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  • Tsunamis  (3)
  • 1995-1999  (3)
  • 1950-1954
  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tsunamis ; 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake ; Okushiri Island
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Heterogeneous fault motion of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake is studied by using seismic, geodetic and tsunami data, and the tsunami generation from the fault model is examined. Seismological analyses indicate that the focal mechanism of the first 10 s, when about a third of the total moment was released, is different from the overall focal mechanism. A joint inversion of geodetic data on Okushiri Island and the tide gauge records in Japan and Korea indicates that the largest slip, about 6 m, occurred in a small area just south of the epicenter. This corresponds to the initial rupture on a fault plane dipping shallowly to the west. The slip on the northernmost subfault, which is dipping to the east, is about 2 m, while the slips on the southern subfaults, which are steeply dipping to the west, are more than 3 m. Tsunami heights around Okushiri Island are calculated from the heterogeneous fault model using different grid sizes. Computation on the smaller grids produces large tsunami height that are closer to the observed tsunami runup heights. Tsunami propagation in the nearly closed Japan Sea is examined as the free oscillation of the Japan Sea. The excitation of the free oscillation by this earthquake is smaller than that by the 1964 Niigata or 1983 Japan Sea earthquake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tsunamis ; the 1993 Guam earthquake ; fault plane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The fault parameters of the Guam earthquake of August 8, 1993 are estimated from seismological analyses, and the possibility of identifying the actual fault plane from tsunami waveforms is tested. The Centroid Moment Tensor solution of long-period surface waves shows one nodal plane shallowly dipping to the north and the other nodal plane steeply dipping to the south. The seismic moment is 3.5×1020 Nm and the corresponding moment magnitude is 7.7. The Moment Tensor Rate Function inversion ofP waves also yields a similar focal mechanism and seismic moment. The point source depth is estimated as 40–50 km. This earthquake generated tsunamis that propagated toward the Japanese coast along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana ridge system. The tsunamis are recorded on ocean bottom pressure gauges and tide gauges. Numerical computation of tsunamis shows that the computed waveforms from the two possible fault planes match well with the observed tsunami waveforms. The numerical computation also shows that the tsunami waveforms at Guam Island, just above the fault, should contain useful information regarding the identification of the actual fault plane. However, the current sampling rate of the tide gauges is so small that the records cannot help the identification.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tsunamis ; tsunami runup ; laboratory experiments ; physical models ; three-dimensional models ; tsunami simulation ; solitary waves ; wavemakers ; tsunami evolution ; instrumentation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Laboratory experiments of a 7.2-m-diameter conical island were conducted to study three-dimensional tsunami runup. The 62.5-cm tall island had 1 on 4 side slopes and was positioned in the center of a 30-m-wide by 25-m-long flat-bottom basin. Solitary waves with height-to-depth ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.20 and “source” lengths ranging from 0.30 to 7.14 island diameters were tested in water depths of 32 and 42 cm. Twenty-seven capacitance wave gages were used to measure surface wave elevations at incident and four radial transects on the island slope. Maximum vertical runup measurements were made at 20 locations around the perimeter of the island using rod and transit. A new runup gage was located on the back or lee side of the island to record runup time series.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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