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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (3,521)
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  • THERAPY  (1,120)
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  • 1
    Keywords: PROTEIN ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; PROGRESSION ; inactivation ; NEPHROPATHY ; 2 PARTS ; MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN ; VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS ; CD59
    Abstract: Coagulation and complement regulators belong to two interactive systems constituting emerging mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. Thrombomodulin (TM) regulates both coagulation and complement activation, in part through discrete domains. TM's lectin like domain dampens complement activation, while its EGF-like domains independently enhance activation of the anti-coagulant and cytoprotective serine protease protein C (PC). A protective effect of activated PC in diabetic nephropathy is established. We hypothesised that TM controls diabetic nephropathy independent of PC through its lectin-like domain by regulating complement. Diabetic nephropathy was analysed in mice lacking TM's lectin-like domain (TMLeD/LeD) and controls (TMwt/wt). Albuminuria (290 mug/mg vs. 166 mug/mg, p=0.03) and other indices of experimental diabetic nephropathy were aggravated in diabetic TMLeD/LeD mice. Complement deposition (C3 and C5b-9) was markedly increased in glomeruli of diabetic TMLeD/LeD mice. Complement inhibition with enoxaparin ameliorated diabetic nephropathy in TMLeD/LeD mice (e.g. albuminuria 85 mug/mg vs. 290 mug/mg, p〈0.001). In vitro TM's lectin-like domain cell-autonomously prevented glucose-induced complement activation on endothelial cells and - notably - on podocytes. Podocyte injury, which was enhanced in diabetic TMLeD/LeD mice, was reduced following complement inhibition with enoxaparin. The current study identifies a novel mechanism regulating complement activation in diabetic nephropathy. TM's lectin-like domain constrains glucose-induced complement activation on endothelial cells and podocytes and ameliorates albuminuria and glomerular damage in mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23014597
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  • 2
    Keywords: PHASE-I ; THERAPY ; antibody ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; MELANOMA-CELLS ; SOLID TUMORS ; cancer therapeutics ; immunotoxin ; REPLICATION-DEFICIENT ; RIBONUCLEASES
    Abstract: Antibody therapy of solid cancers is well established, but suffers from unsatisfactory tumor penetration of large immunoglobulins or from low serum retention of antibody fragments. Oncolytic viruses are in advanced clinical development showing excellent safety, but suboptimal potency due to limited virus spread within tumors. Here, by developing an immunoRNase-encoding oncolytic adenovirus, we combine viral oncolysis with intratumoral genetic delivery of a small antibody-fusion protein for targeted bystander killing of tumor cells (viro-antibody therapy). Specifically, we explore genetic delivery of a small immunoRNase consisting of an EGFR-binding scFv antibody fragment fused to the RNase Onconase (ONCEGFR ) that induces tumor cell death by RNA degradation after cellular internalization. Onconase is a frog RNase that combines lack of immunogenicity and excellent safety in patients with high tumor killing potency due to its resistance to the human cytosolic RNase inhibitor. We show that ONCEGFR expression by oncolytic adenoviruses is feasible with an optimized, replication-dependent gene expression strategy. Virus-encoded ONCEGFR induces potent and EGFR-dependent bystander killing of tumor cells. Importantly, the ONCEGFR -encoding oncolytic adenovirus showed dramatically increased cytotoxicity specifically to EGFR-positive tumor cells in vitro and significantly enhanced therapeutic activity in a mouse tumor xenograft model. The latter demonstrates that ONCEGFR is expressed at levels sufficient to trigger tumor cell killing in vivo. The established ONCEGFR -encoding oncolytic adenovirus represents a novel agent for treatment of EGFR-positive tumors. This viro-antibody therapy platform can be further developed for targeted/personalized cancer therapy by exploiting antibody diversity to target further established or emerging tumor markers or combinations thereof. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25303768
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; GENOME ; PATHWAYS ; THERAPY ; GENE ; BREAST-CANCER ; prognosis ; MUTATION ; DATABASE ; MUTATIONS ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; tumours ; Type ; LANDSCAPES ; MYELOID-LEUKEMIA GENOME ; PROJECT ; CANCER-THERAPY ; MANAGEMENT ; SUBTYPES ; REPERTOIRE ; SCIENCE ; development
    Abstract: The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies
    Type of Publication: Miscellaneous publication
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  • 4
    Keywords: KINASE INHIBITOR ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; PROTEIN ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; INHIBITOR ; KINASE
    Type of Publication: Miscellaneous publication
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; SPECTRA ; ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; ADVANCED SOLID TUMORS ; AGENTS ; ANGIOSTATIN ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; CELL ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; COMBINATION ; DOPPLER ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; evaluation ; FACTOR RECEPTOR ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; LUNG ; MICROSCOPY ; MICROVESSEL DENSITY ; MODEL ; MODELS ; neoplasms ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; PERFUSION ; PHASE-I ; PROSTATE ; RECOMBINANT HUMAN ENDOSTATIN ; THERAPY ; TOXICITY ; tumor growth ; TYROSINE KINASE ; VITRO ; VIVO
    Abstract: The multifaceted nature of the angiogenic process in malignant neoplasms suggests that protocols that combine antiangiogenic agents may be more effective than single-agent therapies. However it is unclear which combination of agents would be most efficacious and will have the highest degree of synergistic activity while maintaining low overall toxicity. Here we investigate the concept of combining a "direct" angiogenesis inhibitor (endostatin) with an "indirect" antiangiogenic compound [SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor]. These angiogenic agents were more effective in combination than when used alone in vitro (endothelial cell proliferation, survival, migration/invasion, and tube formation tests) and in vivo. The combination of SU5416 and low-dose endostatin further reduced tumor growth versus monotherapy in human prostate (M), lung (A459), and glioma (U87) xenograft models, and reduced functional microvessel density, tumor microcirculation, and blood perfusion as detected by intravital microscopy and contrast-enhanced Doppler ultrasound. One plausible explanation for the efficacious combination could be that, whereas SU5416 specifically inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, low-dose endostatin is able to inhibit a broader spectrum of diverse angiogenic pathways directly in the endothelium. The direct antiangiogenic agent might be able to suppress alternative angiogenic pathways up-regulated by the tumor in response to the indirect, specific pathway inhibition. For future clinical evaluation of the concept, a variety of agents with similar mechanistic properties could be tested
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14695206
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  • 6
    Keywords: measurement ; CANCER ; proliferation ; Germany ; LUNG ; THERAPY ; ALGORITHM ; ALGORITHMS ; ANATOMICAL MODEL ; AUTOMATIC DETECTION ; BAYESIAN-ANALYSIS ; cancer screening ; chest ; CLASSIFICATION ; COMMON ; computed tomography (CT),image processing ; computers,diagnostic aid ; computers,neural networks ; CT ; DENSITY ; DIAGNOSIS ; EMPHYSEMA ; FOLLOW-UP ; follow-up studies ; GENERATION ; GROUND-GLASS OPACITIES ; HIGH-RESOLUTION CT ; IMAGES ; imaging ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; MASK ; MULTIPLE NEURAL-NETWORKS ; NETWORK ; NETWORKS ; neural networks ; QUANTIFICATION ; screening ; segmentation ; SOLITARY PULMONARY NODULES ; SPIRAL CT ; SUPPORT ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; thorax ; TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES ; TOOL ; TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY ; VENTILATION ; VISUALIZATION ; VOLUME
    Abstract: The proliferation of digital data sets and the increasing amount of images, e.g. through the use of multislice spiral CT or multiple follow-up examinations in the context of new therapies, are ideal prerequisites for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in chest radiology. Multiple studies have described the applications and advantages of computer assistance in performing different diagnostic tasks. More powerful computers will enable the introduction of these systems into the clinical routine and could provide an enormous increase in morphological and functional information. The commercial introduction of tools for detection and visualization of pulmonary nodules has already begun. This is one of the most widely-reported applications in view of the ongoing studies on lung cancer screening. The next generation of tools will improve the diagnosis of emphysema through detection, quantification and classification. Many more uses are being developed, for instance the detection and classification of infiltrates, volume measurements or functional pulmonary imaging (e.g. dynamic ventilation CT or (3)Helium-MRI). Grossly simplified, most systems use a three level structure consisting of segmentation/feature extraction, classification of extracted features and an output unit. The output can be mere visualization through color-coding, volume measurements or calculated probabilities. The output supports the radiologist in establishing his findings and preparing differential and final diagnoses as well as providing quantitative data for follow-up studies. Different techniques are used for segmentation of lung areas as the basis for a variety of applications. Some commonly-used techniques for this and other tasks are density masks and threshold-based algorithms. Data processing is predominantly carried out with Bayesian classifiers or neural networks. This article describes the current status of research and provides insight into the common schemes and capabilities of the systems. It focuses particularly on common topics such as segmentation, volume measurement, detection of pulmonary nodules, quantification of emphysema and analysis of ground glass opacities
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14610697
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  • 7
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; ACETATE-NONUTILIZING MUTANTS ; CDNA ; CDNA CLONES ; CLONES ; CLONING ; CRASSA ; DISTINCT ; DNA-microarray analysis,transcriptional profiling,correspondence analysis,acetate metabolism,Neurosp ; ENZYMES ; FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; GENOME ; GENOME SEQUENCE ; HYBRIDIZATION ; microarray ; NMT1 ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; transcription
    Abstract: Nutrient-dependent variations in transcript levels of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa were studied on a microarray containing some 4700 cDNAs. Cells were grown in minimal and acetate medium. The isolated RNA was analyzed in comparison to the results obtained upon the hybridization of samples prepared from the RNA of cells grown in full medium. Altogether, 160 cDNA clones exhibited significant variations, falling into five distinct subgroups of very similar transcription profiles. This is indicative of the occurrence of a high degree of co-regulation of genes in N. crassa. Especially the regulation of the expression of proteins involved in metabolic pathways was found to be strongly regulated at the RNA level. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14599890
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELLS ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; MICROSCOPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; NEW-YORK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; ADHESION MOLECULES ; cell line ; COMPONENTS ; CONSTITUTIVE TRANSMEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEIN ; CULTURED-CELLS ; DESMOCOLLIN ; desmoplakin ; desmosome ; DIFFERENTIATION ; EPITHELIA ; HUMAN PLAKOGLOBIN ; INTERMEDIATE-SIZED FILAMENTS ; meninges,meningioma,desmosome,desmocollin 3 ; meningioma ; MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION ; MOLECULES ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; MR-165000 DESMOGLEIN ; NON-EPIDERMAL DESMOSOMES ; PLAQUE PROTEIN ; SUBDURAL SPACE ; TISSUE ; TUMORS
    Abstract: Intercellular junctions morphologically identical to epithelial desmosomes are known structures in meningiomas and arachnoidal tissue. Desmoplakin as one of the desmosomal plaque components has proven to be a reliable marker for diagnosis of meningeal tumors. Here we demonstrate by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and reverse transcription-PCR reactions that cells of arachnoidal tissue, of diverse meningioma subtypes and of a meningioma-derived cell line contain the full complement of the typical desmosomal proteins desmoplakin (DP), plakophilin 2 (PP2), desmocollin 2 (Dsc2) and desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Consequently, all these molecules are suitable for diagnostic applications of meningioma tumors. In addition to these constitutive desmosomal components, representative for single-layered (simple) epithelia, the dural border cells of the arachnoid and about 60% of the meningiomas tested were positive for desmocollin 3 (Dsc3), a protein in epithelia taken as an indicator for differentiation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12845453
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  • 9
    Keywords: MODEL ; PROTEIN ; FAMILY ; PROTEIN FAMILIES ; PROTEIN FAMILY ; DOMAIN ; PAIRS ; recombination
    Abstract: There is a limited repertoire of domain families in nature that are duplicated and combined in different ways to form the set of proteins in a genome. Most proteins in both prokaryote and eukaryote genomes consist of two or more domains, and we show that the family size distribution of multi-domain protein families follows a power law like that of individual families. Most domain pairs occur in four to six different domain architectures: in isolation and in combinations with different partners. We showed previously that within the set of all pairwise domain combinations, most small and medium-sized families are observed in combination with one or two other families, while a few large families are very versatile and combine with many different partners. Though this may appear to be a stochastic pattern, in which large families have more combination partners by virtue of their size, we establish here that all the domain families with more than three members in genomes are duplicated more frequently than would be expected by chance considering their number of neighbouring domains. This duplication of domain pairs is statistically significant for between one and three quarters of all families with seven or more members. For the majority of pairwise domain combinations, there is no known three-dimensional structure of the two domains together, and we term these novel combinations. Novel domain combinations are interesting and important targets for structural elucidation, as the geometry and interaction between the domains will help understand the function and evolution of multi-domain proteins. Of particular interest are those combinations that occur in the largest number of multi-domain proteins, and several of these frequent novel combinations contain DNA-binding domains.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14649290
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  • 10
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; Germany ; KINASE ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; transcription ; COMPONENTS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; protein kinase ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; IDENTIFICATION ; gene expression ; protein kinase CK2 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; SUBUNIT ; YEAST ; BUDDING YEAST ; DISRUPTION ; EXPRESSION ANALYSIS ; HOLOENZYME ; PHO pathway
    Abstract: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encounters phosphate starvation by the transcription-regulated PHO pathway. We find that genetic perturbation of protein kinase CK2, a conserved tetrameric Ser/Thr phosphotransferase with links to cell cycle and transcription, affects expression of PHO pathway genes in a subunit- and isoform-specific manner. Remarkably, the genes encoding phosphate supplying phosphatases and transporters are significantly repressed, while the genes encoding components of the central pathway regulator complex, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), a cyclin, and a CDK inhibitor, remain unaltered. Thus, perturbation of CK2 uncouples the executive part of the PHO pathway from its cyclin-CDK control complex. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12606059
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  • 11
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; screening ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; DNA ; FAMILY ; ASSOCIATION ; autistic disorder,susceptibility gene,chromosome 2,mutation screening,association ; CANDIDATE GENE ; chromosome ; DISORDER ; DLX GENES ; FREQUENCY ; GENOMEWIDE SCREEN ; GENOMIC SCREEN ; GLUTAMIC-ACID DECARBOXYLASE ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SIGNAL ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS
    Abstract: The results from several genome scans indicate that chromosome 2q21-q33 is likely to contain an autism susceptibility locus. We studied the potential contribution of nine positional and functional candidate genes: TBR-1; GAD1; DLX1; DLX2; cAMP-GEFII; CHN1; ATF2; HOXD1 and NEUROD1. Screening these genes for DNA variants and association analysis using intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms did not provide evidence for a major role in the aetiology of autism. Four rare nonsynonymous variants were identified, however, in the cAMP-GEFII gene. These variants were present in five families, where they segregate with the autistic phenotype, and were not observed in control individuals. The significance of these variants is unclear, as their low frequency in IMGSAC families does not account for the relatively strong linkage signal at the 2q locus. Further studies are needed to clarify the contribution of cAMP-GEFII gene variants to autism susceptibility
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14593429
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  • 12
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTECTION ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; HISTORY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; SAMPLE ; FAMILY ; RISK-FACTORS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; AGE ; BRCA1 ; case-only design ; family history ; gene carrier probability ; LINKAGE ANALYSIS ; mixture logistic model ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; population and sibling controls ; WOMEN
    Abstract: Background The effect of environmental/lifestyle factors on breast cancer risk may be modified by genetic predisposition. Methods In a population-based case-control-family study performed in Germany including 706 cases by age 50 years, 1381 population, and 252 sister controls, we investigated main effects for environmental/lifestyle factors and genetic susceptibility and gene-environment interaction (G x E). Different surrogate measures for genetic predisposition using pedigree information were used: first-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer; and gene carrier probability using a genetic model based on rare dominant genes. Possible G x E interaction was studied by (1) logistic regression using cases and population controls including an interaction term; (2) comparing results using sister controls and population controls; (3) case-only analysis with logistic regression and (4) a mixture logistic model. Results Familial predisposition showed the strongest main effect and the estimated gene carrier probability gave the best fit. High parity and longer duration of breastfeeding reduced breast cancer risk significantly, a history of abortions increased risk and age at menarche showed no significant effect. We found significant G x E interaction between parity and genetic susceptibility using different surrogate measures. In women most likely to have a high genetic susceptibility, high parity was less protective. Later age at menarche was protective in women with a positive family history. No evidence for G x E interaction was found for breastfeeding and abortion. Conclusions These findings corroborate results from other studies and provide further evidence that the magnitude of protection from parity is reduced in women most likely to have a genetic risk in spite of the limitations of using surrogate genetic measures
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12690006
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  • 13
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VIVO ; PATHWAYS ; PROTEIN ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; BINDING ; IDENTIFICATION ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; YEAST ; lifestyle ; BETA ; CONSERVATION ; EGG EXTRACTS ; GTPASE RAN ; IMPORTIN-ALPHA ; LOCALIZATION ; MESSENGER-RNA EXPORT ; NUCLEAR EXPORT RECEPTOR ; NUCLEUS ; TRANSPORT FACTOR ; XENOPUS
    Abstract: The small Ras-like GTPase Ran plays an essential role in the transport of macromolecules in and out of the nucleus and has been implicated in spindle (1, 2) and nuclear envelope formation (3, 4) during mitosis in higher eukaryotes. We identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YGL164c encoding a novel RanGTP-binding protein, termed Yrb30p. The protein competes with yeast RanBP1 (Yrb1p) for binding to the GTP-bound form of yeast Ran (Gsp1p) and is, like Yrb1p, able to form trimeric complexes with RanGTP and some of the karyopherins. In contrast to Yrb1p, Yrb30p does not coactivate but inhibits RanGAP1(Rna1p)-mediated GTP hydrolysis on Ran, like the karyopherins. At steady state, Yrb30p localizes exclusively to the cytoplasm, but the presence of a functional nuclear export signal and the localization of truncated forms of Yrb30p suggest that the protein shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported via two alternative pathways, dependent on the nuclear export receptor Xpo1p/Crm1p and on RanGTP binding. Whereas overproduction of the full-length protein and complete deletion of the open reading frame reveal no obvious phenotype, overproduction of C-terminally truncated forms of the protein inhibits yeast vegetative growth. Based on these results and the exclusive conservation of the protein in the fungal kingdom, we hypothesize that Yrb30p represents a novel modulator of the Ran GTPase switch related to fungal lifestyle
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12578832
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  • 14
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; IRRADIATION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; THERAPY ; DEATH ; EXPOSURE ; radiation ; DNA ; REDUCTION ; SUFFICIENT ; FLOW ; treatment ; PARTICLES ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; CELL-DEATH ; CERVIX ; DAMAGE ; FRANCE ; BEAM ; bioshuttle ; BORON ; boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) ; boronophenylalanine (BPA) ; CAPTURE THERAPY ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; CELLULAR UPTAKE ; DELIVERY ; DNA-DAMAGE ; drug delivery ; LET-effects ; nuclear transport
    Abstract: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental treatment modality which depends on a sufficient cellular uptake of Boron (B-10) followed by an exposure to a thermal neutron beam from a. nuclear reactor. High energetic particles (He-4 and Li-7) are. created during the neutron capture reaction and produce DNA damages, which lead to cell killing. Regarding BNCT, the short radiation range of He- and Li-particles is decisive for the distribution of B-10. Until now, BNCT has been lacking for therapeutically effective concentrations of B-10. Twenty-four hours after the combined use of our 'Bioshuttle'-p-borono-phenylalanine(10)-constructs ('Bioshuttle'-p-BPA(10)) and neutron-irradiation, an obvious reduction of the radiation-resistant HeLa-S cells could be observed. No cells were alive 72 h after the incubation with 'Bioshuttle'-p-BPA(10) followed by neutron irradiation. A post-mitotic cell death could be assumed based on flow cytometrical data. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12832130
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  • 15
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; INHIBITOR ; INVASION ; tumor ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; THERAPY ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; SITE ; PROTEIN ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; DOMAIN ; BINDING ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; protein kinase ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; treatment ; CATALYTIC SUBUNIT ; inactivation ; FIBER ; ADHESION ; ATP ; CELL-ADHESION ; crystal structure ; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE ; MUSCLE ; PKA ; PROTEIN-KINASES
    Abstract: Protein kinases require strict inactivation to prevent spurious cellular signaling; overactivity can cause cancer or other diseases and necessitates selective inhibition for therapy. Rho-kinase is involved in such processes as tumor invasion, cell adhesion, smooth muscle contraction, and formation of focal adhesion fibers, as revealed using inhibitor Y-27632. Another Rho-kinase inhibitor, HA-1077 or Fasudil, is currently used in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm; the related nanomolar inhibitor H-1152P improves on its selectivity and potency. We have determined the crystal structures of HA-1077, H-1152P, and Y-27632 in complexes with protein kinase A (PKA) as a surrogate kinase to analyze Rho-kinase inhibitor binding properties. Features conserved between PKA and Rho-kinase are involved in the key binding interactions, while a combination of residues at the ATP binding pocket that are unique to Rho-kinase may explain the inhibitors' Rho-kinase selectivity. Further, a second H-1152P binding site potentially points toward PKA regulatory domain interaction modulators
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14656443
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  • 16
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; PROTEIN ; DRUG ; MOLECULES ; LINES ; MICE ; COMPLEX ; murine ; primary ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; BIOSYNTHESIS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; antigen presentation ; B-CELLS ; CLASS-II MOLECULES ; EXCHANGE ; H2-O ; HLA-DM ; HLA-DO ; IA MOLECULES ; INVARIANT CHAIN ; MHC MOLECULES ; MONOCLONAL- ANTIBODY ; PEPTIDE REPERTOIRE ; PEPTIDES ; T- CELLS
    Abstract: Peptide loading onto MHC class II molecules takes place in endosomal compartments along the endocytic pathway. There, loading is facilitated by the catalytic function of the accessory molecule H2-M, which helps to exchange the invariant chain-derived CLIP peptide in the groove of class II molecules for antigenic peptide. H2-O is another accessory molecule specific to the class II pathway, which is found tightly associated with H2-M and selectively expressed in B cells. Using stable H2-O ribozyme-antisense transfectants, H2-O overexpressing murine B cell lines, and H2-O-transgenic mice, we investigated the effects of H2-O on antigen presentation. The results show that presentation of a variety of exogenous protein antigens to a panel of T cell hybridomas depended on the levels of H2-O in the antigenpresenting B cells. Thus, increased H2-O expression downmodulated, whereas reduced H2-O levels, enhanced presentation. Presentation of endogenous antigen was also diminished by H2-O. Despite the pronounced effects on antigen presentation, the mass spectrometric profiles of peptides eluted from A(b) molecules were very similar in cells expressing different H2-O levels. The intracellular location of H2-O inhibitory activity was investigated with the drug chloroquine, which prevents acidification of the endocytic pathway. The observations indicate that H2-O predominantly inhibits antigen presentation in early endosomal compartments. Thus, H2-O appears to skew peptide loading to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments. This may favor presentation of antigens taken up by the B cell receptor
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12645938
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  • 17
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; tumor ; carcinoma ; MODEL ; neoplasms ; THERAPY ; MICE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; BREAST ; PROGRESSION ; MR-ANGIOGRAPHY ; blood pool contrast agents ; contrast enhanced MRA ; GADOMER-17 ; POOL CONTRAST AGENTS
    Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution three-dimensional MR angiography (MRA) for the visualization and morphologic characterization of intratumoral vasculature. Materials and Methods: Two subcutaneous rodent tumor models (human skin carcinoma HaCaT-ras-A-5RT3 grown in nude mice and rat prostate carcinoma R3327-AT1 grown in Copenhagen rats) were examined with a clinical 1.5 T MR-system. For MRA a dedicated high- resolution three-dimensional gradient echo pulse sequence with a voxel size of 166 x 206 x 320 mum(3) was performed after injection of Gadomer-17. The image analysis included a correlation of intratumoral vessels with histology. Signal intensity measurements were performed in the vena cava, the tumor underlying muscle, and in various regions of the tumor. Signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNR) were calculated from this measurement. Results: High-resolution MRA allowed a clear distinction of intratumoral blood vessels. The mouse tumor model tended to be strongly vascularized with several intratumoral blood vessels clearly displayed by MRA. When correlated with histology, these intratumoral blood vessels had a size in the range of 300 to 400 mum. In contrast, rat tumors had only sparse capillary intratumoral blood vessels that could only be demonstrated by histology. In both tumor models, dilated blood vessels were observed in the subcutaneous tissue near the tumor. In general, areas with a strong contrast enhancement correlated with viable, well vascularized tumor regions, whereas non-enhancing tumor areas correlated with tumor necrosis or hypoxic areas. Conclusion: High-resolution three-dimensional MRA allows the visualization of intratumoral vasculature in rodent models. With minimal hardware and software modifications, high-resolution MRA could be performed on a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner. Morphologic characterization of intratumoral blood vessels could add important insights into the process of tumor angiogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12815640
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  • 18
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    Internist 44 (9), 1131-1139 
    Keywords: Germany ; THERAPY ; COMMON ; DIAGNOSIS ; DISEASE ; NEW-YORK ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TIME ; PATIENT ; NEPHRITIS ; INFECTION ; GRAFT ; renal ; STAGE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; EXPERIENCE ; RISK FACTOR ; RECURRENCE ; FREQUENT ; CLINICAL-FEATURES ; CLINICALLY-RELEVANT ; CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ; FAILURE ; glomerulonephritis ; HYPERTENSION ; INFECTIONS ; NATURAL-HISTORY ; NEPHROPATHY ; PREDICTORS ; PREVALENCE ; proteinuria ; RECURRENT ; renal insufficiency ; renoparenchymal hypertension ; RISK GROUP ; STAGE RENAL-FAILURE
    Abstract: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common type of glomerulonephritis in the western world. In the majority of cases, it manifests in adolescence or early adulthood as recurrent macrohematuria, frequently triggered by infections, or persistent microhematuria as well as mild proteinuria, hypertension and/or renal insufficiency. In view of the later, it is not surprising that IgAN is often a chance finding. The majority of affected persons probably never come to medical attention, since in autopsies a prevalence of up to 1% of the population has been reported. About 20-30% of patients with a diagnosis of IgAN suffer from chronic, slowly progressive renal failure. Predictors include the degree of proteinuria and arterial hypertension as well as the established renal impairment at the time of diagnosis. Early identification of this risk group is of particular importance, since adequate therapy can stop or at least retard the progression of renal failure. When end stage renal failure has developed and a renal transplant is performed, about 25% of the patients will experience a clinically relevant recurrence of IgAN with progressive graft dysfunction
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 19
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; TYROSINE KINASE ; screening ; SITE ; SITES ; DISTINCT ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; primary ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; FREQUENCY ; FREQUENCIES ; STAGE ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; ABERRATIONS ; HEAD ; ONCOPROTEIN ; CARCINOMAS ; NECK ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GREECE ; gene amplification ; head and neck ; laryngeal carcinoma ; OROPHARYNGEAL ; C-MYC ; CANCER PATIENTS ; CYCLIN D1 OVEREXPRESSION ; cytogenetic aberration ; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ; immunohistochemistry (IHC) ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; oncoprotein overexpression ; OVEREXPRESSION ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; tissue microarray (TMA) ; tumor classification
    Abstract: Background: Tissue microarray (TMA) analysis is a high-throughput approach that allows the screening of large tumor collectives for cytogenetic aberrations. In this study, a TMA of a large collection of clinically well-defined primary squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) was used to determine the expression of several oncoproteins. Materials and Methods: A TMA containing 547 primary HNSCC was used for the analysis of cyclinD1, c-myc, erbb1 and erbb2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: CyclinD1 and c-myc were overexpressed at higher frequencies in primary pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas compared with primary oral carcinomas (p 〈 0.001 and p 〈 0.001), while erbb1 and erbb2 overexpression was associated with oral site (p 〈 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Furthermore, cyclinD1 overexpression correlated with stage IV primary carcinomas (p = 0.04). Conclusion: HNSCC is a heterogenous group of tumors, which, depending on anatomic sites and clinical stage, shows variable expressions of the oncoproteins described. This indicates a specific pathogenic role of these oncoproteins in different subtypes of HNSCC and may have therapeutic implications
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14666705
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  • 20
    Keywords: OPTIMIZATION ; PEPTIDE ; SPECTRA ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; Germany ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; MOLECULES ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; murine ; MEMBER ; MHC ; LYMPHOCYTES ; antigen presentation ; PEPTIDES ; STABILITY ; MHC class I ; DEGRADATION ; SUBUNITS ; TRANSLOCATION ; antigen processing ; CELL-LINE .220 ; HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX ; LOADING COMPLEX ; MUTANT MICE ; NEWLY SYNTHESIZED PROTEINS
    Abstract: Tapasin is a member of the MHC class I loading complex where it bridges the TAP peptide transporter to class I molecules. The main role of tapasin is assumed to be the facilitation of peptide loading and optimization of the peptide cargo. Here, we describe another important function for tapasin. In tapasin- deficient (Tpn(-/-)) mice the absence of tapasin was found to have a dramatic effect on the stability of the TAP1/TAP2 heterodimeric peptide transporter. Steady-state expression of TAP protein was reduced more than 100-fold from about 3 x 10(4) TAP molecules per wild-type splenocyte to about 1 x 10(2) TAP per Tpn(-/-) splenocyte. Thus, a major function of murine tapasin appears to be the stabilization of TAR The low amount of TAP molecules in Tpn(-/-) lymphocytes is likely to contribute to the severe impairment of MHC class I expression. Surprisingly, activation of Tpn(-/-) lymphocytes yielded strongly enhanced class I expression comparable to wild-type levels, although TAP expression remained low and in the magnitude of several hundred molecules per cell. The high level of class I on activated Tpn(-/-) cells depended on peptides generated by the proteasome as indicated by blockade with the proteasome-specific inhibitor lactacystin. Lymphocyte activation induced an increase in ubiquitinated proteins that are cleaved into peptides by the proteasome. These findings suggest that in the presence of a large peptide pool in the cytosol, a small number of TAP transporters is sufficient to translocate enough peptides for high class I expression. However, these class I molecules were less stable than those of wild-type cells, indicating that tapasin is not only required for stabilization of TAP but also for optimization of the spectrum of bound peptides
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12594855
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  • 21
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; SYSTEM ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; EPITHELIA ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; TISSUES ; SKIN ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; ELEMENTS ; SURFACE ; LOCALIZATION ; GLANDS ; SEGMENTS ; calnexin ; ESTABLISHMENT ; MUCINS ; salivary gland ; sebaceous gland ; SEBACEOUS GLANDS
    Abstract: Calnexin (Cnx) has been characterized as a membrane-bound protein that transiently interacts in a unique chaperone system with newly synthesized glycoproteins in order to allow the establishment of their proper tertiary and, in most cases, quarternary structures. The aim of the study was to identify and to locate the expression of Cnx in the three major salivary glands of humans by different methods. Strong expression of Cnx protein and mRNA were generally found in serous salivary secretory units. With regard to mucous secretory units, expression of Cnx was only detectable at a low level in mucous acinar cells of sublingual glands, but not of submandibular glands. Expression of Cnx was always preserved in the surface epithelium of intralobar and interlobular duct segments. In addition, expression of Cnx was detected in sebaceous glands of parotid tissues, with a distribution pattern resembling that seen in sebaceous glands of the normal skin. In conclusion, production of saliva is associated with the expression of Cnx. Synthesis of molecules in mucous secretory units is not necessarily associated with a strong Cnx expression, whereas synthesis in serous secretory units apparently is. The tissue- specific Cnx expression is also paralleled by the observation that the secretions produced by the major salivary glands differ in their composition and amount
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12507291
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  • 22
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; human ; MICROSCOPY ; liver ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TUMORS ; FAMILY ; RAT ; hepatocytes ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; antibodies ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; RAT-LIVER ; MEMBRANE ; metastases ; CONJUGATE ; LOCALIZATION ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; HEPATOCYTE CANALICULAR ISOFORM ; METASTATIC CARCINOMAS ; MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE PROTEIN ; POLYPEPTIDE OATP2
    Abstract: Transport proteins mediating the selective uptake of organic anions into human hepatocytes include the organic anion transporters SLC21A6 (also termed OATP2, OATP-C, or LST-1) and SLC21A8 (OATP8). Both transporters are localized to the basolateral membrane of human hepatocytes. Because of the importance of these transporters for hepatobiliary elimination, including the removal of bilirubin and its conjugates from the blood circulation, we have generated monoclonal antibodies for studies on the expression and localization of these transport proteins. We describe two antibodies, designated monoclonal antibody MDQ (mMDQ) and monoclonal antibody ESL (mESL), directed against the amino terminus and the carboxyl terminus of human SLC21A6, respectively. Both antibodies have been characterized by immunoblot analysis, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. While mESL reacted specifically with SLC21A6, mMDQ detects both SLC21A6 and SLC21A8. Neither of the two antibodies reacted with other human, or with dog, rat, or mouse liver SLC21A family members. Antibody mMDQ may be used for the simultaneous detection of SLC21A6 and SLC21A8 in immunoblotting because of its immunoreactivity with both molecules and because of the different molecular masses of both glycosylated proteins in human hepatocytes. This is exemplified in hepatocellular carcinomas where SLC21A6 and SLC21A8 were differentially synthesized and showed an irregular staining pattern. Both transport proteins have not been detected in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In routine paraffin sections, 10 of 12 hepatocellular carcinomas were focally positive with antibody mMDQ. In contrast, cholangiocarcinomas and liver metastases of colorectal and pancreatic adenocarcinoma were negative without exception. This suggests the usefulness of SLC21A6/SLC21A8 within a panel of tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinomas. Moreover, both antibodies should be useful in studies on the expression and localization of two important uptake transporters of human hepatocytes under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 23
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; METABOLISM ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; PROMOTER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; CYP3A4 ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CARCINOMAS ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; adenocarcinoma ; ADENOCARCINOMAS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; CLINICAL PRESENTATION ; CYP3A,genetic polymorphism,lung cancer susceptibility,small cell lung cancer,LightCycler ; EXPRESSED HUMAN CYTOCHROME-P450S ; GENETIC VARIANT ; HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES ; PROSTATE TUMORS ; PROTEIN LEVELS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; TOBACCO
    Abstract: CYP3A isozymes are involved in tobacco carcinogen- and steroid-metabolism, and are expressed in human lung tissue showing interindividual variation in expression and activity. The CYP3A4* 1 B allele has been associated with a two-fold higher promoter activity and with high-grade prostate cancers. The very frequent intron 3 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3) results in decreased CYP3A5 protein levels. A case-control study was conducted in 801 Caucasian lung cancer patients that included 330 adenocarcinomas, 260 squamous cell carcinomas, 171 small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and 432 Caucasian hospital-based controls. CYP3A-genotyping was performed by capillary polymerase chain reaction followed by fluorescence-based melting curve analysis. A significantly increased SCLC risk for CYP3A4* 1B allele carriers [odds ratio (OR) 2.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-4.55, P = 0.02] was found. After dividing cases and controls by gender, an increased lung cancer risk for CYP3A4* 1B carriers (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.94-9.90, P= 0.06) for women but not for men (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.81) was revealed. Heavier smoking men (greater than or equal to 20 pack-years) with the CYP3A4* 1 B allele had a significant OR for lung cancer of 3.42 (95% CI 1.65-7.14, P= 0.001) compared to * 1A/1* 1A carriers with lower tobacco exposure (〈 20 pack-years). For women, the respective OR was 8.00 (95% CI 2.12-30.30, P = 0.005). Genotype frequencies were generally in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for CYP3A5 where a greater than expected number of CYP3A5* 1 homozygotes was observed among cases (P = 0.006). In addition, we observed linkage disequilibrium of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (P 〈 0.00001), but a nonsignificantly increased lung cancer risk was only found for homozygous CYP3A5* 1 allele carriers (OR 5.24,95% CI 0.85-102.28, P = 0.14) but not for heterozygotes. To confirm our observation that the CYP3A4* 1B allele increases SCLC risk and modifies the smoking-related lung cancer risk in a gender-specific manner, further studies, including CYP3A haplotype analysis, will be necessary. Pharmacogenetics 13:607-618 (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14515059
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  • 24
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; human ; DISEASE ; SITE ; SITES ; PROTEIN ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; SERA ; INDUCTION ; BINDING ; treatment ; ACID ; IDENTIFICATION ; SUBUNIT ; DIFFERENCE ; MOBILITY ; GAS ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; IONIZATION ; ACETYLATED SIALIC ACIDS ; sialic acid ; VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; acute-phase protein ; BINDING CHARACTERISTICS ; CATLA-CATLA ; CHROMATOGRAPHY ; ELECTROPHORESIS ; FRAGMENTS ; GLUCOSE ; glycosylation ; INDIVIDUALS ; LABEO-ROHITA ; LECTIN ; lectin binding ; LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY ; MAJOR CARP ; matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization analysis (MALDI analysis) ; molecular modelling ; protein-protein interaction ; PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS ; SIALIC-ACID ; SUBUNITS
    Abstract: As an acute-phase protein, human C-reactive protein (CRP) is clinically important. CRPs were purified from several samples in six different pathological conditions, where their levels ranged from 22 to 342 mug/ml. Small, but significant, variations in electrophoretic mobilities on native PAGE suggested differences in molecular mass, charge and/or shape. Following separation by 9 SDS/PAGE, the), showed single subunits with some differences in their molecular masses ranging between 27 and 30.5 kDa, but for a particular disease, the mobility was the same for CRPs purified from multiple individuals or pooled sera. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) also indicated that the purified CRPs differed from each other. Glycosylation was demonstrated in these purified CRPs by Digoxigenin kits, neuraminidase treatment and binding with lectins. The presence of N-linked sugar moiety was confirmed by N-glycosidase F digestion. The presence of sialic acid, glucose, galactose and mannose has been demonstrated by gas liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopic and fluorimetric analysis. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization analysis of the tryptic digests of three CRPs showed systematic absence of two peptide fragments, one at the N-terminus and the other near the C-terminus. Model-building suggested that the loss of these fragments exposed two potential glycosylation sites on a cleft floor keeping the protein-protein interactions in pentraxins and calcium-dependent phosphorylcholine-binding qualitatively unaffected. Thus we have convincingly demonstrated that human CRP is glycosylated in some pathological conditions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12693993
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  • 25
    Keywords: CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; NEW-YORK ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; microarray ; RNA ; cell line ; TISSUE ; validation ; LINES ; MARKER ; TISSUES ; tumour ; CELL-LINES ; BREAST-CANCER ; TARGET ; immunohistochemistry ; gene expression ; affymetrix ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; MARKERS ; CARCINOMAS ; adenocarcinoma ; OVEREXPRESSION ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; ADAM9 ; CDNA MICROARRAYS ; cell lines ; expression profiling ; HUMAN GENES ; K-RAS ; METALLOPROTEASE-DISINTEGRIN ; microarray hybridisation ; microdissection ; OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ARRAYS ; pancreatic cancer ; pancreatic carcinoma ; SERIAL ANALYSIS
    Abstract: In a search for new molecular markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we compared the gene expression profiles of seven pancreatic carcinomas and one carcinoma of the papilla Vateri with those of duct cells from three non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. In addition, the human pancreatic duct cell line and five PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2, HPAF) were examined. RNA was extracted from microdissected tissue or cultured cell lines and analysed using a custom-made Affymetrix Chip containing 3023 genes, of which 1000 were known to be tumour associated. Hierarchical clustering revealed 81 differentially expressed genes. Of all the genes, 26 were downregulated in PDAC and 14 were upregulated in PDAC. In PDAC cell lines versus normal pancreatic duct cells, 21 genes were downregulated and 20 were upregulated. Of these 81 differentially expressed genes, 15 represented human genes previously implicated in the tumourigenesis of PDAC. From the genes that were so far not known to be associated with PDAC tumorigenesis, we selected ADAM9 for further validation because of its distinct overexpression in tumour tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, the over-expressed gene, ADAM9, was present in 70% of the PDACs analysed. In conclusion, using microarray technology we were able to identify a set of genes whose aberrant expression was associated with PDAC and may be used to target the disease
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12942322
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  • 26
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; THERAPY ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; gene therapy ; TRANSDUCTION ; GENE-TRANSFER ; DNA ; IDENTIFICATION ; VECTORS ; AAV SEROTYPES ; adeno-associated virus ; ADENOASSOCIATED VIRUS ; HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION ; REP ; serotypes ; TYPE-2 ; vector production
    Abstract: We present a simple and safe strategy for producing high-titer adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors derived from six different AAV serotypes (AAV-1 to AAV-6). The method, referred to as "HOT," is helper virus free, optically controllable, and based on transfection of only two plasmids, i.e., an AAV vector construct and one of six novel AAV helper plasmids. The latter were engineered to carry AAV serotype rep and cap genes together with adenoviral helper functions, as well as unique fluorescent protein expression cassettes, allowing confirmation of successful transfection and identification of the transfected plasmid. Cross-packaging of vector DNA derived from AAV-2, -3, or -6 was up to 10-fold more efficient using our novel plasmids, compared to a conservative adenovirus-dependent method. We also identified a variety of useful antibodies, allowing detection of Rep or VP proteins, or assembled capsids, of all six AAV serotypes. Finally, we describe unique cell tropisms and kinetics of transgene expression for AAV serotype vectors in primary or transformed cells from four different species. In sum, the HOT strategy and the antibodies presented here, together with the reported findings, should facilitate and support the further development of AAV serotype vectors as powerful new tools for human gene therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12788658
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  • 27
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; SAMPLES ; PATIENT ; DNA ; FAMILY ; FREQUENCY ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; family history ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; PREVALENCE ; BRCA1/2 ; BRCA2 MUTATIONS ; early-onset breast cancer ; German population ; germline mutations ; POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE
    Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in 91 German patients unselected for family history, who were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 41 years. Clinical information and blood samples were obtained from all patients. A comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational analysis was performed using the protein truncation assay and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing of variant signals detected by these assays. Five different deleterious germline mutations including four frameshift mutations and one missense mutation were identified, three in BRCA1 (3.3%) and two mutations (2.2%) in BRCA2. Both BRCA2 mutations are novel and might be specific for the German population. An additional BRCA1 missense mutation previously described and classified as an unknown variant was found. This mutation was also detected in two breast cancer patients of family P 328 and not in 140 healthy controls suggesting that it is disease associated. In addition, one common polymorphism and five novel intronic sequence variants with unknown significance were found. Our findings show that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may contribute similarly to early-onset breast cancer in Germany. Given current constraints on health-care resources, these results support the notion that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening may have the strongest impact on health-care when targeted to high- risk populations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12774040
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  • 28
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; IN-VIVO ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; animals ; PROMOTERS ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; COMPLEMENTATION ; LUCIFERASE ; REPORTER GENE-EXPRESSION
    Abstract: Genomic research is expected to generate new types of complex observational data, changing the types of experiments as well as our understanding of biological processes. The investigation and definition of relationships among proteins is essential for understanding the function of each gene and the mechanisms of biological processes that specific genes are involved in. Recently, a study by Paulmurugan et al. demonstrated a tool for in vivo noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions and intracellular networks
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12788540
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  • 29
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; CELL ; human ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; VIVO ; NETWORK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TIME ; INFECTION ; RAT ; CONTRAST ; STAGE ; DISRUPTION ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; MUSCLE ; ASSEMBLY PROPERTIES ; SERIES ; GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN ; ORGANIZATION ; ADENOVIRUS ; ALPHA-B-CRYSTALLIN ; DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY ; EPIDERMOLYSIS-BULLOSA SIMPLEX ; INTERMEDIATE-FILAMENT PROTEINS ; MICE LACKING DESMIN ; MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY ; SKELETAL MYOPATHY ; SMOOTH-MUSCLE ; Z-DISCS
    Abstract: Mutations in desmin have been associated with a subset of human myopathies. Symptoms typically appear in the second to third decades of life, but in the most severe cases can manifest themselves earlier. How desmin mutations lead to aberrant muscle function, however, remains poorly defined. We created a series of four mutations in rat desmin and tested their in vitro filament assembly properties. RDM-G, a chimera between desmin and green fluorescent protein, formed protofilament-like structures in vitro. RDM-1 and RDM-2 blocked in vitro assembly at the unit-length filament stage, while RDM-3 had more subtle effects on assembly. When expressed in cultured rat neonatal cardiac myocytes via adenovirus infection, these mutant proteins disrupted the endogenous desmin filament to an extent that correlated with their defects in in vitro assembly properties. Disruption of the desmin network by RDM-1 was also associated with disruption of plectin, myosin, and a-actinin organization in a significant percentage of infected cells. In contrast, expression of RDM-2, which is similar to previously characterized human mutant desmins, took longer to disrupt desmin and plectin organization and had no significant effect on myosin or alpha-actinin organization over the 5-day time course of our studies. RDM-3 had the mildest effect on in vitro assembly and no discernable effect on either desmin, plectin, myosin, or a-actinin organization in vivo. These results indicate that mutations in desmin have both direct and indirect effects on the cytoarchitecture of cardiac myocytes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12529857
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  • 30
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; IONIZING-RADIATION ; IRRADIATION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; VITRO ; VIVO ; SITE ; PROTEIN ; radiation ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; DNA ; CARCINOGENESIS ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; MUTANT ; LESIONS ; PROGRESSION ; CYCLE PROGRESSION ; DAMAGE ; DNA-DAMAGE ; DEGRADATION ; ATR ; CHK1 ; CYCLE CONTROL ; G(1)/S TRANSITION ; PROTEASOME ; S-PHASE ; serine
    Abstract: The human Cdc25A phosphatase plays a pivotal role at the G(1)/S transition by activating cyclin E and A/Cdk2 complexes through dephosphorylation. In response to ionizing radiation, Cdc25A is phosphorylated by both Chk1 and Chk2 on Ser-123. This in turn leads to ubiquitylation and rapid degradation of Cdc25A by the proteasome resulting in cell cycle arrest. We found that in response to UV irradiation, Cdc25A is phosphorylated at a different serine residue, Ser-75. Significantly, Cdc25A mutants carrying alanine instead of either Ser-75 or Ser-123 demonstrate that only Ser-75 mediates protein stabilization in response to UV-induced DNA damage. As a consequence, cyclin E/Cdk2 kinase activity was high. Furthermore, we find that Cdc25A was phosphorylated by Chk1 on Ser-75 in vitro and that the same site was also phosphorylated in vivo. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that phosphorylation of Cdc25A on Ser-75 by Chk1 and its subsequent degradation is required to delay cell cycle progression in response to UV-induced DNA lesions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12759351
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  • 31
    Keywords: GROWTH ; tumor ; Germany ; MORTALITY ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; PATIENT ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; INTERVENTION ; treatment ; PLASMA ; DECREASE ; AGE ; MUSCLE ; AMINO-ACIDS ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; ANTIOXIDANT ; aging-related wasting ; ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID ; antioxidants and aging ; cysteine ; ELDERLY HUMANS ; INJURIOUS FALLS ; MUSCLE PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS ; muscular aging ; P70 S6 KINASE ; PLASMA REDOX STATE ; RAT SKELETAL-MUSCLE ; RESISTANCE EXERCISE ; role in aging ; tumor necrosis factor in aging
    Abstract: Aging-related loss of muscle function is a predictor of mortality and a surrogate parameter of the aging process. Its consequences include a high risk for falls, hip fractures, and loss of autonomy. Aging is associated with changes in the oxidant/antioxidant balance including a decrease in plasma thiol (cysteine) concentration. To assess the importance of cysteine, we determined in a double-blind study the effects of N-acetylcysteine on the functional capacity of frail geriatric patients and their response to physical exercise. The subjects on placebo showed only a relatively weak response, and 31% showed even a decrease in more than one parameter during the observation period. Low plasma arginine levels were correlated with a weak overall performance before exercise and a poor response to exercise. N-Acetyl-cysteine strongly enhanced the increase in knee extensor strength and significantly increased the sum of all strength parameters if adjusted for baseline arginine level as a confounding parameter. N-acetylcysteine had no significant effect on growth hormone and IGF-1 levels but caused a significant decrease in plasma TNF-alpha. These findings may provide a basis for therapeutic intervention and suggest that the loss of function involves limitations in cysteine and one or more other amino acids which may compromise muscular protein synthesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12601528
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  • 32
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; COMBINATION ; evaluation ; Germany ; THERAPY ; FOLLOW-UP ; SURGERY ; TIME ; PATIENT ; primary ; CYCLE ; treatment ; ALPHA ; TRIAL ; DIFFERENCE ; METASTASIS ; chemotherapy ; MELANOMA ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; HIGH-RISK ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; FOLLOW-UP TIME ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; INTERFERON ; CENTERS ; MELANOMA PATIENTS ; CUTANEOUS MELANOMA ; RANDOMIZED TRIAL ; ADJUVANT ; DACARBAZINE ; DOSE BOLUS INTERLEUKIN-2 ; IL-2 ; PROGNOSTIC FACTOR ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; RECOMBINANT INTERLEUKIN-2 ; relapse
    Abstract: Purpose: Low-dose interferon alfa (IFNalpha) has been shown to have limited effects in the adjuvant treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-risk primary melanoma. We hypothesized that a combination regimen with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) may improve survival prospects in these patients. Patients and Methods: After wide excision of primary melanoma without clinically detectable lymph node metastasis (pT3 to 4, cN0, M0), 225 patients from 10 participating centers were randomly assigned to receive either subcutaneous low-dose 1FNalpha2b (3 million international units [MU]/m(2)/d, days 1 to 7, week 1; three times weekly, weeks 3 to 6, repeated all 6 weeks) plus IL-2 (9 MU/m(2)/d, days 1 to 4, week 2 of each cycle) for 48 weeks, or observation alone. The primary end point was prolongation of a relapse-free interval. Results: Of the 225 enrolled patients, 223 were found to be eligible. Median follow-up time was 79 months. All evaluated prognostic factors were well balanced between the two arms of the study. Relapses were noticed in 36 of 113 patients treated with IFNalpha2b plus IL-2 and in 34 of 110 patients with observation alone. Five-year disease-free survival of those who had routine surgery supplemented by IFNalpha2b and IL-2 treatment was 70.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.3% to 78.9%), compared with 69.9% in those receiving surgery and observation alone (95% CI, 60.7% to 79.1%) in the intention-to-treat analysis. Evaluation of the overall survival did not show any difference between treated and untreated melanoma patients (P = .93). Conclusion: Adjuvant treatment of intermediate- and high-risk melanoma patients with low-dose IFNalpha2b and IL-2 is safe and well tolerated by most patients, but it does not improve disease-free or overall survival
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12885805
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  • 33
    Keywords: tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; THERAPY ; NEW-YORK ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; MICROCIRCULATION ; primary ; prognosis ; MRI ; SIGNAL ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; DECREASE ; metastases ; MAMMOGRAPHY ; EXCHANGE ; PARAMETERS ; tomography ; CERVICAL-CARCINOMA ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; pharmacokinetic ; dynamic magnetic resonance tomography,tissue microcirculation,diagnostic parameter,advanced oro-hypo ; NECK TUMORS ; SONOGRAPHY ; TUMOR ANGIOGENESIS ; VASCULARITY
    Abstract: Purpose. With the help of dynamic magnetic resonance tomography (dMRT) the status of tissue microcirculation can be visualized.Methods. Dynamic MRI was performed in 13 patients with advanced, nonresectable oro- or hypopharynx carcinoma at the beginning and the end of therapy. Maximal signal intensity and exchange rate constant in the tissue of the tumor and the lymph node metastases were analyzed using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model.Results. In all six patients with clinical complete response (CR), the maximal signal intensity increased after therapy in the tissue of the primary tumor and the lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a high decrease in the parameter k(21) was associated with a better prognosis and could be observed especially after combined radiochemotherapy.Conclusion. Our first results indicate that contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI studies before and after radio- or combined radiochemotherapy offer important information about the changes of microcirculation in the tissue of the tumor and lymph node metastases. Furthermore, this information seems to be a promising predictor for clinical outcome of therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14605706
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  • 34
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; SYSTEM ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; incidence ; liver ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS