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  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (101)
  • Regulation  (84)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Anthranilate synthase ; Cell permeabilisation ; Indoleglycerolphosphate synthase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes ; Tryptophan pool
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The free tryptophan pool and the levels of two enzymes of tryptophan biosynthesis (anthranilate synthase and indoleglycerolphosphate synthase) have been determined in a wild type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mutants with altered regulatory properties. The tryptophan pool of wild type cells growing in minimal medium is 0.07 μmole per g dry weight. Addition of anthranilate, indole or tryptophan to the medium produces a fifteen- to forty-fold increase in tryptophan pool, but causes no repression of the biosynthetic enzymes. Inclusion of 5-methyltryptophan in the growth medium causes a reduction in growth rate and a derepression of the biosynthetic enzymes, and this is shown here not to be correlated with a decrease in the free tryptophan pool. Mutants with an altered anthranilate synthase showing decreased sensitivity to inhibition by l-tryptophan or by the analogue dl-5-methyltryptophan have a tryptophan pool far higher than the wild type strain, but no repression of indoleglycerolphosphate synthase was observed. Mutants with an anthranilate synthase more sensitive to tryptophan inhibition show a slightly reduced tryptophan pool, but no derepression of indoleglycerolphosphate synthase was found. A mutant with constitutively derepressed levels of the biosynthetic enzymes shows a considerably increased tryptophan pool. Addition of 5-methyltryptophan to the growth medium of non-derepressible mutants causes a decrease in growth rate accompanied by a decrease in the tryptophan pool.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 110 (1976), S. 313-318 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Yeast protoplasts ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Conjugation ; Cell wall ; Morphogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protoplasts prepared from complementary haploid strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae were studied with regard to their ability of conjugating. Neither fresh protoplasts nor the growing protoplasts possessing fibrillar walls exhibited sex specific agglutination or fusion. However, they were capable of inducing sexual activation in normal cells of opposite mating type. After completing the regeneration of cell walls the protoplasts could conjugate either with each other or with cells of opposite sex. The frequency of conjugations was low, about 1%, and was largely dependent on the degree of completition of the wall during regeneration. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The initiation of mating is dependent on the integrity of the cell wall. 2. The sex specific morphogenetic changes do not occur in wall-less protoplasts but may happen after the protoplasts have regenerated their cell walls. 3. The lysis of cell walls does not occur until the walls come into close contact. 4. The fusion of plasma membranes in sex-activated protoplasts cannot be induced by artefucial agglutination.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Mating reaction ; Sexual agglutination ; Temperature dependency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Temperature dependency of sexual agglutination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found. Of 31 strains tested, which showed normal agglutination when cultured at 25°C, 29 strains lost their sexual agglutinability when they were grown at 37°C.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Yeast flocculation ; Chemical modification of cell surface components ; Floc-forming ability ; Brewer's yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Deflocculation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Effects of treatments with proteolytic enzymes and protein-modifying reagents on flocculation of brewer's yeast IFO 2018 were investigated. The floc-forming ability of the yeast cells was irreversibly eliminated by treatment with papain, trypsin, chymotrypsin or pepsin, indicating that certain proteins on the cell surface participate in the yeast flocculation. Chemical modification with reagents, known to act on disulfide bridges, carboxyl and/or phosphate groups, phenolic groups, amino groups, and imidazole groups, also destroyed the ability to flocculate, although in some cases a high concentration (8 M) of urea was necessary in addition to protein-modifying reagents. Thus, it is suggested strongly that these functional groups of amino acid residues of the proteins are essential for the floc-forming ability of brewer's yeast cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; Amoebae ; Aminopeptidases ; Acid proteases ; Regulation ; Development ; Differential gene activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cultivation of Physarum polycephalum amoebae in two media with different protein contents revealed a regulation of aminopeptidases and proteases depending on the albumin content of the medium: in growing amoebae and plasmodia the aminopeptidases have similar isoenzyme patterns and relative activities against nitroanilides. One alanine and four leucine aminopeptidase isoenzymes were found within the slightly acid pH range. During growth amoebae secrete—different from plasmodia—leucine aminopeptidase into the medium with low protein content. In an albumin-rich medium additional alanine aminopeptidase activity was found. Out of nine plasmodial proteases four were found in amoebae too. Only one band (pI 3.6) was present in the protein-poor medium. No protease activity could be detected in the proteinrich medium.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Streptococcus cremoris ; Cell wall proteinase ; Calcium dependency ; Regulation ; Translational control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The persistent accumulation of proteinase (PIII) activity in the cell wall of Streptococcus cremoris strain AM1 during growth depends on the presence of Ca2+-ions in the medium. In the absence of calcium initial accumulation of activity in the cell wall is observed, followed by a decrease to a low final level. Under this condition no increase of proteolytic activity is found in the extracellular fluid. A possible function of calcium in the stabilization of the enzyme is discussed. Prolonged accumulation of catalytically active proteinase PIII in the cell wall occurs in the absence of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis. This process involves de novo protein synthesis supported by preformed proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid, which is possibly either intrinsically long-lived or is stabilized following its transcription. The level of the extracellular concentration of amino acids and/or peptides regulates the translation of newly synthesized proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid and, possibly, the growth of the organism in milk.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Sulfur dioxide ; Sulfite ; Air polluting substances ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; ATP hydrolysis ; Reversibility of sulfite effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sulfite, at concentrations above 1 mM and at a pH below 4, caused cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180 as measured by the colony-forming capacity. A rapid decrease in the ATP content was observed prior to cellular death. The depletion of ATP was reversible and the lethal effect could be prevented if the cells were exposed to sulfite for periods of less than 1 h. Extent and rate of ATP depletion were dependent on time, pH value, temperature and sulfite concentrations.
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