DMX neurons. This Na+ current had two (fast and slow) distinct inactivation decay components. The ratio of the magnitudes of the fast to slow component was roughly two-fold greater in DMX than in XII cells. Both DMX and XII neurons also showed a high voltage-activated Ca2+ current, but this current density was significantly greater (three-fold) in DMX than XII neurons. A relatively small amount of low-voltage activated Ca2+ current was also observed in DMX neurons, but not in the majority of XII cells. A transient and a sustained outward current components were observed in DMX cells, but only sustained currents were present in XII neurons. These outward currents had a reversal potential of about -70 mV with 3 mM external K+ and -30mV with 25 mM K+, and substitution of K+ with cesium and tetraethylammonium suppressed more than 90% the outward currents, indicating that most outward currents were carried by K+. The transient outward current consisted of two components with one sensitive to 4-aminopyridine and the other to intracellular Ca2+. In XII neurons, BRL 38227 (lemakalim), an ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel activator, increased the sustained K+ currents by 10% of control, and glibenclamide, a KATP channel blocker, decreased the sustained K+ currents by 20%. Evidence for the presence of an inward rectifier K+ current was also obtained from both XII and DMX neurons. These results on XII and DMX neurons indicate that (1) the methods used to dissociate neurons provide a useful means to overcome voltage clamp technical difficulties; (2) ion channel characteristics such as density and biophysical properties of DMX neurons are very different from those of XII neurons; and (3) several newly discovered membrane ionic currents are present in these cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Licking ; Oral behavior ; Electrophysiology ; Striatum ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study examined the relationship of single-neuron activity (n = 739), recorded from the lateral striatum of freely moving rats, to oral movements involved in licking single drops of liquid. Certain neurons (n = 74) fired specifically in relation to licking. Their firing rates increased during licking, but remained near zero in the absence of licking, throughout a full sensorimotor examination of the remainder of the orofacial area and all other body parts. Another category of neurons (n = 17) fired during licking but also fired in the absence of licking, during one or more other orofacial sensorimotor function(s). Lick-related neurons were located in the lateral striatum, throughout the entire anterior-posterior range studied (from +1.5 to -1.5 mm anterior-posterior, A-P, bregma = 0). Summed over the full A–P range, they were located significantly ventral to representations of the trunk and limbs. These findings extend the characterization of the somatotopic organization exhibited by lateral striatal neurons in the rat, to include representation of oral functions, consistent with converging evidence regarding the functional organization of the striatum.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: In vivo microdialysis ; Astrocytic reaction ; Gliosis ; Brain lesion ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In vivo microdialysis is an established tool for sampling extracellular fluid compartments. However, microdialysis faces the problem that the implantation of the probe damages the microenvironment from which measurements are derived. In this study, we examined the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and protein at the cellular level after implantation of a microdialysis probe into the dorsal hippocampus and found that 8 h after inserting the probe bFGF mRNA was markedly increased in a relatively large area centered around the probe, involving both the dorsal hippocampus and the overlying cerebral cortex, as revealed by radioactive in situ hybridization. Using nonradioactive in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes, combined with immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein we demonstrated that bFGF mRNA was exclusively increased in astrocytes at the probe insertion site. Using immunohistochemistry we also found that bFGF-like immunoreactivity was increased after implantation of the probe close to the lesion site, as shown by an increased number of bFGF immunoreactive nuclear glial profiles. These results provide evidence that the implantation of a microdialysis probe into the brain induces activation of bFGF gene expression in astrocytes associated with nuclear bFGF-like immunoreactivity. We conclude that lesion-induced effects have to be considered when evaluating microdialysis data, and that mechanical trauma to the brain will activate astroglial trophism, as seen from the increased density of astroglial profiles demonstrating bFGF mRNA and protein levels.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Peripheral nerve autograft ; Respiratory neurons ; Axonal regeneration ; Medulla oblongata ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autologous segments of peroneal nerve were implanted into the medulla of adult rats to induce axonal regeneration of central neurons axotomised during the grafting procedure. Grafts were inserted in the midline where respiratory axons decussate or laterally, either in the nucleus tractus solitarius or in the nucleus ambiguus, close to respiratory cell bodies. The distal part of each graft was left unconnected (blind-ended graft). Between 2 and 30 months post-implantation, unit recordings from single fibres were made from small strands teased from the grafts to investigate activity of neurons regenerating axons. Spontaneous respiratory and non-respiratory activity was present only in grafts examined between 2 and 6 months post-implantation. Respiratory units had discharge patterns identical to those of normal inspiratory or expiratory neurons; their responses to lung inflation and asphyxia were also similar to those of central respiratory neurons. No spontaneous activity was present in the grafts examined 7–30 months post-implantation. Moreover, asphyxia, which normally enhances the activity of central respiratory neurons, failed to elicit activity. These results were similar in all grafts, regardless of the site of implantation. The presence of spontaneous activity only between 2 and 6 months post-implantation indicates that once axonal growth of respiratory neurons is stopped within blind-ended grafts, those neurons still exhibited normal functional properties for 3 months. The absence of activity 6 months after grafting suggests that loss of functional regenerating respiratory neurons does not occur progressively and follows an “all or nothing” rule within blind-ended grafts.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hippocampus ; Synaptic plasticity ; Glial cells ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The reaction of microglial and a stroglial cells to anterograde axonal degeneration was studied in the fascia dentata of adult rats at various timepoints after removal of the entorhinal perforant path projection. Microglial cells were identified by histochemical staining for nucleoside diphosphatase (NDPase) at light and electron microscopical levels. Astroglial cells were stained immunocytochemically for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Activated astroglial cells and some microglial cells also stained immunocytochemically for the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Phagocytotic activity was detected by histochemical staining for acid phosphatase. The postlesional connective reorganization of the cholinergic septohippocampal projection was monitored by histochemical staining for acetyl cholinesterase. Twenty-four hours after entorhinal cortex ablation, microglial cells in the perforant path zones of the fascia dentata and the adjacent neuropil reacted by shortening and coarsening of processes and an increase in NDPase reactivity. These changes occurred prior to a noticeable increase in GFAP immunoreactivity and hypertrophy of astroglial cells (first evident on postlesional day 2) or sprouting of cholinergic septohippocampal fibres (first evident on day 3). There was evidence of an early, local proliferation of microglial cells in the denervated perforant path zones and migration into these zones of microglial cells from adjacent intact areas. The specific accumulation of strongly stained microglial cells within the denervated parts of the dentate molecular layer persisted for at least 4 weeks, while the astroglial reaction subsided at 3 weeks. The results demonstrate an early activation of microglial cells by axonal degeneration, and indicate that these cells may play a pivotal, inductive role in the subsequent glial and neural events.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Electroshock ; Neuropeptides ; Immunocytochemistry ; In situ hybridization ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Increased levels of somatostatin (SS) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) have been demonstrated in the hippocampal formation after kindling. The increase might be specifically associated with kindling, or be an effect of repeated seizures per se. In order to separate these two components we studied the effects of repeated electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) on hippocampal SS-like and NPY-like immunoreactivity and SS mRNA and NPY mRNA in situ hybridization. ECS elicit seizures without having a demonstrable kindling effect. Rats were subjected to 10, 20, or 36 ECS (50 mA, 0.5 s), given as one shock per day, 5 days per week. One, 2 and 30 days after the last ECS, the rats were killed, together with sham-treated control rats, and processed for immunocytochemistry and non-radioactive in situ hybridization. There was a bilateral increase in SS-like and NPY-like immunoreactivity 1 and 2 days after the last ECS in the outer part of the dentate molecular layer. This is the terminal field of the hilar SS-containing and NPY-containing neurons, which displayed both increased immunoreactivity and hybridization signal of the cell bodies. There was also a bilateral de novo expression of NPY-like immunoreactivity in the mossy fiber system, but this was not accompanied by the appearance of a detectable NPY hybridization signal over the parent dentate granule cell bodies. The increase in SS-like immunoreactivity and hybridization signal was most pronounced in the rats that had received the largest number of ECS. This was not observed for the NPY-like immunoreactivity and hybridization signal, where the increase appeared similar after 10, 20 and 36 ECS. One month after the last ECS, both the SS-like and NPY-like immunoreactivity and the in situ hybridization signals had decreased towards normal levels. Since increased SS and NPY levels are also induced by repeated ECS, these changes are accordingly not specific to kindling-induced seizures. In a second experiment, the perforant path to the fascia dentata was transected 1 month prior to the ECS treatment. Removal of such major afferent input did not abolish the ECS-induced increase in hippocampal SS-like and NPY-like immunoreactivity, suggesting that the neuropeptide changes were not caused by afferent stimulation via the perfant path fibers, but rather may be an effect of direct electrical activation of the relevant cells.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: GABA ; Calcium-binding protein Hippocampus ; Disector ; Immunocytochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The numerical density of neurons in the CA1 region of the rat dorsal hippocampus has been estimated by a stereological method, the disector, using pairs of video images of toluidine blue-stained, plastic-embedded, 0.5-μm-thick sections, 3 μm distant from each other. The chemical properties of those disector-counted cells were further analyzed by postembedding immunocytochemical methods on adjacent, semithin sections using antibodies against gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a specific calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). The density of neurons in the CA1 region was 35.2 × 103/mm3; numerical densities in the stratum oriens (SO), stratum pyramidale (SP), and strata radiatum-lacunosum-moleculare (SRLM) were 11.3 × 103/mm3, 272.4 × 103/mm3, and 1.9 × 103/mm3, respectively. The numerical densities of GABA-like immunoreactive (GABA-LIR) and PV-immunoreactive (PV-IR) neurons were 2.1 × 103/mm3 and 1.1 × 103/mm3, respectively, which were 5.8% and 3.2% of all neurons, respectively. In the CA1 region only about 60% of PV-positive neurons were GABA-LIR. However, taking the previous observation into consideration that almost all hippocampal PV-positive neurons were immunoreactive for the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), neurons that were immunoreactive to either GABA or PV or both (GABA+ and/or PV + neurons) were regarded as a better representative of GABAergic neurons in this region; thus, the numerical density of these GABA + and/or PV + neurons was 2.5 × 103/mm3 and they were 7.0% of all neurons in the CA1 region. Lamellar analysis showed that the numerical densities of GABA+ and/or PV+, GABA-LIR, and PV-IR neurons were highest in the SP, where they were 8.2 × 103/mm3, 6.2 × 103/mm3, and 5.4 × 103/mm3, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that the proportions of GABAergic neurons and a subpopulation of them, PV-containing GABAergic neurons, to other presumable non-GABAergic neurons are far smaller in the CA1 region of the hippocampus than in several neocortical regions previously reported.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Monoamine oxidase A ; Clorgyline ; Quantitative autoradiography ; Brain ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of functionally active monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) was investigated by in vivo quantitative autoradiography using [14C]clorgyline in normal, conscious rat brain. [14C]clorgyline was synthesized by the methylation reaction of N-desmethylclorgyline using [14C]methyliodide. Sixty minutes after [14C]clorgyline administration (1.58 MBq/animal i.v.), the brains were removed and prepared for autoradiography by washing the brain sections with 5% trichloroacetic acid solution to remove the nonbinding free tracer. The amount of MAO-A was calculated from the regional acid-insoluble tissue radioactivity and the specific activity of the tracer. The highest amount of MAO-A (5.84 nmol/g tissue) was found in the locus coeruleus. The interpeduncular nucleus, habenular nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus, and solitary tract nucleus possessed over 1.6 nmol/g tissue of MAO-A. Among 23 regions of interest, the lowest amount of MAO-A (0.37 nmol/g tissue) was found in the globus pallidus. The findings of this study suggest that the pattern of MAO-A parallels both in neuroanatomical distribution and in density that of norepinephrine and serotonin innervation. The MAO-A concentration was, however, relatively low in the dopamine-related areas. This corresponded to the previous results obtained by histochemical analysis. In addition, among the white matter structures, a high amount of MAO-A was found specifically in the fasciculus retroflexus.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Nilvadipine ; Ca2+ entry blocker Focal cerebral ischemia ; Therapeutic effect ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present study was conducted to invetigate the therapeutic effects of nilvadipine, a Ca2+ entry blocker, on rat focal cerebral ischemia. Under halothane anesthesia, a 3-0 nylon thread was introduced into the neck internal carotid artery to occlude the left middle cerebral artery. Either nilvadipine (3.2 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered subcutaneously 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h following the occlusion (groups 1–6, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the occlusion, the percentage infarct volumes in nilvadipine-treated animals in groups 1–3 (21±11%, 24±11%, and 26±7%, respectively) were smaller than those in the respective control groups (36±5%, 35±3%, and 35+3%; P〈0.05). Compared with controls, the infarct size of the periphery of the fronto-parietal cortex decreased in nilvadipine-treated animals. The results indicate that nilvadipine decreases the size of infarction when administered up to 3 h after an ischemic insult. Thus, nilvadipine can be considered a potential therapeutic agent for acute focal cerebral ischemia, and may be clinically useful in stroke patients.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Status epilepticus ; Brain damage Hypothermia ; Hyperthermia ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of hyperthermia and hypothermia on epileptic brain damage was studied in rats, in which status epilepticus was induced by flurothyl. Histopathological changes were examined by light microscopy after 1 or 7 days of recovery. Two series of animals were studied. In the first, short periods of seizures (20 and 25 min) were employed to examine whether moderate hyperthermia (39.5° C) would aggravate epileptic brain damage, and a longer period (45 min) was used to investigate whether moderate hypothermia (32.5° C) would ameliorate the damage. The second series investigated whether brief periods of status epilepticus (10 min) would cause brain damage if hyperthermia were high or excessive. For this series, animals with body temperatures of 37.0, 39.0, and 41.0° C were studied. Data from normothermic animals (37.5° C) confirmed previously described neuronal damage. Although hyperthermic animals failed to showe increased damage in the CA1 sector, or in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus, they showed enhanced damage in the neocortex and globus pallidus (GP). In substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPR) four out of five hyperthermic animals had bilateral infarcts after 20 min of status epilepticus, whereas no normothermic animal showed such damage. Hypothermia seemed to ameliorate epileptic brain damage in the neocortex (n.s.) and GP (P 〈 0.05) following status epilepticus for 45 min. Three out of seven hypothermic animals had mild SNPR involvement compared to severe infarction of the nucleus in five out of six normothermic animals (P 〈 0.05). Thus, hyperthermia aggravated and hypothermia ameliorated epileptic brain damage both in regions showing selective neuronal necrosis (neocortex) and in regions developing pan-necrosis (GP and SNPR). The second series displayed an unexpected result of excessive hyperthermia. Animals subjected to only 10 min of status epilepticus at a temperature of 41° C showed not only neocortical lesions, but also moderate to extensive damage to the hippocampus (CA1, subiculum, and dentate gyrus). It is concluded that at high body and brain temperature, brief periods of status epilepticus can yield extensive brain damage, primarily affecting the hippocampus.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Medial amygdaloid nucleus (AME) ; Vasopressin ; Oxytocin ; Copulation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The medial amygdaloid nucleus (AME) occupies a central position in the circuitry that organizes sexual behavior in the male rat. It receives a projection from olfactory structures that are activated by pheromonal cues indicating receptivity in the female and projects in turn to limbic and hypothalamic structures that are thought to organize aspects of coitus. Electrical stimulation of the AME elicits a behavioral state that is indistinguishable by several measures from the post-ejaculatory interval. We used chronic single-unit recording techniques to determine the behavioral conditions in which the AME is normally active. We found that the cells indeed fired selectively during the presence of a receptive female, but that the discharge considerably anticipated copulation in time. We propose that sexual behavior in the male rat is a reaction chain of fixed action patterns, each one acting as a releaser for the next. The AME mediates an early event in the reaction chain, namely recognition of the receptive female, but electrical activation of the AME causes the reaction chain to proceed to its culminating behavior, the post-ejaculatory interval.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: l-Glutamate and l-aspartate ; Neurotransmission ; High affinity uptake ; Na+-dependent binding ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Binding of [3H]l-aspartate to thaw-mounted coronal sections of frozen rat forebrain was strong in grey regions of telencephalon (neocortex, hippocampus and neostriatum), but it was weaker and unevenly distributed in diencephalon. At low nanomolar concentrations of ligand used in the present studies, [3H]l-aspartate binding was strongly inhibited by l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate and l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate, compounds known to be substrate/inhibitors of the high affinity uptake of l-glutamate and l-aspartate. None of the typical ligands for the glutamate and aspartate receptors, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), N-methyl-d-aspartate and kainate, produced a strong enough inhibition (only CNQX at 100 μM weakly inhibited) of the Na+-dependent [3H]l-aspartate binding to suggest that [3H]l-aspartate was bound to the receptor binding sites. Furthermore, the binding was absolutely dependent on the presence of Na+ in the incubation medium. It is concluded that [3H]l-aspartate is a ligand suitable for autoradiographic studies of the distribution of Na+-dependent, high affinity uptake of acidic amino acids in the central nervous system (CNS). However, feasibility of using [3H]l-aspartate as a specific marker of glutamatergic and/or aspartergic synapses in the CNS requires further investigation.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry ; Brain proteins ; ChAT ; GFAP ; Memory ; Astrocytes ; “Cholinergicrich” transplants ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In adult, lesion-impaired rat brain receiving embryonic day 15 (E15) fetal transplants, the level of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) correlates positively with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels and also with measurements of successful behavioural recovery. These results suggest that glial cells may play a pivotal role in the cognitive success of socalled cholinergic-rich transplants.The objective of this study was to investigate the association between GFAP-and ChAT-staining antigens in or around cholinergicrich fetal grafts transplanted in adult cortex. An immunohistochemical fluorescent double-labelling technique was used to simultaneously identify GFAP- and ChAT-staining cells to assess whether there was a different type or distribution of cells present in these successful transplants. On brain sections of transplant area, GFAP-staining glial cells did not co-label with ChAT-staining cells. The transplant area, therefore, did not reveal a different type of cell from those seen in comparable normal cortical brain but rather a greater concentration of both GFAP- and ChAT-positive staining cells.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cuneate nucleus ; Cuneothalamic relay neuron ; Immunogold electron microscopy ; GABA-immunoreactive bouton ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigates the synaptic relation between γ-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive (GABA-IR) and cuneothalamic relay neurons (CTNs) in the rat cuneate nucleus. Retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase complex (WGA-HRP) was used to label CTNs while anti-GABA immunogold serum was used for the detection of GABA-IR boutons associated with CTNs. With these procedures, immunogold-labelled GABA-IR boutons were found to form axosomatic, axodendritic and axospinous synapses with the WGA-HRP-labelled but immunonegative CTNs. Quantitative estimation showed that the mean ratios of GABA-IR to GABA-immunonegative boutons making synaptic contacts with somata, proximal dendrites, and distal dendrites were 47.9%, 49.1% and 34.7%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of GABA-IR boutons on the somata and proximal dendrites of CTNs was significantly higher than on the distal dendrites. Our results indicate that GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cuneate nucleus, thereby emphasizing the importance of postsynaptic inhibition on cuneothalamic relay neurons.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Sympathetic preganglionic neurons ; Cholera toxin ; Pelvic ganglion ; Dorsal commissural nucleus ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cell morphology of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the dorsal commissural nucleus was studied by the retrograde labeling technique using cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) as a tracer. A small amount of an aqueous solution of CTb was injected unilaterally into the major pelvic ganglion of the male rat. Labeled SPNs were detected immunohistochemically using anti-CTb antiserum. Most of the labeled SPNs were observed in L1 to L3, and a very small number in T13. They were observed bilaterally in the sympathetic nuclei, such as the intermediolateral cell column, intercalated nucleus and the dorsal commissural nucleus. A loose network of longitudinally or transversely oriented SPN dendrites was located within the dorsal commissural nucleus itself. The lateral margin of the dorsal commissural nucleus was roughly demarcated by longitudinally oriented dendrites. Together with the dendrites of the SPNs of the intercalated and intermediolateral cell column, laterally oriented dendrites of the dorsal commissural nucleus converged and formed the transverse dendritic bundles in the intermediate zone that connect the dorsal commissural nucleus and the intermediolateral cell column. The transverse dendritic bundles were arranged periodically. The axons of the SPNs in the dorsal commissural nucleus traveled laterally into the transverse dendritic bundles, then turned ventrally near the intermediolateral cell column, and finally entered the ventral funiculus. After rhizotomy of the ventral roots of the upper lumbar cord, labeled SPNs were found only on the side contralateral to the rhizotomy. The dorsal commissural nucleus appears as a compact single cell column, but our results clearly show that this nucleus actually consists of two adjacent parallel columns of cells.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Synaptic transmission ; Brain slice ; Synapse ; Nitric oxide synthase ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Immunohistochemical analysis of the localization of nitric oxide synthase-(NOS)-like immunoreactivity revealed the presence of this enzyme in a few neuronal cell bodies and in dendritic and axonal processes within the rat locus coeruleus (LC). Also cells in the pericoeruleus area were NOS-positive. Intracellular recordings were made from LC neurons in brain slices. Bath application of the NOS inhibitors nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) or N G-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) potently enhanced the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evoked by focal electrical stimulation of the slice. Hemoglobin, which binds extracellular NO, also enhanced the EPSP. This enhancement was reversed by coadministration of l-arginine, a precursor of neuronal nitric oxide (NO). Neither NOS inhibitors, l-arginine, nor hemoglobin had effects on the resting membrane potential or impedance. These results suggest a role for NO in synaptic transmission in the LC.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Epileptogenic cortical focus ; Catecholamines ; Voltammetry ; Penicillin ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Differential pulse voltammetry with carbonfibre microelectrodes was used in chloralhydrate-anaesthetized rats to test the influence of the penicillin-G-Na (PNC)-induced (topical application, approximately 2000 IU) epileptic activity on the catecholamine content (catechol-oxidative current, CA.OC) in the parietal cortex. In the experimental group (n = 4) after PNC a nonlinear CA.OC lowering was observed; this decrease during the first 10 min was faster than in the control group (n = 4). Significantly different values were observed from the 4th min after application. The best fit for this experimental curve gave the logarithmic function (f(t) = a + b.ln(t), a =105.8, b= -10.6) with regression coefficient r = 0.98. From the 12th min after PNC application until the end of the experiments (54th min) CA.OC values ranged from 78% to 84% of the control group.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopaminergic grafts ; Neuropeptide Y ; Ultrastructure ; Striatum ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In a previous study we demonstrated that grafted dopamine (DA) neurons are able to induce an early and widespread normalization of DA-neuropeptide Y (NPY) interactions in the host striatum previously deprived of its DA input. Since similar recoveries were found to occur in striatal areas densely or poorly reinnervated by the graft, the question was raised as to what mechanisms (synaptic or volumic release) were involved in these functional effects. Ultrastructural analysis of graft-to-host relationships was performed using single — and double — immunolabelling techniques to detect neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NPY, with a view to analysing the early establishment of synaptic connectivity in various areas of the host striatum. Within 1 month of the grafting, TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons showed most of the normal intrinsic morphological features characteristic of adult rat neurons and were found to have established direct relationships with various striatal neuronal populations. TH-NPY relationships were observed only in the area most densely reinnervated by the graft, and their relative frequency was found to be roughly the same as that determined in the intact striatum. Three months after the grafting, this percentage decreased, probably owing to the further elongation in TH-IR axons resulting in a wider distribution of the TH-NPY associations over the host striatum. In the zones distal from the graft, the reinnervation was far from complete and the few TH-IR fibres projected only to some unlabelled elements, mainly of the spiny type, which have been shown to interact normally with both DA afferents and NPY cells and therefore may relay the DA action over the whole striatum on the NPY population. It can be concluded from these data that the rapid and extensive functional normalization of the TH-NPY interactions previously found to occur in the entire striatum may depend on the restoration of direct and indirect synaptic relationships. A diffuse action of DA through non-synaptic mechanisms may also account for the fact that the amine has access to broader striatal populations than to those presumably reached by DA fibres arising from the graft.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Regeneration ; Schwann cells Glial environment ; X-Irradiation ; Astrocytes ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Exposure of the lumbar spinal cord of rats to X-rays 3 days after birth results in changes in the composition of central glia. Shortly after irradiation, there is both retardation of central myelin formation and a loss of integrity of the astrocyte-derived glia limitans on the dorsal surface of the cord. Subsequently, Schwann cells invade, undergo division and myelinate axons in the dorsal funiculi in the irradiated region of the cord, creating there an environment similar to that of peripheral nerve. The present study was undertaken to compare the ability of lesioned dorsal root axons to grow back into the altered glial environments that exist within the spinal cord after irradiation. This regrowth was assessed by injecting Fluoro-Gold into the spinal cord and subsequently examining neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the presence of this label. Numbers of retrogradely labeled neurons were counted in the DRG in both injured and contralateral non-injured sides. Non-irradiated control rats had almost no labeled DRG neurons on the injured side, whereas Fluoro-Gold labeled neurons were observed in substantial numbers in the DRG on the injured side of irradiated rats. There was a definite trend in the data, indicating that the longer the interval between irradiation and root injury, the greater the number of labeled neurons. Since the Fluoro-Gold labeling technique does not allow for visualization of the labeled axons within the spinal cord, a few animals were used to assess anterograde labeling with wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP/HRP) from the dorsal root into the spinal cord. HRP-filled regenerating axons were visualized in dorsal white and gray matter of the irradiated spinal cord. Such axons were not present in the non-irradiated spinal cords. Radiation-induced changes in glial populations are discussed, particularly with regard to the temporal sequence of these changes and their possible relationship to the conversion of a normally non-permissive environment into one conducive to axonal regrowth.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Periaqueductal gray ; Stress ; Defense Passive coping behavior ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Much evidence suggests that the midbrain periaqueductal gray region (PAG) plays a pivotal role in mediating an animal's responses to threatening, stressful, or painful stimuli. Active defensive reactions, hypertension, tachycardia and tachypnea are coordinated by a longitudinally oriented column of cells, found lateral to the midbrain aqueduct, in the caudal two-thirds of the PAG. In contrast, microinjections of excitatory amino acid (EAA) made in the ventrolateral region of the PAG in anesthetized or isolated animals evoke hypotension, bradycardia, and behavioral arrest. The aim of the present study was to examine further the effects of activation of neurons in the ventrolateral PAG. By injecting into this region low doses (40 pmol) of kainic acid (KA), a long-acting EAA, it was possible to observe a freely moving rat's behavior in a social situation (i.e., paired with a weight-matched, untreated partner). Such injected rats become quiescent, i.e., there was a cessation of all ongoing spontaneous activity. These rats were also hyporeactive: the investigative approaches of the partner failed to evoke orientation, startle reactions, or vocalization. Electroencephalographic measurements indicated that the effects of injections of KA in the ventrolateral PAG were not secondary to seizure activity. In addition to the quiescence and hyporeactivity reported here, and the hypotension and bradycardia reported previously, the ventrolateral PAG is a part of the brain from which analgesia has been readily evoked by electrical stimulation, or microinjections of either EAA or morphine. As a reaction to “deep” or “inescapable” pain, chronic injury, or defeat, animals often reduce their somatomotor activity, become more solitary, and are generally much less responsive to their environment. These data, and those from other recent studies, suggest that neurons in the ventrolateral PAG may play an important role in integrating such a passive behavioral response of which quiescence and hyporeactivity are the major components.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Potassium channels ; Patch clamp ; Cerebellar granule cells ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Macroscopic potassium currents were studied in cell-attached and inside-out patches from rat cerebellar granule cells. They were related with transient IA type potassium channels. Currents activated rapidly at potentials higher than -40 mV and did not inactivate completely. The magnitude of the current diminished when the membrane patches were excised. No differences in the activation and inactivation properties were found between patches in the integral cells and cell free membrane patches. A biophysical description of the currents is presented.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Fos protein induction ; Neuropathology ; Kainic acid ; N-Methyl d-aspartate Pharmacological protection ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The excitotoxins kainic acid and N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) were unilaterally injected in the rat striatum. Kainic acid injections resulted in a widespread pattern of Fos protein induction, mainly involving cortical olfactory structures and hippocampus. Immunoreactive cells were observed in large number 2–24 h after injection and had almost completely disappeared by 48 h. NMDA injections elicited a shorter (2–8 h) expression of Fos protein, involving a lower number of cells in cortical olfactory structures, a much larger number of cells in the other cortical regions, and not involving the hippocampus at all. Characteristically none of the two excitotoxins stimulated Fos expression from striatal neurons, even in the close vicinity of the needle tract. In addition to striatal lesions almost equivalent in size, the two excitotoxins caused distant lesions of different extension: kainic acid resulted in extensive neuronal degeneration in the olfactory-entorhinal cortices and among pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus; NMDA caused a less widespread neurodegeneration, restricted to the olfactory cortex. Administration of the competitive NMDA antagonist CGP 39551 largely prevented the distant, but not the local, neuropathological changes caused by intrastriatal kainic acid or NMDA. The expression of Fos protein, however, was partially prevented only in NMDA cases. The present results show a good relationship between the spreading of circuit overexcitation caused by the two excitotoxins and the regional and temporal patterns of Fos expression. The relationship between Fos expression and neuropathological condition remains, however, elusive.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Afterhyperpolarization ; Motoneuron ; Locomotion ; In vitro ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Motoneuron afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude and somatic input conductance were monitored during pharmacologically induced, locomotorlike ventral root activity using an isolated neonatal rat spinal cord preparation (transected at the C1 level). Nonspontaneously firing motoneurons were selected for study. Single spikes were evoked at regular intervals by brief depolarizing current pulse injections, while somatic input conductance was monitored by hyperpolarizing current pulses. The induction of rhythmic ventral root activity was associated with tonic depolarization of motoneurons as well as superimposed rhythmically alternating membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization (locomotor drive potentials, LDPs). In 9 of 13 trials (six of eight cells) the peak amplitude of AHPs following current-evoked action potentials was reduced during both the hyperpolarized and the depolarized phases of the LDP, compared with the pre-locomotor condition. The peak AHP amplitude increased during the depolarized phase of the LDP in 4 of 13 trials (three of eight cells); however, in 3 of these 4 trials measurement of the AHP later in the course of its trajectory, using a half decay time (HDt) reference point, demonstrated AHP amplitude reduction during rhythmic activity compared with the prelocomotor condition. In seven of eight motoneurons the induction of rhythmic activity was associated with a decrease in input conductance. The pattern of AHP amplitude and conductance modulation during the two phases of the LDP was consistent for individual trials; however, there was considerable intertrial variation. The results suggest that AHP modulation during locomotor-like activity in this preparation can be mediated independently of supraspinal influences by intrinsic spinal cord mechanisms, and the observed AHP suppression does not appear to be the passive result of an increase in background conductance. The discrepancy between peak and HDt-based AHP amplitude measurements during the depolarized phase of the LDP in some trials may be due to competing effects of passively enhanced potassium currents and a mechanism that actively reduces the calcium-dependent potassium conductance. The possibility that both the AHP amplitude and the input conductance changes observed during locomotor-like activity reflect a regulation of potassium channels is discussed.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Functional map ; Orientation behavior ; Descending pathways ; Corticocortical connections ; Tract-tracing methods ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The afferent and efferent connections of the vibrissal area of the rat motor cortex (VMCx) were investigated by injecting Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the physiologically defined VMCx. The VMCx formed reciprocal connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, lateral and ventrolateral orbital cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and perirhinal cortex. These corticocortical afferents originated from cell bodies in layers II–III and V, and some afferents originated from cell bodies in layer VI of the primary sensory cortex. All of the VMCx efferents terminated in layers I and V or layers I–III and V. The VMCx also formed reciprocal connections with the ventrolateral, ventromedial and centrolateral nucleus, the lateral portion of the mediodorsal nucleus and the posterior complex of the thalamus. It projected bilaterally to the caudate putamen, primarily ipsilaterally to the superior colliculus, anterior pretectal nucleus, and pontine nucleus, and mainly contralaterally to the oral part of the spinotrigeminal nucleus and the reticular formation around the facial nerve nucleus. Finally, injections of PHA-L into the superior colliculus demonstrated that this structure projected contralaterally to the lateral part of the facial nerve nucleus. These data suggest that the VMCx plays a key role in sensorimotor integration, through its extensive interconnectivity with numerous brain structures, and may modulate orientation behaviors by relaying processed information to the superior colliculus.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: HRP ; Sensory endings ; Vibrissae ; Nucleus caudalis ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Peripheral and central terminations of mystacial pad afferents in rats were labeled by anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-HRP (WGA-HRP) or choleragenoid HRP (B-HRP). Tracer was injected in the trigeminal ganglion and survival times were 6–24 h. Most of the innervation previously observed with other techniques in the mystacial pad were labeled by at least one of the tracers. This included extensive reticular endings from large-caliber afferents and a loose network of fine-caliber axons in vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs). Also included were individual highly branching bush-like profiles in the intervibrissal epidermis that arose from fine to medium caliber afferents. Other endings were revealed, such as beaded endings affiliated with tylotrich hairs and presumptive encapsulated lamellated endings affiliated with both vibrissae and small sinus hairs. Finally, the anterograde labeling also revealed differences in the branching pattern of Merkel afferents to the rete ridge collars and ring sinuses of F-SCs. Each tracer produced different patterns of labeling related to the survival time in the mystacial pad which corresponded to particular patterns of labeling in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. WGA-HRP produced dense labeling of all types of afferents and peripheral endings as well as all laminae of nucleus caudalis after short survivals, but the labeling diffused as the survival times were increased. B-HRP preferentially filled the largest afferents and endings after shorter survivals, while smaller profiles became progressively labeled after longer survivals. In nucleus caudalis, profiles extending into laminae III, IV and inner part of lamina II were labeled with B-HRP after shorter survivals, but the outer part of lamina II also became labeled with longer survivals. This has not been previously observed with B-HRP. Along with other recent findings, these results reveal that the innervation of the mystacial pad especially by fine-caliber axons is far more extensive and complex than previously described. Also, depending on the survival time, the central and peripheral labeling patterns differ, which must be taken into account when interpreting results using these two tracers.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spreading depression ; Hypoglycemia ; Neuronal damage ; [Ca2+]e ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The calcium transients which are associated with spreading depression (SD) do not lead to neuronal necrosis, even if the SDs are repeated over hours. We have previously shown that a restriction of energy production by moderate hypoglycemia prolongs the calcium transients during SD. In the present experiments, we explored whether such prolonged transients lead to neuronal necrosis. To that end, SDs were elicited for 2 h by topical application of KC1 in anesthetized rats at plasma glucose concentrations of 6, 3, and 2 mM. The animals were then allowed to recover, and they were studied histopathologically after 7 days. In two other groups, hypoglycemic coma of 5 min duration (defined in terms of the d.c. potential shift) was induced either without or with a preceding train of SDs. These animals were also evaluated with respect to histopathological alterations. SDs elicited for 2 h did not give rise to neuronal damage when elicited at plasma glucose concentration of 6 mM, and, of the animals maintained at 3 and 2 mM, only a few animals showed (mild) damage. In general, therefore, repeated SDs with calcium transients of normal or increased duration fail to induce neuronal damage. The results suggest that, if calcium transients are responsible for a gradual extension of the infarct into the penumbra zone of a focal ischemie lesion some additional pathophysiological factors must be present, such as overt energy failure, acidosis, or microvascular damage. A hypoglycemia-induced calcium transient of 5 min duration gave no or only moderate neuronal damage. However, if a series of SDs were elicited in the precoma period, the damage was exaggerated. The results demonstrate that, normally, brain tissues can tolerate a hypoglycemic calcium transient of up to 5 min duration without incurring neuronal necrosis. They also demonstrate that calcium transients preceding a subsequent insult involving calcium influx into cells exaggerate the damage incurred. It is tentatively concluded that the “priming” transients alter membrane properties in such a way that cellular calcium homeostasis is perturbed.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Seizures ; Ischemia ; Aminergic Neurotransmitters ; Microdialysis ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The temporal profiles of aminergic neurotransmitter levels and of their acid metabolites after transient global cerebral ischemia in awake rats with and without subsequent seizures were compared using a microdialysis approach. In seizure animals, the post-ischemic levels of dopamine and serotonin were higher than the levels observed in the non-seizure controls. Inversely, the levels of the three neurotransmitter metabolites increased rapidly in the controls but not in seizure animals, where they remained at the low levels observed during and immediately after ischemia. This particular pattern is similar to that observed in rats submitted to prolonged ischemia or pretreated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. In the seizure animals, neurotransmitter metabolites remained at low levels, as if the hypoxia had continued after the period of ischemia, inhibiting monoamine oxidase activity and, perhaps, neurotransmitter recapture.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Subcommissural organ ; Reissner's fibre ; Immunological blockade ; Cerebrospinal fluid circulation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The subcommissural organ is an ependymal brain gland that secretes glycoproteins to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the thrid ventricle. They condense to form a fibre, Reissner's fibre (RF), that runs along the aqueduct and fourth ventricle and the central canal of the spinal cord. A single injection of an antibody against the secretory glycoproteins of RF into a lateral ventricle of adult rats results in animals permanently deprived of RF in the central canal and bearing a “short” RF extending only along the aqueduct and the fourth ventricle. These animals, together with untreated control animals were used to investigate the probable influence of RF in the circulation of CSF in the central canal of the spinal cord. For this purpose, two tracers (horseradish peroxidase and rabbit immunoglobulin) were injected into the ventricular CSF. The animals were killed 13, 20, 60, 120 and 240 min after the injection, and the amount of the tracers was estimated in tissue sections obtained at proximal, medial and distal levels of the spinal cord. In rats deprived of RF, a significant decrease in the amount of tracers present in the central canal was observed at all experimental intervals, being more evident at 20 min after the injection of the tracers. This suggests that lacking a RF in the central canal decreases the bulk flow of CSF along the central canal. Turbulences of the CSF at the entrance of the central canal of RF-deprived rats might explain the inability of the regenerating RF to progress along the central canal, as well as the reduced flow of CSF in the central canal of these animals.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid lesion ; Cholinergic ; GABAergic ; Nucleus basalis ; Iontophoresis ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Unilateral lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) produced by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid in rats caused, 8–10 weeks after the lesion, a 94% reduction in cortical acetylcholinesterase fibres and reduced activities of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase by 70–80% in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to the lesion. In anaesthetized unlesioned control rats, iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine and carbachol produced atropine-sensitive inhibition and excitation of frontal cortical neurones, effects similar to those produced by electrically stimulating the NBM. The lesion reduced cortical neuronal firing rates but increased the percentage and sensitivity of neurones responding to acetylcholine, the predominant response changing from inhibition to excitation; response duration increased but latency was unaffected. The size of the response of individual neurones to carbachol, but not the percentage of sensitive neurones, was also increased in lesioned animals. The proportion of neurones responding to bicuculline and their individual sensitivities were increased by the lesion, suggesting that the lesion increased GABAergic tone; responses to glutamate were unchanged. The lesion did not affect the proportion of neurones in which acetylcholine modulated neuronal responses but reversed the nature of the modulation to predominantly excitatory; excitation was the predominant response to electrical forepaw stimulation in unlesioned control animals. This suggests a possible interaction between GABAergic and cholinergic mechanisms in selective attention and processing of cognitive information. Acute administration of di-isopropyl fluorophosphate to unlesioned animals significantly increased the number of frontal cortical neurones responding to acetylcholine, without affecting individual neuronal sensitivity or responses to carbachol and glutamate. The similarity of these effects to those of acetylcholine in lesioned animals suggests that the increased sensitivity to acetylcholine in the latter was due to loss of acetylcholinesterase, enabling diffusion of acetylcholine to more distant neurones. However, acetylcholinesterase does not hydrolyse carbachol and therefore it is necessary to postulate a different post-synaptic mechanism to explain the lesion-induced increases in the sensitivities of individual neurones to carbachol and to acetylcholine; interpretation of experimental findings should take these two mechanisms into account.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Synapsin I ; In situ hybridization Northern blot ; Gene expression Postnatal brain development ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Synapsin I is a synaptic phosphoprotein that is involved in the short-term regulation of neurotransmitter release. In this report we present the first extensive study of the developmental expression of its corresponding messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) by in situ hybridization and northern blot analysis in rat brain. Synapsin I mRNA showed pronounced differences in expression in different brain regions during postnatal development. The early expression of synapsin I mRNA in ontogenetically older regions such as the thalamus, the piriform cortex and the hippocampus coincides with the earlier maturation of these regions, in contrast to its later expression in ontogenetically younger areas such as the cerebellum and the neocortex. An intriguing expression pattern was found in the hippocampus. In all hippocampal subregions synapsin I mRNA expression increased from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 17. After PND 17, however, there was a marked dissociation between persisting high expression levels in CA3 and the dentate gyrus and a strong decline in synapsin I mRNA expression in CA1. The persistence of synapsin I in some adult rat brain regions indicates that it plays a part in synapse formation during plastic adaption in neuronal connectivities.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Acetylcholine ; Asparte ; Brain ischemia Glutamate ; Microsphere embolism Naftidrofuryl oxalate ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Effects of naftidrofuryl oxalate (naftidrofuryl) on neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and amino acid content of brain regions following microsphere-induced cerebral embolism were examined to elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on ischemic brain. Rats received 900 microspheres (48 μm in diameter) via the right internal carotid artery, followed by ligation of the right common carotid artery; and histological and biochemical alterations were examined on the 3rd, 5th, and 28th days after embolism. The embolism induced increases in triphenyltetrazolium chloride-(TTC)-unstained areas and decreases in acetylcholine, glutamate, aspartate, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus of the right hemisphere, suggesting that microsphere embolism causes severe damage to these brain regions. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the right cortical sections after embolism showed degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells with chromatolytic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Changes in neurotransmitters of the left hemisphere were relatively small. Treatment with naftidrofuryl of the embolized rats with stroke-like symptoms took place from postoperative day 1 to 28. Treatment resulted in a reduction in TTC-unstained areas, less morphological damage to cerebral cortex on the 3rd and 5th days, and an appreciable restoration of acetylcholine content of three brain regions of the right hemisphere throughout the experiment, but restoration of neurotransmitter amino acids was observed to a smaller degree. The results suggest that naftidrofuryl is capable of preventing the development of ischemia-induced, sustained damage to brain regions vulnerable to oxygen deficiency, particularly by improving impaired acetylcholine metabolism.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Fluorescence immunohistochemistry Calcium-binding protein ; Dopamine Neuroprotection ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of calretinin (CR), a calcium binding protein, was compared with that of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the rat subsantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). After mapping the cells using double-labelling immunofluorescence, it was possible to distinguish three distinct cell types: cells immunoreactive for CR only, cells immunoreactive for TH only, and cells in which the two proteins were colocalized (CR+TH). Colocalized cells in rat brain sections comprised approximately 40–55% of the fluorescent labelled cells in the SN compacta, 30–40% in the VTA, and 55–80% in the SN lateralis. Colocalized cells in the SN reticulata were infrequent except in the more caudal sections where a majority of the TH-immunoreactive cells also contained CR. The percentage of CR cells that contained TH was approximately 80% in the SN compacta and averaged 65% in the VTA. Overall, the percentage of TH-immunoreactive cells which also contained CR was approximately 50% in the SN compacta and 45% in the VTA. These data reveal a significant degree of colocalization of CR in dopamine-producing cells of the SN and VTA and suggest the need for studies concerning the fate of these individual cell types following experimental manipulations.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Brain oedema ; Dehydration ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Middle cerebral artery occlusion ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mannitol and furosemide treatment of ischaemic brain oedema caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was studied by MRI in 87 rats. MRI was performed in all rats before and 30–360 min after drug infusion. The examinations were performed in the presence of an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) 6 h after MCAO, and 3 days after MCAO at the time of maximal disruption of the BBB. Spin echo (SE) sequences were used for imaging and for determination of the relaxation times T1 and T2. Subtraction images were constructed. Furosemide dehydrated healthy and ischaemic brain. Mannitol had no dehydrating effect on healthy brain tissue. However, when the BBB was disrupted in severe oedema mannitol produced a decrease in water content, a shortening of T1 and T2, and a decrease in intracranial pressure (ICP), while in less severe oedema mannitol could increase brain water content, thus aggravating ICP. The subtraction technique allowed visualisation of the transient change in bulk in water animals with disruption of the BBB after mannitol treatment.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Nerve growth factor ; NGF mRNA ; Sciatic nerve crush ; Dorsal root ganglia ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The amount of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the L5, L6, and cervical dorsal root ganglia of rats was examined from 1 to 30 days after a unilateral crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and adjacent branches of the lumbar plexus at the level of the sciatic notch. Unilateral nerve crush produced increases in NGF content of lumbar ganglia at 1, 4, and 7–8 days after injury, with increased NGF mRNA at 4 and 7–8 days. Increases in NGF at 1 and 4 days were most pronounced on the unlesioned side while increases at days 7 and 8 were most pronounced on the lesioned side. NGF content increased in cervical ganglia of nerve-lesioned animals at 3 and 7 days after injury and in lumbar and cervical ganglia of sham-operated animals 3–5 days after surgery, with no comparable changes in NGF mRNA. Elevations of ganglionic NGF coincide temporally with some of the alterations in metabolism and morphology which occur in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve crush. However, the bilateral nature of increases in NGF demonstrates that the factor(s) producing the response is not restricted to ganglia axotomized by the injury. The data suggest that ganglionic NGF may be regulated by systemic factors, produced during stress or trauma, as well as by factors from the denervated target tissue and/or regenerating axons.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Acidosis ; Seizures ; Brain slices ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Lowering [Mg2+]o induces epileptiform bursting in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (EC), presumably by activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Since increasing [H+]o has been shown to reduce NMDA receptor activation, we hypothesized that this could contribute to anticonvulsant actions of acidic pH. To test this, we studied the effects of raising extracellular PCO2 (20.6%, pH = 6.7) or lowering extracellular pH (6.7 or 6.2) on low-Mg2+-induced epileptiform discharges. Lowering the pH to 6.7 by either means increased the interval between seizure-like events (SLEs), decreased the maximal amplitude of SLEs, and, if the site of seizure generation was at a distance from the recording site, acidification slowed the rate of seizure propagation. In contrast, the duration of SLEs was unaffected by acidic pH or high PCO2. Raising PCO2 or lowering pH to 6.7 also blocked early (8–10 min) but not late (〉 20 min) phases of status-like discharges. All effects of the extracellular pH changes were fully reversible. Further lowering of extracellular pH to 6.2 completely and reversibly blocked both SLEs and status-like discharges. Our data show that the effects of high PCO2 and low pH on seizures in the EC in vitro may be dose-dependent and consistent with induction by proton blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, blockade of NMDA currents by protons may be an important component of the anticonvulsant action of extracellular acidosis. The results also suggest that acidosis may be a desirable property for new antiepileptic treatments.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Substantia nigra ; Striatum ; Transplant Dopamine ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ability of mature dopaminergic neurons derived from ventral mesencephalon to re-initiate growth after making contact with a non-innervated target was studied using the intra-ocular grafting model. Foetal ventral mesencephalic tissue or brain stem including the locus coeruleus area was grafted to the anterior chamber of the eye. Two weeks, 6 weeks or 1 year after the first implantation, foetal striatal tissue was placed in contact with the nigral graft or grafted alone. The size of the transplants was measured through the cornea. The final size of the striatal grafts was significantly larger when placed alone than when co-grafted with 1-year-old or 6-week-old dopaminergic grafts. Striatum grafted together with 2-week-old nigra was larger than when grafted adjacent to mature substantia nigra, but not significantly so. Nerve fibre outgrowth into the iris from the nigral transplants did not increase after maturation, but the re-innervated area of the host iris progressively increased around the locus coeruleus grafts. Ingrowth of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive nerve fibres into the striatal grafts was studied 6 weeks after the second implantation. TH immunohistochemistry revealed innervation of the striatal piece in all cases, except for the group where striatum alone was grafted. With the short survival time for cografts of 6 weeks, TH-positive nerve fibres innervated a larger volume, had a patchy appearance and the density was higher in striatum grafted to 2 week-old nigral transplants than that seen in striatal transplants grafted to mature nigral grafts. The patchy pattern of TH-immunoreactive nerve terminals was also seen in striatum co-grafted with 6-week-old or 1-year-old nigral transplants. No difference in striatal innervation volume was detected between those latter two groups. When striatum was implanted adjacent to mature ventral mesencephalon and grown together for 6 months — the longer survival time — the same dense TH-positive innervation as seen in striatum co-grafted with immature nigral tissue at the shorter survival time was found. Additionally, the nigral part of the co-grafts showed increased TH-immunoreactive nerve fibre density. In conclusion, dopaminergic neurites from mature ventral mesencephalic transplants can re-initiate growth if placed in contact with non-innervated striatal tissue. The nigral grafts do not progressively re-innervate the host iris, while locus coeruleus grafts do. The intra-ocular grafting model can be used to study the in vivo effects of trophic factors on mature dopaminergc neurons.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Platelet-derived growth factor ; Striatal neurons ; DARPP-32 ; Huntington's disease ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the present study was to determine if either of the two isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB, exerts trophic effects in vitro on developing rat striatal neurons. Striatal neurons were identified using immunocytochemistry for dopamine- and adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kilodalton (DARPP-32). In control cultures without PDGF, the mean number of DARPP-32-positive neurons decreased by 47% at days 3 to 5 in vitro. PDGF-BB, but not PDGF-AA, significantly increased the number of DARPP-32-positive neurons both at day 3 (by 42%) and day 5 (by 149%). Total cell number was similar in control and PDGF BB-treated cultures, suggesting that, in striatal cultures, the action of PDGF-BB is relatively specific for DARPP-32-positive neurons. The DARPP-32-positive neurons in PDGF-BB-treated cultures had longer neurites and larger soma areas than those in control and in PDGF-AA-treated cultures. Our data provide evidence that PDGF-BB exerts a trophic action on striatal DARPP-32-positive neurons in vitro by promoting cell survival and morphological differentiation, although a stimulatory effect on intraneuronal DARPP-32 levels also is possible. The findings raise the possibility that PDGF-BB might also be involved in the development and maintenance of striatal neurons in vivo, and could be used to counteract striatal degeneration in models of Huntington's disease.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebral cortex ; Anatomy ; Connections Corticocortical ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Anatomical and functional findings support the contention that there is a distinct posterior parietal cortical area (PPC) in the rat, situated between the rostrally adjacent hindlimb sensorimotor area and the caudally adjacent secondary visual areas. The PPC is distinguished from these areas by receiving thalamic afferents from the lateral dorsal (LD), lateral posterior (LP), and posterior (Po) nuclei, in the absence of input from the ventrobasal complex (VB) or dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nuclei. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that PPC is involved in spatial orientation and directed attention. In the present study we used fluorescent retrograde axonal tracers primarily to investigate the cortical connections of PPC, in order to determine the organization of the circuitry by which PPC is likely to participate in these functions, and also to determine how the topography of its thalamic connections differs from that of neighboring cortical areas. The cortical connections of PPC involve the ventrolateral (VLO) and medial (MO) orbital areas, medial agranular cortex (area Fr2), portions of somatic sensory areas Par1 and Par2, secondary visual areas Oc2M and Oc2L, auditory area Tel, and retrosplenial cortex. The secondary visual areas Oc2L and Oc2M have cortical connections which are similar to those of PPC, but are restricted within orbital cortex to area VLO, and within area Fr2 to its caudal portion, and do not involve auditory area Te1. The cortical connections of hindlimb cortex are largely restricted to somatic sensory and motor areas. Retrosplenial cortex, which is medially adjacent to PPC, has cortical connections that are prominent with visual cortex, do not involve somatic sensory or auditory cortex, and include the presubiculum. We conclude that PPC is distinguished by its pattern of cortical connections with the somatic sensory, auditory and visual areas, and with areas Fr2, and VLO/MO, in addition to its exclusive thalamic connectivity with LD, LP and Po. Because recent behavioral studies indicate that PPC, Fr2 and VLO are involved in directed attention and spatial learning, we suggest that the interconnections among these three cortical areas represent a major component of the circuitry for these functions in rats.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Estrogen ; Gastric acid secretion ; Glucose ; Hypothalamus ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gastric acid outputs caused by glucose injection into the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were examined in insulin hypoglycemia with or without estradiol-17β (EST) administration in bilaterally ovariectomized (OV) female rats. The basal level of acid output was higher in OV rats without EST than in OV rats with EST. When acid response was expressed as the percentage change, glucose injection into the LHA decreased acid output in a dose-dependent fashion in OV rats, while, in OV rats with EST, glucose injection into the LHA also reduced acid output without dose dependency. It was also noted that the threshold concentration of glucose that induced an acid response was lower in OV rats without EST than in OV rats with EST. These findings suggest that glucose-sensitive neurons responsible for gastric acid secretion can be modulated by estrogen at the LHA level.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Amygdala ; Estrogen ; Preoptic area ; Septum ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Electrical stimulation of the medial amygdala (AMY) elicited antidromic action potentials in neurons in the preoptic area (POA) and the lateral septum (LS) of 36 urethane-anesthetized ovariectomized female rats, which were either treated with estrogen o not treated. The extracellular potentials from the two sites showed similar characteristics, with the exception of the sensitivity to estrogen: they had latencies between 3 and 35 ms. Thresholds were as low as 100 μA. The mean relative refractory period was 2.2 ms. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of the positive-negative biphasic potential ranged from 1.0 mV to 12.0 mV. Estrogen had site-specific effects on parameters of antidromic activation in the POA. Estrogen-treated rats had a significantly higher threshold (937 vs 664 μA) and a longer refractory period (2.5 vs 2.1 ms) than the ovariectomized rats (P 〈 0.05 for each). The effects were absent in the LS. Selective cutting of the stria terminalis diminished the AMY-induced antidromic responses in the POA and LS. Electrical stimulation of the stria blocked the AMY-induced antidromic potentials by collision. Thus, estrogen-sensitive POA efferents as well as non-estrogen-sensitive LS efferents project to the AMY via the stria terminalis. Reductions in axonal excitability would inhibit neural conduction and transmission. Estrogen may therefore reduce the AMY inputs from the POA, without affecting those from the LS. Such alterations in the neural impulse flow may underlie estrogen-dependent neuroendocrine or behavioral regulation.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Respiratory control ; Phrenic nerve ; Motoneuron ; Spinal hemisection ; Serotonin ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Serotonin reveals ineffective (subthreshold) pathways from the C2 lateral funiculus to ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons in spinalized rats. The objective of the present study was to investigate serotonergic modulation of crossed-spinal pathways to contralateral phrenic motoneurons. Rats (n = 10) were anesthetized (urethane), paralyzed, vagotomized, and artificially ventilated. The spinal cord was hemisected at C1–C2 and, on the intact side, a tungsten stimulating electrode was placed ventral to the C2 dorsal root entry zone in the dorsolateral (∼ 1.1 mm) or the ventrolateral funiculus (∼2.2 mm depth). Single shocks (100–750 μA, 0.1–0.5 ms, 2 Hz) elicited a short-latency (∼ 1.0 ms to peak) excitation in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, but usually evoked little or no response in the contralateral phrenic nerve at either stimulus site. Following systemic injection of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline (25 mg/kg) and the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5–10 mg/kg), complex responses were revealed in the contralateral phrenic nerve, including; (1) spontaneous tonic activity; (2) a short-latency (∼1.0 ms to peak) evoked excitation; and (3) two long-latency (∼2.2 and 7.8 ms to peak) evoked excitations. The longest latency excitation was expressed only when the stimulating electrode was positioned in the dorsolateral funiculus. Contralateral evoked responses were blocked by systemic methysergide (2–6 mg/kg), a broad-spectrum serotonin receptor antagonist. These results indicate that serotonin converts ineffective crossed phrenic pathways in the spinal cord to effective pathways. It remains to be determined whether serotonin is both necessary and sufficient in this modulatory process, or if it is a nonspecific result of increased phrenic motoneuron excitability.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Calcium ions ; Neurons ; Acid-base changes ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of changes in intra- and extracellular pH (pHi and pHe, respectively) on the cytosolic, free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of neocortical neurons was studied by microspectrofluorometric techniques and the fluorophore fura-2. When, at constant pHe, pHi was lowered with the NH4Cl prepulse technique, or by a transient increase in CO2 tension, [Ca2+]i invariably increased, the magnitude of the rise being proportional to ΔpHi. Since similar results were obtained in Ca2+-free solutions, the results suggest that the rise in [Ca2+]i was due to calcium release from intracellular stores. The initial alkaline transient during NH4Cl exposure was associated with a rise in [Ca2+]i. However, this rise seemed to reflect influx of Ca2+ from the external solution. Thus, in Ca2+-free solution NH4Cl exposure led to a decrease in [Ca2+]i. This result and others suggest that, at constant pHe, intracellular alkalosis reduces [Ca2+]i, probably by enhancing sequestration of calcium. When cells were exposed to a CO2 transient at reduced pHe, Ca2+ rose initially but then fell, often below basal values. Similar results were obtained when extracellular HCO 3 - concentration was reduced at constant CO2 tension. Unexpectedly, such results were obtained only in Ca2+-containing solutions. In Ca2+-free solutions, acidosis always raised [Ca2+]i. It is suggested that a lowering of pHe stimulates extrusion of Ca2+ by ATP-driven Ca2+/2H+ antiport.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Transplantation ; Serotonin neurons ; Hypothalamus ; Electron microscopy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously reported that a cell suspension from the rostral part of the embryonic raphe grafted to the basal hypothalamus of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-denervated rats produced incomplete serotonin (5-HT) re-innervation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as opposed to hyper-innervation of the supraoptic nucleus (SON). We took advantage of this experimental model to investigate whether the graft-derived, 5-HT fibres retained normal ultrastructural features, and, particularly, a normal density of synaptic junctions, irrespective of the extent of target re-innervation. The intrinsic features of immunostained, graft-derived 5-HT axonal varicosities in both the SCN (ventral portion) and the SON were essentially similar to those exhibited by the respective endogenous innervation. Analysis of well-preserved varicosities in uninterrupted series of thin sections allowed us to evaluate directly the proportions of junctional to non-junctional 5-HT varicosities in both regions. Synaptic incidences were also remarkably conserved after grafting (45.5% in the SCN versus 38.5% in the SON; 48% and 38% in normal rats, respectively). Synapses were primarily reestablished on dendritic shafts, which also were identified as the major post-synaptic targets of the normal 5-HT innervations. We noted, however, a tendency toward increased numbers of symmetrical versus asymmetrical synapses in both the SCN and SON of grafted rats. Thus, irrespective of whether hypo-or hyper-innervation patterns developed post-grafting, the transplanted 5-HT neurons essentially retained normal ultrastructural features in their target territories, with a normal incidence of synaptic junctions. The data provide further support to the hypothesis that the innervation territory is the major determinant of the frequency with which ingrowing 5-HT fibres make synaptic junctions.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Facial motor nucleus ; Reticular formation ; Biocytin ; Cholera toxin B ; Synapses ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine whether neurones in the parvicellular reticular formation are in direct synaptic contact with motoneurones innervating facial muscles, a combined retrograde and anterograde transport study was carried out in the rat. Animals received injections of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase into facial muscles and of the anterograde tracer biocytin into the parvicellular reticular formation. The facial motor nucleus was then examined for anterograde and retrograde labelling in the light and electron microscopes. Retrogradely labelled neurones were found in the facial motor nucleus with a distribution that was dependent on the muscles injected. Terminals anterogradely labelled with biocytin from the parvicellular reticular formation were observed in the motor nucleus amongst the retrogradely labelled neurones. At the electron microscope, the retrogradely labelled cells were found to receive input from unlabelled terminals and from terminals that were anterogradely labelled from the injections of biocytin in the parvicellular reticular formation. The labelled terminals were 1–2 μm in diameter at the active zone and packed with spherical vesicles. They formed both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses with their labelled or unlabelled targets. It is concluded that neurones in the parvicellular reticular formation form direct synaptic contact with motoneurones of facial muslces. This may represent a pathway by which the basal ganglia can directly influence orofacial movement, as the substantia nigra is known to project to that part of the reticular formation.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Object recognition ; Configural discrimination ; Memory ; Fornix ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of fornix lesions were examined in an object recognition memory test based on spontaneous exploration. In the standard condition an object (A) was presented in the sample phase and then presented again in the test phase alongside a new object (B). Both fornix-transected (Fx) and control (Co) rats spent more time exploring the new object than the familiar object after retention delays of 1 min and 15 min. In two configural conditions designed to test sensitivity to reconfigured stimuli, the original sample (A) was now either re-presented alongside its rearranged version (∀), or the re-arranged version itself (∀) was presented with a new object (B). In the first configural condition, both the Co and Fx rats spent more time exploring the reconfigured sample (∀) than the original version of the sample (A) following a delay of 1 min, but not 15 min. In the second configural condition, both Co and Fx rats spent more time exploring the new object (B) than the reconfigured version of the sample (∀) following a delay of 15 min but not 1 min. These present results do not support Sutherland and Rudy's hypothesis on hippocampal function; however, they demonstrate that memory of objects as well as memory of reconfigured objects could easily be examined in a test based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Plateau ; Facial ; Crus IIa Guinea pig ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We obtained intracellular recordings of 84 Purkinje cells in vitro from guinea pig slices and of 35 cells in vivo from ketamine-anesthetized rats in order to assess detailed properties of synaptic responses in Purkinje cells following granule cell activation. In vitro, electrical stimulation of the granule cell layer underlying recorded Purkinje cells was used in sagittal slices to predominantly activate synapses on ascending granule cell axons. In vivo, stimulation of the upper lip was used to activate Purkinje cells overlying the upper lip patch in the granule cell layer of crus IIa. In the presence of a GABAA antagonist, Purkinje cells at resting membrane potential responded to both electrical stimulation in vitro and peripheral stimulation in vivo, with a depolarization of 1–10 mV amplitude that lasted for 100–300 ms in the absence of climbing fiber input. Similar prolonged depolarizations could also be induced by brief depolarizing current pulses delivered through the recording electrode, demonstrating that either synaptic or direct depolarization may activate inward currents leading to a sustained response. In support of this hypothesis we found that prolonged depolarizations were shortened significantly when stimulation in the granule cell layer or intracellular current pulses were delivered during hyperpolarizing current steps. Stimulation in the granule cell layer or intracellular current pulses delivered during periods of spontaneous somatic spiking resulted in prolonged depolarizations in dendritic recordings, which were accompanied by an increase in somatic spiking frequency. Following upper lip stimulation in vivo, this increase in somatic spiking was interrupted by an inhibition of 10–50 ms duration. In a majority of recordings, this inhibition did not completely abolish prolonged depolarizations, however, and a delayed increase in somatic spike frequency was still observed. These results suggest that prolonged increases in Purkinje cell spike frequency following peripheral stimulation are due to an underlying prolonged dendritic depolarization induced by granule cell input. Further, a single, short burst of input via ascending granule cell axons appears to be sufficient to induce these responses.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Neostriatum ; In vitro brain slices Inward rectification ; Subthreshold ion conductances Firing pattern ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intracellular recordings from slice preparations were used to assess the subthreshold electrophysiological behavior of rat neostriatal projection neurons. Both current steps and ramp currents were used to estimate the current-voltage relationship (I–V plot). Inward rectification in the subthreshold range was a characteristic of most neurons. The amount of rectification varied greatly, and it was complex: membrane voltage trajectories in response to ramps were made up by almost piecewise changes in the rate of voltage rise, suggesting that multiple conductances contribute to the subthreshold range. Inward current blockers such as tetrodotoxin (TTX) or Cd2+ decreased inward rectification, whereas outward current blockers such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased inward rectification. However, most inward rectification was due to TEA- and Cs+-sensitive conductances and not to TTX- or Cd2+-sensitive conductances. Cs+-sensitive conductances predominated at more negative membrane potentials, whereas 4-AP-sensitive conductances predominated at just ±10 mV below the firing threshold. In spite of a very slow activation, there was evidence for transient outward currents modulating the response, i.e., 4-AP-sensitivity, and voltage-sensitivity for firing frequency and threshold. TEA-sensitive conductances also contributed toward fixing the firing threshold. These results imply the contribution of various ion conductances on the shaping of the characteristic physiological firing recorded in vivo. Modulation of these responses by transmitters or peptides may help to understand neural processing in the neostriatum.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Amoeboid microglia Major histocompatibility complex Type 3 complement receptor ; Endotoxin ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In rats given two single intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 1 and 4 days of age and killed at 7 days of age, 11.5–12% of amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) in the supraventricular corpus callosum were induced to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen, as detected with monoclonal antibody OX-6. The MHC class II antigen induced was colocalized with MHC class I antigen and type 3 complement receptors on the same cells. The expression of MHC class II antigen on the plasma membrane of AMC was confirmed in immunoelectron microscopy. Although OX-6-positive AMC often assumed a perivascular position, the majority of them, however, were far removed from the blood vessels. The cytoplasmic processes of the perivascular OX-6-positive AMC appeared to rest directly on the vascular lamina, and in some section profiles they were in contact with a large surface area of the outer wall of small blood vessels. It is concluded from this study that although MHC class II antigen is not constitutively present on AMC, it is, however, inducible under stimulation with LPS. It is, therefore, suggested that the OX-6-positive AMC, especially the perivascular AMC, may have the potentiality to function as antigen-presenting cells in the developing brain when challenged by LPS.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Norepinephrine ; Lateral geniculate nucleus ; Locus coeruleus ; Burst firing ; Receiver operating characteristic analysis ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) encode information related to behavioral state in a tonic pattern of firing and information related to the occurrence of a sensory stimulus in a phasic pattern of firing. The effects of phasic stimulation of the LC (6 pulses at 30 Hz), designed to approximate its physiological activation by sensory stimuli, were studied in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of anesthetized rats. Phasic stimulation of the LC significantly increased neuronal firing in the LGN with a mean latency 320 ms from onset of stimulation. Receiver operating characteristic analyses on a trial-by-trial basis showed that phasic LC stimulation can result in a highly discriminable signal in the LGN. This increased neuronal firing rate in the LGN was specific for the site of stimulation and was reduced by the norepinephrine synthesis inhibitor α-methyl-p-tyrosine and by intravenous WB-4101 (α1-receptor antagonist). Neurons in the LGN have a single-spike firing mode when sensory information is faithfully relayed from retina to cortex and a burst-firing mode when the transfer of this information is degraded. Phasic LC stimulation reduced burst firing (2–5 ms interspike intervals, ISIs) at low frequencies (≤4 Hz) in the LGN, and for some neurons there was an absolute decrease in burst-like ISIs after LC stimulation, despite an increase in mean firing rate.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Calcium-binding protein ; Development ; Immunocytochemistry ; Olfactory bulb ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The laminar development of the external plexiform layer (EPL) in the rat main olfactory bulb and the postnatal development of parvalbumin-immunoreactive [PV(+)] neurons mainly located in this layer were studied in animals at postnatal week 1–4 at a light microscopic level. The EPL in the adult olfactory bulb consists of two sublayers, the inner sublayer (ISL) and the outer sublayer (OSL). The ISL was already developed well even at postnatal day 7 (P7), whereas the OSL was first recognized at P10 as a thin zone consisting of more or less loosely packed large-sized and small-to-medium-sized somata subjacent to the glomerular layer (GL). The OSL increased in thickness and came to occupy nearly one-third to -half of the EPL at P14. PV(+) neurons first appeared at P10 mainly in the inner border of EPL. Only a few PV(+) neurons were scattered in the EPL at P10, but they increased remarkably in number during P14–21. Some of these PV(+) neurons at P10 had an intensely immunoreactive soma, extending relatively long processes with varicosities and/or spines. At P14, PV(+) neurons were located not only in the ISL but also at the border between the ISL and OSL, but in the OSL proper they were rarely observed. These PV(+) neurons showed branched and complicated processes with numerous varicosities and spines, displaying more mature features than those in previous stages. Even at P14 many of these PV(+) neurons appeared to exhibit some characteristic structural features of those in the adult stage. At P21, PV(+) neurons were observed in the OSL and thus showed almost the adult pattern in their distribution and morphological features. The present study showed the development of PV(+) neurons in the rat main olfactory bulb and the difference between the ISL and OSL of the EPL in postnatal development.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Calcium-binding protein Immunocytochemistry ; Olfactory bulb ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The laminar distribution and morphological features of parvalbumin-immunoreactive [PV(+l)] neurons, one of the subpopulations of GABAergic neurons, were studied in the rat olfactory bulb at a light microscopic level. In the main olfactory bulb of adult rats, PV(+) neurons were mainly located in the external plexiform layer (EPL), and a few were scattered in the glomerular layer (GL), mitral cell layer (ML), and granule cell layer (GRL); whereas PV(+) neurons were rarely seen in the accessory olfactory bulb. The inner and outer sublayers of the EPL (ISL and OSL) appeared to be somewhat different in the distribution of PV(+) somata and features of PV(+) processes. PV(+) somata were located throughout the OSL, and PV(+) processes intermingled with one another, making a dense meshwork in the OSL; whereas, in the ISL, PV(+) somata were mainly located near the inner border of the EPL, and PV(+) processes made a sparser meshwork than that in the OSL. PV(+) neurons in the EPL were apparently heterogeneous in their structural features and appeared to be classifiable into several groups. Among them there appeared five distinctive types of PV(+) neurons. The most prominent group of PV(+) neurons in the OSL were superficial short-axon cells, located in the superficial portion of this sublayer and giving rise to relatively thick processes, in horizontal or oblique directions, which usually bore spines and varicosities. Another prominent group of PV(+) neurons extended several short, branched dendrites with spines and varicosities, which appeared to intermingle with one another, making a relatively small, spherical or ovoid dendritic field around the cell bodies; most of them resembled Van Gehuchten cells reported in previous Golgi studies. A third distinctive and most numerous group of PV(+) neurons were of the multipolar type; their somata and processes were located throughout the EPL. Their relatively smooth processes with frequent varicosities and a few spines were extended horizontally or diagonally throughout the EPL. A fourth group, which could be a subtype of the multipolar type, were located in or just above th ML and extended several thin, smooth dendrites in the EPL, some of which appeared to reach the border between the GL and EPL. Occasionally, axonlike processes arose from their cell bodies and extended into the ML. This fourth type of PV(+) neuron was named inner short-axon cells. A fifth group of neuron was located in the ML; processes of these neurons were extended horizontally, so they were named inner horizontal cells. PV(+) processes from the fourth and the fifth group of cells appeared to make contacts on mitral cell somata. In the GL some presumably periglomerular cells were also PV(+). In the GRL, PV(+) neurons were small in number, but they were also heterogeneous in their structural features; Some were identified as Golgi cells. This study shows a tremendous heterogeneity in morphological features of a chemically defined subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Optokinetic nystagmus ; Vestibulo-ocular reflex ; Frontal eye field ; Hemineglect ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spontaneous saccadic orientation and compensatory eye movements in response to optokinetic and vestibular velocity steps were studied in head-restrained, pigmented rats before and 1–2 weeks after unilateral ablation of