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  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (59)
  • Springer  (59)
  • 1990-1994  (58)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974  (1)
  • 1992  (58)
  • 1972  (1)
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  • 1990-1994  (58)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Mitochondria ; Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ; RNA processing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Eighteen nuclear mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each disturbed in the biosynthesis of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) and each representing a distinct complementation group, have been examined to identify the level at which COX1 expression is affected. RNA blotting revealed that most have a defect in the processing of COX1 precursor-mRNA; only a few are defective in COX1 transcription and/or pre-mRNA stability. In most RNA-processing mutants, the absence of the COX1 messenger results from a defect in the splicing of one or more COX1 introns. In turn, this defect can be ascribed to a mutation in a nuclear gene which is either directly involved in splicing or else acts indirectly by impairing COX1 translation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutant ; PGK overexpression ; In vivo misreading
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The hts1.1 temperature-sensitive histidinyl-tRNA synthetase mutation enables Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be starved for His-tRNAHis by upshift to the non-permissive temperature of 38°C. If yeast behaves similarly to bacterial and mammalian cells, this lack of His-tRNAHis should greatly enhance misreading at histidine codons (CAU/CAC) by Gln-tRNAGln, resulting in substitution of the neutral amino acid glutamine in place of histidine, a basic amino acid. Such misreading causes the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins to shift to lower values, and is readily detectable as “stuttering” on two-dimensional (2D) protein gels. By gel analysis of pulse-labelled proteins of hts1.1 yeast cells that were overexpressing phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), our study sought to detect this specific translational error in PGK protein. It was not detected by this relatively sensitive technique, indicating that missense errors due to glutamine insertion at histidine codons do not occur in yeast at the readily-detectable level found in bacterial and mammalian cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Hydrostatic pressure ; Tetraploidy ; Homozygous diploid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Hydrostatic pressure and a dye plate method were used to investigate the direct induction of tetraploids or homozygous diploids from the industrial diploid or haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Above 200 MPa, hydrostatic pressure greatly inactivated the strains HF399s1 (α haploid), P-540 (a/α diploid), and P-544 (a/α diploid). At the same time, when pressure-treated cells of these strains were spread on a dye plate, some of the visible colonies were stained red/blue or dark blue (variant colonies); the rest stained violet, similar to colonies originating from diploid cells or haploid cells that were not pressure-treated. In addition, above 100 MPa, the formation of variant colonies increased with increasing pressure, and maximized (1x10-1) at 200 and 250 MPa, respectively. The size of almost all variant cells from P-544, P-540, and HF399s1 was visibly increased compared with that of untreated cells and the measured cellular DNA content of P-540 and HF399s1 was double that of untreated cells. Furthermore, based on random spore analysis and mass-matings, induced variants in the diploid strains were found to be tetraploid with an a/a/α/α genotype at the mating-type locus or, in the haploid strains, homozygous diploid with an α/α genotype. From these results we conclude that pressure treatment in combination with a dye plate is a useful method for strain improvement by direct induction of tetraploids or homozygous diploids from industrial strains whether diploid or haploids.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Sulphite-resistant mutants ; Sulphite uptake ; Acetaldehyde accumulation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth inhibition and cell killing caused by sulphite were reduced in seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulphite-resistant independent mutants, compared to their parental strains. Genetic analysis showed that in the seven mutants resistance was inherited as a single-gene dominant mutation and that all the analyzed mutations were allelic, thus identifying a major gene responsible for sulphite resistance in S. cerevisiae. Two of the mutants, MBS20-9 and MBS30, were further characterized. 35S-sulphite uptake experiments showed that the ability to accumulate sulphite was markedly reduced in the two resistant strains. No difference between resistant and sensitive strains with respect to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase sensitivity to sulphite, or to intracellular glutathione content, were revealed. In contrast, the extracellular acetaldehyde concentration was higher in the resistant mutants, both in the presence and in the absence of sulphite.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Stationary phase ; mtDNA ; Storage carbohydrate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Double-mutant cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring the gcs1-1 and sed1-1 mutations are conditionally defective (cold-sensitive) only for reentry into the mitotic cycle from stationary phase. If already proliferating at the permissive temperature (29°C), these reentry-mutant cells continue to proliferate when transferred to the restrictive temperature of 14°C, but under these conditions reentry-mutant cells lose mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In addition, upon exhaustion of the nutrient supply at 14°C, these reentry-mutant cells entered stationary phase at a decreased cell concentration and did not accumulate the reserve carbohydrates trehalose and glycogen. Both of these deficiencies were due to the loss of mtDNA, as shown by the responses of wild-type cells also lacking mtDNA. Mitochondrial status did not affect other aspects of the reentry-mutant phenotype. Although mitochondrial activity and the accumulation of carbohydrate reserves are typical features of cells in stationary phase, the reentry-mutant phenotype reveals that neither entry into nor exit from stationary phase need involve mitochondrial function.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Yeast cells ; Yeast protoplasts ; Cell wall ; Congo red ; (1 » 3)-β-d-glucan microfibrils ; Cytokinesis ; Reversion of walled protoplasts to cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Congo red was applied to growing yeast cells and regenerating protoplasts in order to study its effects on wall biogenesis and cell morphogenesis. In the presence of the dye, the whole yeast cells grew and divided to form chains of connected cells showing aberrant wall structures on both sides of the septum. The wall-less protoplasts in solid medium with the dye exhibited an abnormal increase in volume, regeneration of aberrant cell walls and inability to carry out cytokinesis or protoplast reversion to cells. In liquid medium, the protoplasts synthesized glucan nets composed mainly of thin fibrils orientated at random, whereas normally, in the absence of dye, the nets consist of rather thick fibrils, 10 to 20 nm in width, assembled into broad ribbons. These fibrils are known to consist of triple 6/1 helical strands of (1 » 3)-β-d-glucan aggregated laterally in crystalline packing. The thin fibrils (c. 4 to 8 nm wide) can contain only a few triple helical strands (c. 1.6 nm wide) and are supposed to be prevented from further aggregation and crystallization by complexing with Congo red on their surfaces. Some loose triple 6/1 helical strands (native elementary fibrils) are also discernible. They represent the first native (1 » 3)-β-d-glucan elementary fibrils depicted by electron microscopy. The effects of Congo red on growth and the wall structure in normal cells and regenerating protoplasts in solid medium can be explained by the presence of a complex which the dye forms with (helical) chain parts of the glucan network and which results in a loss of rigidity by a blocked lateral interaction between the helices.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA repair ; Incoming DNA ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Ultraviolet light
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Purified double- and single-stranded DNAs of the autonomously replicating vector M13RK9-T were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) in vitro and introduced into competent whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Incoming double-stranded DNA was more sensitive to UV in excision repair-deficient rad2-1 cells than in proficient repair RAD + cells, while single-stranded DNA exhibited high sensitivity in both host cells. The results indicate that in yeast there is no effective rescue of UV-incoming single-stranded DNA by excision repair or other constitutive dark repair processes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Trans-kingdom conjugation ; DNA integration ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Escherichia coli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary IncQ-derived conjugative shuttle vectors, which carried the yeast gene URA3 and/or the yeast autonomously replicating sequence (ARS1), were constructed. Both the ars-plus plasmid pAY205 and the ars-less plasmid pAY201 were successfully transmitted from E. coli to S. cerevisiae by the action of mob and tra. In this trans-kingdom conjugation, plasmid pAY205 could replicate and be retained in transconjugants. Plasmid pAY201 caused the formation of “micro-colonies” of abortive transconjugants due to its transient expression and rapid disappearance. Nevertheless, one per about 103 colonies caused by transmitted pAY201 plasmids were uncurable by integration into the homologous region of a yeast chromosome. Analyses by restriction enzyme mapping and Southern hybridization indicate that this integration is primarily caused by a double crossover during conjugation and not by a single reciprocal recombination.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Lysis mutants ; Plasmid stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The autonomously replicating plasmid YEpSS1, containing the S. cerevisiae SOD1 and SRB1 genes, was highly unstable in a wild-type strain. When transformed into a fragile srb1-1 mutant host, the same plasmid displayed different characteristics depending on the growth medium used. Both batch and continuous culture experiments demonstrated that the plasmid was very unstable when the transformed strain SLU15 was grown in the presence of an osmotic stabiliser (10% w/v sorbitol). However, in the absence of the osmoticum, nearly 100% of the cells retained the plasmid and produced the Sod1 protein after 80 generations of growth.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Wine yeasts ; Chromosome length polymorphism ; TAFE ; Probe hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Wine yeast strains are characterized by a high chromosomal DNA polymorphism. This can be explained partly by a size difference of different variants of specific chromosomes. This difference can reach up to 45% of the size of the chromosome in question. Two strains, SB1 and Eg8, have a very complex chromosomal pattern and show one band hybridizing with probes from two different chromosomes derived from a reference strain. This is an indication of the presence of “hybrid” chromosomes in these wine strains. The most astonishing result concerns chromosome VIII, frequently present in wine strains in two variant forms. The first normal form has a size of about 580 kb while the second is around 1000 kb. These two forms segregate at meiosis and recombine with a normal chromosome VIII from a laboratory strain. Wine yeasts are thus very different from haploid laboratory strains.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; IMP dehydrogenase ; 6-azauracil ; GTP level
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The addition of 6-azauracil to the growth medium causes a strong reduction of the GTP level in the nucleotide pool of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In-vitro experiments show a strong inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase activity by 6-azaUMP explaining the preceeding effect. PPR2 mutants, previously characterized by an increased sensitivity to 6-azauracil compared to the wildtype, are specifically susceptible to the lowering of the GTP pool, and are able to grow in presence of 6-azauracil when guanine is added to the medium.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Mismatch correction ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Excision repair ; DNA methylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The efficiency and direction of mismatch correction in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP4-o gene were not altered by an excision-repair defect (rad1). Although excision-repair functions remove methylated adenine from yeast, adenine methylation at a GATC sequence in SUP4-o did not direct the correction of mismatches via excision repair.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Transcriptional activator ; Oxidative stress ; Glutathione
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The PAR1/SNQ3 gene of S. cerevisiae, which increases resistance to iron chelators in multi-copy transformants, is identical to the YAP1 gene, a yeast activator protein isolated as a functional homologue of the human c-jun oncogene by binding specifically to the AP-1 consensus box. The observed H2O2-sensitivity of par1 mutants has been attributed to an increased sensitivity to reduced oxygen intermediates. Accordingly, par1 mutants did not survive an elevated oxygen pressure and were very sensitive to menadione and methylviologene, two chemicals enhancing the deleterious effects of oxygen. The specific activities of enzymes involved in oxygen detoxification, such as superoxide dismutase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase, were decreased in par1 mutants and increased after PAR1 over-expression. As in the case of oxygen detoxification enzymes, the cellular levels of glutathione were similarly affected. These observations indicate that PAR1/YAP1/SNQ3 is involved in the gene regulation of certain oxygen detoxification enzymes. The finding that H2O2 promotes DNA-binding of human c-jun is consistent with a similar function for PAR1/YAP1/SNQ3 and c-jun in cellular metabolism.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cysteine biosynthetic ; CYS4 ; Mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A DNA fragment containing the CYS4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated from a genomic library. The cloned fragment hybridized to the transverse-alternating-field-electrophoresis band corresponding to chromosomes VII and XV. According to the 2 μm DNA chromosome-loss procedure, the cys2 and cys4 mutations, which are linked together and co-operatively confer cysteine dependence, were assigned to chromosome VII. By further mapping involving tetrad analysis, the cys2-cys4 pair was localized between SUP77 (SUP166) and ade3 on the right arm of chromosome VII.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Mitochondrial trp-tRNA synthetase ; Nuclear mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The conditional respiratory-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant pet-ts2281 was complemented by an yeast genomic DNA library. The gene thus isolated was sequenced and proved to be identical to the known MSW1 sequence encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Myers and Tzagoloff 1985). Compared to the wild-type, the ts2281 mutant allele of MSW1 contained a single T→C transition leading to a Leu→Ser replacement at position 294 of the protein sequence. In addition to this mutational alteration, our sequence data for the wild-type gene differ from the originally published MSW1 sequence at five other DNA positions which affect two locally restricted regions of the polypeptide chain. As expected, at the non-permissive temperature ts2281 cells are specifically defective in mitochondrial trp-tRNA formation and, thus, in overall mitochondrial protein synthesis. In addition, the patterns of cytochrome b mRNA maturation intermediates were distinctly different in ts2281 and wild-type yeast cells. The mutational effect of the observed amino-acid substitution in ts2281 is discussed in terms of weakened hydrogen bonding in the C-terminal half of the MSW1-encoded protein.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Serine biosynthesis ; Mutant isolation ; Glucose repression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Serine and glycine biosynthesis in yeast proceed by two pathways; a “glycolytic” pathway, using 3-phosphoglycerate, and a “gluconeogenic” pathway, using glyoxylate. We used a mutation in the cat1 gene to abolish the glucose-repressible “gluconeogenic” pathway and re-isolated two mutants, ser1 and ser2, in the “glycolytic” pathway. The ser1 mutation corresponded to phosphoserine transaminase and ser2 to that of phosphoserine phosphatase. Mutagenesis of a ser1 ser2 cat1 triple mutant facilitated the isolation of a mutation in a new gene, SER10. SER10 appears to be part of a pathway which, under normal growth conditions, is less important in serine biosynthesis. The ser1 ser2 ser10 triple mutants were totally serine auxotrophic on glucose media but serine prototrophic during growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. This phenotype was used to select for possible regulatory mutants that synthesize serine by the gluconeogenic pathway even in the presence of glucose, e.g., with a non-glucose repressible glyoxylate cycle. In an alternative approach to isolate such mutants URA3 and TRP1 expression were placed under the control of the glucose-repressible FBP1 (fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) promoter. Although both systems resulted in strong selection pressure we could not isolate constitutively derepressed mutants. These results indicate that transcription of glucose-repressible gluconeogenic enzymes is mainly dependent on positive regulatory elements.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Sterol 14-reductase ; Ergosterol ; Fenpropidin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a genomic library contained in the replicative vector pFL44. The resulting transformants were screened for resistance to fenpropidin, a specific inhibitor of sterol 14-reductase. A plasmid was isolated that transformed yeast both to resistance to fenpropidin and to an increased specific activity of sterol 14-reductase. Sterol analysis of transformed cells grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitor confirmed that resistance was a consequence of over-production of sterol 14-reductase. By chromosomal gene disruption, we have, for the first time, constructed yeast strains defective in sterol 14-reductase. As expected, since yeast in unable to take up sterols in aerobiosis, the disrupted strains do not grow in the presence of oxygen, even if exogenous sterols are supplied. However, disrupted cells grow in anaerobiosis with exogenous oleic acid and ergosterol supplemens. They also grow in aerobiosis if they bear an additional mutation allowing sterol uptake. In this last growth condition the cells require a “sparking” ergosterol supplementation (25nM) and accumulate ignosterol (ergosta-8, 14-dienol) as the end-product of the sterol pathway. These results reveal that ignosterol is not obviously toxic to yeast membranes and strongly suggest that the molecular basis of the antifungal-activity morpholine and piperidine is directly related to the specific inhibition of ergosterol formation.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: 1,3-β-glucanase genes ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Chromosomal mapping ; Genetic mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The map position of three 1,3-β-glucanase-encoding genes in S. cerevisiae has been determined following conventional meiotic and mitotic mapping combined with recombinant DNA techniques. EXG1, EXG2 and SSG1 were localized to chromosomes XII, IV and XV, respectively, by hybridizing the cloned genes to Southern blots of chromosomes sepaated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, in conjunction with the rad52-1-dependent chromosome-loss mapping technique. Meiotic tetrad analyses further localized the EXG1 gene 6.1 centimorgans centromere-proximal to CDC25 on the right arm of chromosome XII. EXG2 was positioned between LYS4 and GCN2 on the right arm of chromosome IV, at distances of 6.2 centimorgans from LYS4 and 4.9 centimorgans from GCN2. Finally, the SSG1 locus mapped on the right arm of chromosome XV, about 8.2 centimorgans to the centromere-proximal side of HIS3.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase ; Glucose repression ; Gene activation ; Gluconeogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis and the FBP1 gene is not transcribed during growth with glucose. Genetic analysis indicated a positive regulation of FBP1 expression after exhaustion of glucose. By linker-deletion analysis, two upstream activation sites (UAS1 and UAS2) were localized and the respective UAS-binding factors (DAP I and DAP II for derepression activating protein) were identified by gel retardation. UAS1 and UAS2 span about 30 bp each, and are separated by approximately 30 bp. Both UAS sites act synergistically. Although UAS1 showed some similarities to the DNA-binding consensus for the general yeast activator Rap1, competition experiments and DEAE-chromatography proved that DAP I and Rap1 correspond to different proteins. Gel retardation by DAP I depended on carbon sources and did not occur in cells growing logarithmically with glucose, whereas a strong retardation signal was obtained with ethanol-grown cells. The present results suggest that DAP I and DAP II are the final regulatory elements for glucose derepression.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Phytochelatin ; Metallothionein ; Heavy metal detoxification ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Neurospora crassa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In fungi, cellular resistance to heavy metal cytotoxicity is mediated either by binding of metal ions to proteins of the metallothionein type or by chelation to phytochelatin-peptides of the general formula (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly. Hitherto, only one fungus, Candida glabrata has been shown to contain both metal inactivating systems. Here we show by unambiguous FAB-MS analysis that both a metallothionein-free mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a wildtype strain synthesize phytochelatin (PC2) upon exposure to 250 μM Cd2+ ions. The presence of Zn and/or Cu ions in the nutrient broth also induces PC2 synthesis in this organism. By 109Cd exchange and subsequent monobromobimane fluorescence HPLC, it could be shown that the presence of Cd2+ in the growth medium also induces phytochelatin synthesis in Neurospora crassa, which contains metallothioneins.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Polygodial ; warburganal ; antifungal activity ; Candida albicans ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Pityrosporum ovale ; enhancing effect ; antioxidants ; vitamin C ; BHA ; anethole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The antifungal activity of two drimane sesquiterpene dialdehydes, polygodial (1) and warburganal (2), alone and in combination with several other substances, was examined against three fungi,Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae andPityrosporum ovale employing a broth dilution method. Anethole significantly synergized the activity of the two sesquiterpenoids againstC. albicans andS. cerevisiae however, it had only an, additive effect againstP. ovale. By contrast, two antioxidants, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), noticeably enhanced the activity of the sesquiterpenoids againstP. ovale, but had no, effect againstC. albicans andS. cerevisiae.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; DNA repair ; Nitrogen mustard ; Interstrand cross-links ; Nucleotide sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A 3.2 kb yeast DNA fragment containing the DNA interstrand cross-link-specific repair gene SNM1 has been sequenced. Two genes were identified. SNM1 has an open reading frame of 1983 by and codes for a 661 amino acid protein. Hydrophobic analysis shows that the protein is most probably not directly membrane bound. The second gene, UGX1, has an open reading frame of 573 by coding for a polypeptide of 191 amino acid residues. The two genes are arranged head to head and share a 192 by divergent promoter region that contains three TATAAA motives, two for the SNM1 and one for the UGX1 locus. Gene UGX1 has no apparent influence on the sensitivity of the cell to cross-linking nitrogen mustard, as its disruption in wild type does not increase sensitivity to nitrogen mustard and the presence of multiple copies of the gene fails to complement the nitrogen mustard sensitivity phenotype of snm1 disruption mutants. Northern analysis revealed that the expression of SNM1 yields an average of 0.3 copies/cell of a 2.4 kb transcript, while expression of UGX1 yields higher levels of a 0.8 kb poly(A)+ RNA.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Replication fork block ; rRNA gene ; 2 gm Plasmid ; 2D agarose gel electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The yeast genome has DNA replication fork blocking sites, that we have named sog sites, in the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) cluster. These are located at the 3′ end of the 35S rRNA transcription unit and they block replication fork movement in a direction opposite to that of RNA polymerase I. We cloned this replication blocking site into a YEp-type plasmid and analyzed DNA replication intermediates, using two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis. The blocking activity remained even on a plasmid not involved in 35S rRNA transcription and inhibited fork movement in the same polar fashion as on the yeast chromosome. To define the site further, smaller fragments were subcloned into the YEp-type plasmid. A small 109 by region exhibited sog activity and was located near the enhancer region for 35S rRNA transcription. It overlaps an essential element of the recombinational hot spot HOT1.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cytochrome c 1 ; Promoter dissection ; HAP1, HAP2 transcription factors ; Centromere and promoter-binding factor (CPF1)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nuclear gene for cytochrome c 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CYT1) was localized on chromosome XV. Its upstream region was identified by functional complementation. Fusion to the lacZ reporter gene on a CEN plasmid allowed study of the effect of carbon sources and of specific deletion mutations on expression of the gene in yeast transformants. Detailed promoter analysis combined with expression studies in recipient strains defective in regulatory genes identified cis-acting sites and transcription factors involved in the regulated expression of the cytochrome c 1 gene. These analyses showed that, in the presence of glucose, transcription of CYT1 is positively controlled by oxygen, presumably through the haem signal, and mediated by the HAP1-encoded transactivator. It is additionally regulated by the HAP2/3/4 complex which mediates gene activation mainly under glucose-free conditions. Basal transcription is, in part, effected by CPF1, a centromere and promoter-binding factor.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: RNA1 ; Ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor ; Homology ; RNA metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Mutations in theRNA1 gene ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae, which encodes an essential cytosolic protein, affect the production and processing of all major classes of RNA. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not at all understood. Detailed comparative sequence analyses revealed that the RNA1 protein belongs to a superfamily, the members of which contain repetitive “leucine-rich motifs” (LRM). Within this superfamily RNA1 is most closely related to the ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor (RAI), which is a tightly binding inhibitor of ribonucleolytic activities in mammals. These results not only provide important clues to the structure, function and evolution of the RNAI protein, but also have intriguing implications for possible novel functions of RAI.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; SRP1 ; Yeast downstream activating sequence ; RAP1/GRF1 binding sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Using a gel retardation assay, a protein factor that specifically interacts with a 33 by intragenic sequence of the highly expressed and glucose-inducible SRP1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been detected. This binding site is located in a transcribed region and within the open reading frame (positions +710 to +743 relative to the first base of the initiation codon). A mutant strain carrying a deletion of this binding site showed a dramatic decrease in steady-state levels of SRP1 transcripts. This decline is not the result of a decrease in mRNA stability, since expression of hybrid genes in which the SRP1 promoter was replaced by the heterologous CYC1 promoter was not affected by the binding site deletion. These findings suggest that the 33 by sequence contains a cis-acting downstream activating element which is involved in the transcriptional activation of the SRP1 promoter. Sequence comparisons showed similarities between a site located within the 33 by sequence and the high-affinity consensus binding site of the RAP1/GRF1 (also named TUF) factor and methylation interference experiments confirmed that this site was involved in the protein-DNA interaction. Both the results of competition experiments with upstream activating sequences of ribosomal protein genes (UASrpg), which are targets for RAP1 binding, and determination of the apparent molecular weight of the affinity-purified DNA-binding protein indicated that RAP1 factor recognized the SRP1 33 by element. The 33 by sequence was found to be unable to provide UAS activity when placed upstream of the TATA box and transcription start site.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: SUC2 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Chromatin ; Micrococcal nuclease ; Promoter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have previously suggested that two positioned nucleosomes are removed from the promoter of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene upon derepression by glucose starvation. To gain further insight into the changes accompanying derepression at the chromatin level we have studied the chromatin structure of the SUC2 promoter in several mutants affecting SUC2 expression. The non-derepressible mutants snf1, snf2 and snf5 present a chromatin structure characteristic of the repressed state, irrespective of the presence or absence of glucose. The non-repressible mutants, mig1 and ssn6, as well as the double mutant snfs sn6 exhibit an opened chromatin structure even in the presence of glucose. These results suggest that the DNA-binding protein encoded by MIG1 is necessary to produce the characteristic pattern of repressed chromatin and that the SNF1 protein kinase is sufficient to produce the derepressed chromatin pattern. A model is presented for the transitions that result in opening up of the chromatin structure.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Nuclear gene ; Mitochondrial splicing ; Suppression ; RNA binding proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have characterized the nuclear geneNAM8 inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. It acts as a suppressor of mitochondrial splicing deficiencies when present on a multicopy plasmid. The suppressed mutations affect RNA folding and are located in both group I and group II introns. The gene is weakly transcribed in wildtype strains, its overexpression is a prerequisite for the suppressor action. Inactivation of theNAM8 gene does not affect cell viability, mitochondrial function or mitochondrial genome stability. TheNAM8 gene encodes a protein of 523 amino acids which includes two conserved (RNP) motifs common to RNA-binding proteins from widely different organisms. This homology with RNA-binding proteins, together with the intronic location of the suppressed mitochondrial mutations, suggests that the NAM8 protein could be a non-essential component of the mitochondrial splicing machinery and, when present in increased amounts, it could convert a deficient intron RNA folding pattern into a productive one.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Protein kinase ; Nonessential gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new protein kinase gene [called NPKI (for nonessential protein kinase)] has been found on chromosome I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae between CDC15 and ADE1. The 435 amino acid/48 kDa gene product is very similar to known protein kinases. It is most closely related to the nimA protein of Aspergillus nidulans, displaying 45.9% identity and 63.5% similarity in the protein kinase domain. A 1.4 kb transcript of the NPKI gene was detected. Disruption of the NPKI gene impedes neither growth on glucose or a variety of other carbon sources, nor mating or sporulation.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Proline ; DNA sequencing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We report here the isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which exhibit cdc phenotypes. The recessive mutations defined four complementation groups, named ore1, ore2, ore3 and ore4. At the non-permissive temperature, strains bearing these mutations arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The wild-type allele of the gene altered in ore2 mutants was cloned. The nucleotide sequence of a fragment which can complement the mutation showed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein with 286 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 25% identity with that of the Escherichia coli Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, an enzyme of the pathway for the biosynthesis of proline. The ore2 mutants, correspondingly, were found to be capable of growing at the non-permissive temperature on a synthetic medium supplemented with proline. In addition, the chromosomal location of the gene and its restriction map were compatible with those previously reported for the PRO3 gene which encodes the S. cerevisiae Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; CaMV 35S promoter ; cAMP ; Transcription factors ; Heterologous expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers strong gene expression in plants, animals and fission yeast, but not in budding yeast. On investigating this paradox, we found that in budding yeast the promoter acts through two domains. Whereas the upstream domain acts as a silencer, the downstream domain couples expression to the nutritional state of the cells via the RAS/cAMP pathway. Point mutations indicate that two boxes with similarity to the cAMP regulated element (CRE) of mammalian cells mediate this response. Gel retardation assays show that, in both yeast and plant protein extracts, factors bind to this promoter element. Therefore, transcriptional activation appears to be highly conserved at the level of transcription factors and specific DNA target elements in eukaryotes. This offers new ways to investigate gene regulation mechanisms of higher eukaryotes, which are not as amenable to genetic analysis as yeast.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Lipoamide dehydrogenase ; HAP activation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The LPD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase (LPDH), is subject to catabolite repression. The promoter of this gene contains a number of motifs for DNA-binding transcriptional activators, including three which show strong sequence homology to the core HAP2/HAP3/HAP4 binding motif. Here we report that transcription of LPD1 requires HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4 for release from glucose repression. In the wild-type strain, specific activity of LPDH was increased 12-fold by growth on lactate, 10-fold on glycerol and four- to five-fold on galactose or raffinose, compared to growth on glucose. In hap2, hap3 and hap4 null mutants, the specific activities of LPDH in cultures grown on galactose and raffinose showed only slight induction above the basal level on glucose medium. Similar results were obtained upon assaying for β-galactosidase production in wild-type, or hap2, hap3 or hap4 mutant strains carrying a single copy of the LPD1 promoter fused in frame to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli and integrated at the URA3 locus. Transcript analysis in wild-type and hap2 mutants confirmed that the HAP2 protein regulates LPD1 expression at the level of transcription in the same way as it does for the CYC1 gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of the putative HAP2/HAP3/HAP4 binding site at −204 relative to the ATG start codon showed that this element was required for full derepression of the LPD1 gene on non-fermetable substrates.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell division cycle ; CDC26 ; Nuclear division
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have cloned and sequenced the wild-type CDC26 gene and a mutant allele, cdc26-1, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the gene we cloned was the same as SCD26, a dosage-dependent suppressor of cdc26. However, the cloned gene is in fact the CDC26 gene, because a nucleotide substitution in cdc26-1 was found to be a nonsense mutation in this sequence. Disruption of this gene conferred thermosensitive cell growth and the disrupted cdc26 gene could not complement the cdc26-1 mutant allele. Thus, the CDC26 gene is required for cell growth only at high temperature.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Staurosporine ; Protein kinase C ; Cell cycle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Staurosporine is an antibiotic that specifically inhibits protein kinase C. Fourteen staurosporine- and temperature-sensitive (stt) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and characterized. These mutants were divided into ten complementation groups, and characterized for their cross-sensitivity to K-252a, neomycin, or CaCl2, The STT1 gene was cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the STT1 gene revealed that STT1 is the same gene as PKC1. The STT1 gene conferred resistance to staurosporine on wild-type cells, when present on a high copy number plasmid. STT1/stt1::HIS3 diploid cells were more sensitive to staurosporine than STT1/STT1 diploid cells. Analysis of temperature-sensitive stt1 mutants showed that the STT1 gene product functioned in S or G2/M phase. These results suggest that a protein kinase (the STT1 gene product) is one of the essential targets of staurosporine in yeast cells.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; cdc9-1 ; DNA ligase ; DNA sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In this study we present the characterization of the temperature-sensitive mutant allele cdc9-1 encoding DNA ligase, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A364A by DNA sequencing. Comparison with the published wild-type sequence from strain SKI revealed 13 nucleotide exchanges between these two sequences, which are derived from non-isogenic genetic backgrounds. Only four of these changes, distributed over the whole coding region, lead to amino acid exchanges in the protein chain. Our analysis of the sequence of the wild-type CDC9 allele from strain A364A revealed differences from the isogenic cdc9-1 allele in only two nucleotides: one silent change and one leading to a single amino acid exchange. The latter is therefore responsible for the temperature-sensitive phenotype. A mosaic protein, in which a region carrying this amino acid exchange has been inserted in place of the corresponding part of CDC9 from the non-isogenic strain SKI, is not temperature sensitive. The exchange of a longer stretch of DNA leading to atteration of three amino acids of the protein compared with the original sequence of SKI is required to obtain a temperature-sensitive DNA ligase in this strain, while in strain A364A a single amino acid change is sufficient for expression of a temperature-sensitive protein.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Essential gene ; Respiration ; Mutants ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new gene essential for cell viability and indispensable for the biogenesis of a functional respiratory chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated by complementing a temperature-sensitive mutant. This conditional nuclear mutation selectively affects oxidative phosphorylation at restrictive temperatures. At the molecular level a severe and complex defect inside mitochondria is observed, with drastically reduced levels of mitochondrial transcripts. Surprisingly a null mutation in this nuclear gene in a haploid yeast strain leads to cell death. Spores containing a disrupted copy of the gene exhibit a severe growth defect and cell division stops irreversibly after 3 to 4 days. It is shown that the null and conditional mutants are indeed allelic. This finding demonstrates a dual function of the gene product in oxidative phosphorylation and vegetative growth. The putative protein product, as deduced from the sequence of the relevant reading frame is characterized by a low molecular weight of approximately 14 kDa, a high content of charged amino acids and a very low codon bias index. A transcript of low abundance and with a length of about 600 nucleotides can be assigned to this gene.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Translation ; Initiation factor ; Chromosomal mapping ; Pulsed-field electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Translation initiation factor eIF-5A is an abundant protein in which a lysine residue is modified by spermidine to form the amino acid derivative, hypusine. The factor is encoded by two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, called TIF51A and TIF51B, which are regulated reciprocally by oxygen and by heme. TIF51B, also called ANBI, is located on chromosome X in a region called COR. We physically mapped TIF51A and its associated serine tRNA2 gene by the method of chromosome fragmentation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. TIF5IA maps 90 kb from the left end of chromosome V in a region called ARC. The COR and ARC regions contain CYCI and CYC7, respectively, and appear to be duplications carrying numerous related genes. The arrangements of related genes in the two regions are incompatible with a duplication mechanism involving a circular intermediate.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: cis-acting elements ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Transcriptional regulation ; Ribosomal protein genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Previous work in our laboratory has shown that the 5′ nontranscribed promoter region of the gene for ribosomal protein (rp) S16A-1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when fused to a lacZ gene, is necessary and sufficient to cause an increase in expression of the heterologous lacZ gene fusion product after cells have been shifted from a glycerol to glucose carbon source. This increase in expression is characteristic of that observed with the native rp gene. We have sought to define more precisely those areas of the promoter that may be involved in the differential expression/regulation of RPS16A-1 when host cells are subjected to a variety of nutritional environments. It has already been demonstrated by others that the promoter regions of most rp genes contain at least one consensus element, designated UASrpg, which is necessary for the transcriptional activation and maintenance of expression of the gene during steady-state growth in rich media. Our main experimental approach has been to create a series of 5′ end deletions in the promoter region of RPS16A-1. The individual truncated promoter fragments were then ligated to a lacZ fusion reporter construct. By assaying the cells for production of β-galactosidase and determining the abundance of lacZ mRNA, we have been able to determined the extent of fusion product expression. We assayed cells under three physiological conditions: steady-state growth in glucose, steady-state growth in glycerol and during sporulation. We report four main findings of our work.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: DNA damage ; Excision repair ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Gene regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RAD2 gene is absolutely required for damage-specific incision of DNA during nucleotide excision repair and is inducible by DNA-damaging agents. In the present study we correlated sensitivity to killing by DNA-damaging agents with the deletion of previously defined specific promoter elements. Deletion of the element DRE2 increased the UV sensitivity of cells in both the G1/early S and S/G2 phases of the cell cycle as well as in stationary phase. On the other hand, increased UV sensitivity associated with deletion of the sequence-related element DRE1 was restricted to cells irradiated in G1/S. Specific binding of protein(s) to the promoter elements DRE1 and DRE2 was observed under non-inducing conditions using gel retardation assays. Exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents resulted in increased protein binding that was dependent on de novo protein synthesis.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Schizosaccharomyces pombe ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Signal transduction ; Sexual differentiation ; Protein kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), the mat1-Pm gene, which is required for entry into meiosis, is expressed in response to a pheromone signal. Cells carrying a mutation in the ste8 gene are unable to induce transcription of mat1-Pm in response to pheromone, suggesting that the ste8 gene product functions in the signal transduction pathway. The ste8 + gene encodes a 659 amino acid putative protein kinase, which is identical to the previously identified byr2 suppressor of the ras1 defect. Furthermore, ste8 + is highly homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE11 gene, which functions in signal transduction in budding yeast. Expression of the S. cerevisiae STE11 gene in S. pombe ste8 mutants restores the ability to transcribe mat1-Pm in response to pheromone. Also, such cells become capable of conjugation and sporulation. When mat1-Pm is artifically expressed from a heterologous promoter, ste8 mutant cells will enter meiosis. This demonstrates that the meiotic defect of ste8 mutants is due to the absence of the mat1-Pm gene product.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; CDC4 ; Suppression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The gene SCM4 encodes a protein which suppresses a temperature-sensitive allele of the cell division cycle gene CDC4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SCM4 was cloned on a 1.8 kb BamHI fragment of yeast genomic DNA in the high copy-number vector pJDB207, which results in a 50- to 100-fold increase in the level of the 700 nucleotide SCM4 transcript in vivo. The SCM4 gene encodes a 20.2 kDa protein of 187 aminoacids with a clear tripartite domain structure in which a region rich in charged residues separates two domains of largely uncharged amino acids. Although the apparent allele specificity of cdc4 suppression suggests that the CDC4 and SCM4 proteins interact, disruption of SCM4 demonstrates that the gene product is not essential for mitosis or meiosis; however, it may be a member of a family of related, functionally redundant proteins.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Excision repair (RAD1) ; Mutational specificity ; Nitrogen mustard ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Double-strand break repair (RAD52)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Nitrogen mustard (HN2) mutagenesis of a plasmid-borne copy of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP4-o gene was examined in a repair-proficient yeast strain and isogenic derivatives defective for excision (radl) or DNA double-strand break (rad52) repair. The excision repair deficiency sensitized the cells to killing by HN2 and abolished mutation induction. Inactivation of RAD52 had no influence on the lethality of HN2 treatment but diminished the induced mutation frequency by 50% at all doses tested. DNA sequence analysis of HN2-induced SUP4-o mutations suggested that RAD52 contributed to the production of basepair substitutions at G·C sites. The rad52 defect appeared to alter the distribution of G·C → A·T transitions in SUP4-o relative to the distribution for the wild-type strain. This difference did not seem to be due to an effect of RAD52 on the relative fractions of HN2-induced transitions at localized (flanked by A·T pairs) or contiguous (flanked by at least one G·C pair) G·C sites but instead to an influence on the strand specificity of HN2 mutagenesis. In the repair-proficient strain, the transitions showed a small bias for sites having the guanine on the transcribed strand and this preference was eliminated by inactivation of RAD52.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: pso4-1 mutation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Mitotic recombination ; 8-Methoxypsoralen photoreaction ; his4 gene duplication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Spontaneous mitotic recombination was examined in the haploid pso4-1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the corresponding wild-type strain. Using a genetic system involving a duplication of the his4 gene it was shown that the pso4-1 mutation decreases at least fourfold the spontaneous rate of mitotic recombination. The frequency of spontaneous recombination was reduced tenfold in pso4-1 strains, as previously observed in the rad52-1 mutant. However, whereas the rad52-1 mutation specifically reduces gene conversion, the pso4-1 mutation reduces both gene conversion and reciprocal recombination. Induced mitotic recombination was also studied in pso4-1 mutant and wild-type strains after treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA and 254 nm UV irradiation. Consistent with previous results, the pso4-1 mutation was found strongly to affect recombination induction.
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  • 44
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    Protoplasma 166 (1992), S. 110-113 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Calmodulin ; Ca2+ ; Cell polarity ; Budding yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Microfilament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Intracellular localization of calmodulin was examined in the budding yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Distribution of calmodulin changes in a characteristic way during the cell cycle. Calmodulin localizes to a patch at the presumptive bud site of unbudded cells. It concentrates at the bud tip in small-budded cells, and later it diffuses throughout the entire bud. At cytokinesis, calmodulin is largely at the neck between the mother and daughter cells. Double staining experiments have shown that the location of some polarized actin dots is coincident with that of calmodulin dots. Polarized localization of actin dots is observed in cells depleted of calmodulin, suggesting that calmodulin is not required for localization of the actin dots. Thecdc24 mutant that has a defect in bud assembly at the restrictive temperature fails to exhibit polarized localization of calmodulin, indicating that theCDC24 gene product is responsible for controlling the polarity of calmodulin.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Thiolase ; Peroxisome evolution ; Bootstrap analysis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The thiolase family is a widespread group of proteins present in prokaryotes and three cellular compartments of eukaryotes. This fact makes this family interesting in order to study the evolutionary process of eukaryotes. Using the sequence of peroxisomal thiolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae recently obtained by us and the other known thiolase sequences, a phylogenetic analysis has been carried out. It shows that all these proteins derived from a primitive enzyme, present in the common ancestor of eubacteria and eukaryotes, which evolved into different specialized thiolases confined to various cell compartments. The evolutionary tree obtained is compatible with the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of peroxisomes.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Brassica napus ; chloroplast ; 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase ; molecular evolution ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Both insect and mammalian genes have previously been cloned by genetic complementation in yeast. In the present report, we show that the method can be applied also to plants. Thus, we have cloned a rape cDNA for 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMDH) by complementation of a yeast leu2 mutation. The cDNA encodes a 52 kDA protein which has a putative chloroplast transit peptide. The in vitro made protein is imported into chloroplasts, concomitantly with a proteolytic cleavage. We conclude that the rape cDNA encodes a chloroplast IMDH. However, Southern analysis revealed that the corresponding gene is nuclear. In a comparison of IMDH sequences from various species, we found that the rape IMDH is more similar to bacterial than to eukaryotic proteins. This suggests that the rape gene could be of chloroplast origin, but has moved to the nucleus during evolution.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; maltose induction ; catabolite repression ; chemostat ; α-glucosidase ; permease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Glucose prevented maltose utilization in batch culture ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae whereas in a mixed carbohydrate-limited system, maltose and glucose were consumed simultaneously. The specific activity of α-glucosidase depended on the dilution rate as well as the proportion of maltose in the mixture. The chemostat provides a way of reaching the low residual concentrations of glucose in the broth that are necessary to release catabolite repression and permit maltose induction of α-glucosidase.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Curing ; fermentative behaviour ; killer ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Fermentative behaviour and cell growth have been studied in grape juice inoculated either with two killerSaccharomyces cerevisiae wild strains or with their Acridine Orange-cured isogenic counterparts. The number of viable cells/ml at the beginning of the fermentation, as well as during exponential growth, were higher in grape juices inoculated with the cured strains. The CO2 production, fermentative rate and ethanol and acetic acid production were also higher in the cured strains, particularly during the stage of active fermentation. These differences, however, were minimal at the end of the fermentations.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Flocculation ; linoleic acid hydroperoxide ; lipid hydroperoxide ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A lipid hydroperoxide-resistant mutant was isolated from a strain ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant was resistant to 1.5mm tert-butylhydroperoxide and 1.0mm linoleic acid hydroperoxide. It flocculated in a Ca2+-dependent manner and the resistance against lipid hydroperoxide was suppressed by mannose, which also inhibited flocculation. A positive relationship between the acquirement of, the flocculent phenotype and resistance against lipid hydroperoxide is suggested. A protein with a molecular weight of 33 kDa was found on the surface of the mutant cell.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Aroma ; compound ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; wine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Fourteen strains of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from three wineries in the Salnés wine region (N.W. Spain) at the three different periods of the natural fermentation. Each wild yeast was screened for production of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isobutanol,n-propanol, amylic alcohol and other important enological compounds during laboratory scale fermentations of grape juice. After 25 days at 20°C, the analytical results evidenced variations in the production of acetaldehyde (from 13.1 to 24.3 mg/l), isobutanol (from 27.7 to 51.1 mg/l), amyl alcohols (from 111 to 183 mg/l) and ethyl acetate (from 19.3 to 43.7 mg/l). Although isolated from the same wine region, differences in the wine composition were observed depending on the particular yeast strain used for the vinification experiments.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: l-Phenylacetyl carbinol ; Biotransformations ; Two-phase systems ; Whole cells ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Biotransformation of benzaldehyde and pyruvate to (R)-phenylacetyl carbinol bySaccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in two-phase aqueous-organic reaction media. With hexane as organic solvent, maximum biotransformation activity was observed with a moisture content of 10%. Of the organic solvents tested, highest biotransformation activities were observed with hexane and hexadecane, and lowest activities occurred with chloroform and toluene. Biocatalyst samples from biphasic media containing hexane, decane and toluene manifested no apparent cell structural damage when examined using scanning electron microscopy. In contrast, cellular biocatalyst recovered from two-phase systems containing chloroform, butylacetate and ethylacetate exhibited damage in the form of cell puncturing after different incubation periods. Phospholipids were detected in reaction media from biocatalytic systems which exhibited cell damage in electron micrographs. Phospholipid release was much lower in the two-phase systems containing toluene or hexane or in 100% aqueous biocatalytic system.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: Vacuolar H+-ATPase ; VMA genes ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The yeast vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase is a member of the third class of H+-pumping ATPase. A family of this type of H+-ATPase is now known to be ubiquitously distributed in eukaryotic vacuo-lysosomal organelles and archaebacteria. NineVMA genes that are indispensable for expression of the enzyme activity have been cloned and characterized in the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae. This review summarizes currently available information on theVMA genes and cell biological functions of theVMA gene products.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: electrophoretic karyotyping ; genetics ; Saccharomyces bayanus ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Saccharomyces paradoxus ; taxonomy ; yeast ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Genetic and karyotypic studies of naturalSaccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts from Finland, Holland and Slovakia revealed three wild sibling-species:Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccaromyces bayanus andSaccharomyces paradoxus.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: introns ; pre-mRNA splicing ; RNA processing ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; yeast genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The occurrence of introns in nuclear precursor RNAs (pre-mRNAs) is widespread in eukaryotes, and the splicing process that removes them is basically the same in yeasts as it is in higher eukaryotes. Splicing takes place in a very large, multi-component complex, the spliceosome, and biochemical studies have been complicated by the large number of splicing factors involved. This review describes how genetic approaches used to study RNA splicing inSaccharomyces cerevisiae have complemented the biochemical studies and led to rapid advances in the field.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: heterologous gene expression ; non-Saccharomyces yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; secretion ; protein production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The exploitation of recombinant DNA technology to engineer expression systems for heterologous proteins represented a major task within the field of biotechnology during the last decade. Yeasts attracted the attention of molecular biologists because of properties most favourable for their use as hosts in heterologous protein production. Yeasts follow the general eukaryotic posttranslational modification pattern of expressed polypeptides, exhibit the ability to secrete heterologous proteins and benefit from an established fermentation technology. Aside from the baker's yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae, an increasing number of alternative non-Saccharomyces yeast species are used as expression systems in basic research and for an industrial application. In the following review a selection from the different yeast systems is described and compared.
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  • 56
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    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 62 (1992), S. 47-62 
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; genetics ; translation regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches have made the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae a convenient organism to study translation. The sequence similarity of translation factors from yeast and other organisms suggests a high degree of conservation in the translational machineries. This view is also strengthened by a functional analogy of some proteins implicated in translation. Beautiful genetic experiments have confirmed existing models and added new insights in the mechanism of translation. This review summarizes recent experiments using yeast as a model system for the analysis of this complex process.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; cell wall ; alpha-factor ; cdc mutant ; chitin ; glucan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We performed experiments in parallel to study the rate of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and the activity of glycosyl transferases inSaccharomyces cerevisiae after arrest of acdc 28 mutant in G1 phase by either addition of alpha-factor or transfer to the non-permissive temperature. Both effectors brought about similar time-dependent increases in the rate of synthesis and deposition of the cell wall polysaccharides chitin, glucan and mannan. These changes in cell wall composition were accompanied by an increase in the specific activities of glucan and chitin synthetases. This increase was inhibited by cycloheximide suggesting that it representedde novo enzyme biosynthesis and not enzyme activation. Our data are consistent with the notion that both alpha-factor and thecdc 28 mutation affect the same stage-specific function that controls the temporal expression of glycosyl transferases.
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 62 (1992), S. 3-14 
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; nuclear pore complex ; nuclear transport ; nuclear localization sequence ; nucleoporins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The central features of nuclear import have been conserved during evolution. In yeast the nuclear accumulation of proteins follows the same selective and active transport mechanisms known from higher eukaryotes. Yeast nuclear proteins contain nuclear localization sequences (NLS) which are presumably recognized by receptors in the cytoplasm and the nuclear envelope. Subsequent to this recognition step, nuclear proteins are translocated into the nucleus via the nuclear pore complexes. The structure of the yeast nuclear pore complex resembles that of higher eukaryotes. Recently, the first putative components of the yeast nuclear import machinery have been cloned and sequenced. The genetically amenable yeast system allows for an efficient structural and functional analysis of these components. Due to the evolutionary conservation potential insights into the nuclear import mechanisms in yeast can be transferred to higher eukaryotes. Thus, yeast can be considered as a eukaryotic model system to study nuclear transport.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Dichlorvos ; Ethyl Methanesulphonate ; Host-Mediated Assay ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Mutagenesis ; Mitotic Gene Conversion ; Dichlorvos ; Äthylmethansulfonat ; Versuch mit Wirtstieren ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Mutagenese ; Mitotische Genkonversion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Mit Saccharomyces cerevisiae D 4 als Versuchsorganismus wurden an Mäusemännchen als Wirtstieren Versuche mit oraler Dosierung von Äthylmethansulfonat oder Dichlorvos bzw. mit Dichlorvos in der Atemluft, durchgeführt. Nach 5 Std wurden die entnommenen Hefezellen auf mitotische Genkonversion an den ade2- (Adenin) und trp5- (Tryptophan) Genstellen untersucht. Keine Erhöhung der mitotischen Genkonversion wurde an den Hefezellen aus Mäusen, denen oral 50 oder 100 mg/kg Dichlorvos verabreicht worden oder die 5 Std einer Atemluft mit 60 oder 99 μg/l Dichlorvosdampf ausgesetzt waren, festgestellt. Bei Mäusen, denen 400 mg/kg Äthylmethansulfonat verabreicht worden waren, war die Rate der mitotischen Genkonversion an beiden Genstellen erhöht. An stationären, mit Dichlorvos und Äthylmethansulfonat behandelten Hefekulturen wurde die Rate der mitotischen Genkonversion nach 5 Std bestimmt. Dichlorvos in einer Konzentration von 4 mg/l erhöhte die Konversionsrate an beiden Genstellen; bei 2 mg/l Dichlorvos war jedoch keine Wirkung festzustellen, 1 mg/ml Äthylmethansulfonat zeigte an beiden Genstellen Wirkung. Aus diesen Experimenten geht hervor, daß hohe Dichlorvoskonzentrationen im Kulturmedium die Rate der mitotischen Genkonversion beiSaccharomyces cerevisiae in vitro steigern kann; der Versuch mit Wirtstieren führt jedoch im Zusammenhang mit dem schnellen Metabolismus der Verbindung nach oraler, Verabreichung oder Einatmen zu negativen Ergebnissen.
    Notes: Abstract Host-mediated assays, usingSaccharomyces cerevisiae D 4 as the test organism, were carried out on male mice dosed orally with dichlorvos or ethyl methanesulphonate, or exposed to dichlorvos vapour. After 5 h, harvested yeast-cells were analysed for mitotic gene conversion at the ade2 (adenine) and trp5 (tryptophan) loci. No enhancement of mitotic gene conversion was recorded in yeast-cells harvested from mice which had been dosed orally with 50 or 100 mg dichlorvos per kg, or exposed for 5 h to atmospheres containing 60 or 99 μg dichlorvos vapour per litre. In mice dosed orally with 400 mg/kg ethyl methanesulphonate the rate of mitotic gene conversion was increased at both loci. In stationary phase cultures of the yeast treated with dichlorvos or ethyl methanesulphonate the mitotic gene conversion rate was determined after 5 h. Dichlorvos increased the rate of conversion at both loci at a concentration of 4 mg/ml but no effect was evident with 2 mg/ml dichlorvos. 1 mg/ml ethyl methanesulphonate was positive at both loci. These experiments show that high concentrations of dichlorvos in the culture medium can increase the mitotic gene conversion rate inSaccharomyces cerevisiae in vitro but the host-mediated assay yields negative results associated with the rapid metabolism of the compound when given by the oral or inhalation routes.
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