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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (752)
  • Organic Chemistry  (646)
  • Ultrastructure  (115)
  • 1990-1994
  • 1970-1974  (1,513)
  • 1955-1959
  • 1972  (1,513)
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  • 1990-1994
  • 1970-1974  (1,513)
  • 1955-1959
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Chinese hamster ; Diabetes ; Glycogen infiltration ; Kidney ; Nuclear glycogenosis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cette enquête sur l'ultra-structure du rein de hamsters chinois atteints de diabète a permis de relever des lésions glomérulaires légères, consistant en un épaississement non-homogène des membranes basales des vaisseux capillaires, des altérations de cellules de la mésange, une dilatation irrégulière des anses vasculaires. Sur la partie tubulaire, une accumulation de glycogène dans le cytoplasme des cellules de la partie distale et du tube collecteur ainsi que la présence de glycogène dans le noyau des animaux atteints d'un grave diabète et de kétose.
    Abstract: Resumen La presente investigación sobre la ultraestructura del riñón del hamster chino diabético, ha dado la posibilidad de poner en evidencia sutiles lesiones glomerulares, consistentes en el engrosamiento no homogéneo de las membranas basales de los vasos capilares, en alteraciones de las células del mesangio, en la dilatación irregular de las ansas; y, a cargo de la parte tubular, en una acumulación de glicógeno en el citoplasma de las células del tramo distal y del túbulo colector y en la presencia de glicógeno en el núcleo de los animales con diabetes grave y quetosis.
    Notes: Riassunto La presente indagine sulla ultrastruttura del rene di hamsters cinesi diabetici ha fatto rilevare fini lesioni glomerulari, consistenti in ispessimento non omogeneo delle membrane basali dei vasi capillari, alterazioni delle cellule del mesangio, dilatazione irregolare delle anse vascolari. A carico della parte tubulare, accumulo di glicogeno nel citoplasma delle cellule del tratto distale e del tubulo collettore; presenza di glicogeno nel nucleo negli animali con diabete grave e chetosi.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Cyclophosphamide treatment ; Guinea pig ; Experimental diabetes ; Immunodiabetes ; Immunosuppression ; Insulin resistance ; Islets of Langerhans ; Precipitating insulin antibodies ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Hyperglycémie, amélioration de la tolérance à l'insuline et modifications considérables à niveau des cellules B et A des ilots de Langerhans ont fait l'objet d'une observation, après immunisation par insuline et adjuvant, en cobayes produisant des anticorps anti-insuline précipitants. Le traitement par le cyclophosphamide inhibait la production d'anticorps anti-insuline, alors que la glycémie et la tolérance à l'insuline restaient aux mêmes niveaux qu'on pouvait vérifier chez les animaux de contrôle non immunisés. Même les îlots de Langerhans semblaient avoir subi des dommages moins importants par rapport à ceux des animaux qui n'avaient pas été traités par le cyclophosphamide.
    Abstract: Resumen En covayos productores de anticuerpos antinsulina precipitantes, tras inmunización con insulina y adyuvante, se ha podido observar: hiperglicemia, aumento de la tolerancia a la insulina y conspícuas modificaciones a cargo de las células A y B de las islas de Langerhans. El tratamiento con ciclofosfamida inhibía la producción de anticuerpos antinsulina, mientras la glucemia y la tolerancia insulínica permanecían en los mismos niveles que podían observarse en los animales de control no inmunizados. Las islas de Langerhans aparecían menos dañadas respecto a las de los animales no tratados con ciclofosfamida.
    Notes: Riassunto Iperglicemia, aumento della tolleranza all'insulina e cospicue modificazioni a carico delle cellule B ed A delle isole di Langerhans sono stati osservati, dopo immunizzazione con insulina in adiuvante, in cavie produttrici di anticorpi anti-insulina precipitanti. Il trattamento con ciclofosfamide inibiva la produzione di anticorpi anti-insulina, mentre la glicemia e la tolleranza insulinica rimanevano agli stessi livelli riscontrabili negli animali di controllo non immunizzati. Anche le isole di Langerhans apparivano meno danneggiate rispetto a quelle degli animali non trattati con ciclofosfamide.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Myelinated Nerve ; Venom ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of right sciatic nerves of Swiss white mice was studied after being exposed to a venom solution ofAgkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broad-banded copperhead) and to 0.9% NaCl solutions for periods of 1, 2 or 3 h. There was some “Wallerian-like” degeneration in all groups of nerves in the experiment. Additional neuropathological changes were noted in the nerves exposed to venom solutions. The connective tissue was affected most severely, while the basal lamina was unaffected. Schwann cells were vacuolated, and in the most extreme case, a type of myelin splitting occurred which was considered as a “demyelinative” effect. The results were compared to those of Martin and Rosenberg (1968) [15] on studies of the giant squid axon. References to additional fine structural studies of various other neuropathies were given.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Infantile Neuro-Axonal Dystrophy ; Motor End Plates ; Nerve ; Spheroïds ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors report the ultrastructure of neuromuscular biopsies in three cases of infantile neuro-axonal dystrophy. The presence of spheroïds in peripheral and intramuscular nerves, but also in the motor end plates allows the diagnostic of this disease, without doing cerebral biopsy.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Chick embryo ; Granular pneumocytes ; Granular inclusions ; Lamellar inclusions ; Ultrastructure ; Lung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les inclusions lamellaires caractéristiques des cellules granuleuses de l'épithélium pulmonaire apparaissent chez le Poulet à 16 jours d'incubation. Elles dérivent d'inclusions granulaires que l'on peut déceler dans l'épithélium dès l'apparition de l'ébauche pulmonaire, à 21/2 jours d'incubation. Nous avons étudié l'évolution de ces deux types d'inclusions lorsque les ébauches pulmonaires sont transplantées sur des hôtes d'âge différent. Lorsque une ébauche pulmonaire jeune (21/2 à 3 jours) est greffée sur un hôte plus âgé (6 jours), l'évolution des inclusions granulaires est fortement stimulée et peut conduire à l'apparition d'organites présentant plusieurs des caractères des inclusions lamellaires. Lorsqu'au contraire, une ébauche pulmonaire est transplantée sur un hôte plus jeune (3 jours), deux cas peuvent se présenter: Ou bien l'épithélium ne contient pas encore d'inclusions lamellaires au moment de la transplantation (ébauche de 14 jours par exemple): le moment d'apparition de celles-ci est alors considérablement retardé et leur différenciation ne devient massive que lorsque les inclusions lamellaires apparaissent dans le poumon de l'hôte; Ou bien les inclusions lamellaires sont déjà différenciées (poumon de 18 jours par exemple): dans ce cas, leur différenciation se poursuit pendant toute la durée de la greffe. Lorsqu'une ébauche pulmonaire est transplantée sur un hôte plus âgé ou plus jeune, l'évolution ultrastructurale de l'épithelium est donc modifiée. Selon les cas, elle est stimulée ou, au contraire, freinée. Des facteurs présents dans le milieu intérieur de l'hôte influencent la différenciation des greffons. Ils pourraient également intervenir dans de développement normal des poumons.
    Notes: Summary The lamellar inclusions of the granular pneumocytes first appear in chick pulmonary epithelium at 16 days of incubation. They are derived from granular inclusions which can already be seen in the epithelium at the time when lung buds become distinct (at 21/2 days incubation). We have studied the fate of these two types of organelles after transplantation of embryonic lungs to hosts of a different age. When a young lung bud (21/2 to 3 days) is grafted into an older host (6 days), the development of the granular inclusions is strongly stimulated, and can lead to the appearance of organelles which exhibit several features characteristic of lamellar inclusions. When an embryonic lung is transplanted to a younger host, two situations can occur: Either the epithelium does not yet contain any lamellar inclusions at the time of transplantation (eg lung at 14 days); these appear after a considerable delay, and differentiate in large quantities only at the time of appearance of the inclusions in the host lungs. Or the lamellar inclusions are already differenciated (eg lung at 18 days), in which case, their differentiation continues in the host. Therefore, when a lung bud is transplanted into either a younger or older host, the ultrastructural development is modified. It is either stimulated or inhibited. Some factors, present in the host internal milieu, influence the differentiation of the grafts. These factors could also play a role in the normal development of the lungs.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Anterior pituitary ; Mouse ; Tissue culture ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Suitability of an ordinary incubation system for the culture of anterior pituitary tissues of mice was examined by electron microscopy. It was found that this system has many advantages over Trowell's standard technique for tissue culture and is particularly suitable for the short-term culture. In this system the pituitary tissue cultures were maintained well for at least two days in a chemically defined tissue culture medium (TC 199) without any additives. Addition of 20% calf serum to the medium extended the period to up to five days. Any attempts to prolong it further, however, failed because of a massive necrosis and a great loss of the histological integrity. In the cultured tissues there an enhancement of the LTH cells and a suppression of the other granulated types of cells were observed. The follicular cells were found to hypertrophy and to actively participate in phagocytosis of cell debris.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Embryology ; Epithelial autophagia ; Histocytochemistry ; Human palate ; Macrophages ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An ultrastructural and a histochemical study of the disintegration of the human fetal palatinal junctional epithelium was carried out. Special attention was focused both on the epithelium proper as well as on participation of the surrounding mesenchyma. Epithelial autophagia was noticed in the form of inclusion bodies with cellular remnants as well as general cellular disintegration. The disintegration was correlated to the cellular activity of acid phosphatase and AS-esterase. The differences between human and non-human material were recorded and discussed. In the surrounding mesenchyma, histiocytes (macrophages) were noticed participating in the epithelial disintegration, while ordinary mesenchymal cells seemed without importance. The study of activity of alkaline phosphatase reveals that the rapidly growing ossification center of the vomer was touching the superior aspect of the epithelial junctional seams, where the epithelial disintegration starts. Based upon the findings the following sequential steps of disintegration were discussed: 1) pressure from the outside (the vomer anlage), 2) epithelial autophagia and 3) heterophagia of epithelial remnants (invading histiocytes). The ultrastructure and histochemistry of the so-called epithelial pearls were described. The intercellular substance of the palatinal processes was found to consist of hyaluronic acid and of chondroitin-4- and/or-6-sulfate. The mutual ratio of the glycosaminoglucuronoglycans was discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Myotendon ; Zebra-Bodies (ladder-like structure) ; Rods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the adult and foetal human myotendon is described. At the myotendon the muscle fibre is surrounded by plasma and basement membranes which are never penetrated by the adjacent collagen fibrils of the tendon. Increased thickness and electron density of the plasma membrane and the myofilaments which merge with it occur at the myotendon and this electron dense zone corresponds to the terminal Z-line of the final sarcomere of the myofibril. In the adult the muscle fibre near the myotendon may contain nemaline rods and zebra-bodies. The tendon in the foetus shows much more activity of the fibroblasts than in the normal adult. The collagen fibrils of the early foetus are thinner in diameter than at later stages of development. The union of the tendon with cartilage is illustrated.
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  • 9
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    Acta neuropathologica 21 (1972), S. 253-257 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Haemangiopericytoma, Cerebral-Secondary ; Histology ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A secondary haemangiopericytoma of the cerebral hemisphere in a woman of 23 is described. It is formed of cells arranged in masses around proliferating blood capillaries, and also in rosette patterns. The tumour cells are separated from the capillary endothelial cells by thick collars of basement membrane in abnormal amounts. The histology of the primary tumour of the sacrum, and of the secondary tumours in the lungs and nervous system, are similar. A metastatic haemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system appears not to have been previously reported.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Dentine ; Ultrastructure ; Tubule ; Tooth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'étude ultrastructurale de la dentine humaine périphérique, de couronnes dentaires de sujets âgés de 11 à 75 ans, a montré trois aspects principaux du contenu des canalicules en coupe transversale. Il s'agit de canalicules apparemment vides, de canalicules contenant un matériel organique annulaire et, enfin, de canalicules totalement remplis d'un matériel organique d'aspect granulaire ou hyalin. Aucune terminaison nerveuse n'est visible à ce niveau.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die ultrastrukturelle Untersuchung von peripherem menschlichem Zahnkronendentin bei Patienten im Alter von 11–75 Jahren hat drei Hauptaspekte des Inhaltes der Dentintubuli gezeigt. Sie bestehen bei transversalen Schnitten aus toten Gängen sowie beim Lumen der Tubuli entweder aus ringförmigen oder ganzausfüllenden Ablagerungen. Im äußeren Dentin wurden keine Nervenendigungen beobachtet.
    Notes: Abstract An ultrastructural study of peripheral human coronal dentin in patients aged 11 to 75 years, has shown main aspects of the dentinal tubular content. In transverse sections, they consist of dead tracts and annular or solid content to the tubular lumen. No nerve endings were observed in the outer dentin.
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  • 11
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    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 9 (1972), S. 296-309 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Osteoclasts ; Enzyme ; Parathyroid ; Microdissection ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une nouvelle méthode d'isolement d'ostéoclastes est mise au point pour des analyses biochimiques et de microscopie électronique. Pour isoler les cellules par microdissection, des empreintes d'os métaphysaire sont utilisées. Cette méthode, supérieure aux coupes d'os, permet une meilleure préservation cytologique et enzymatique et permet d'obtenir des cellules totales plus faciles à manipuler, avec des résultats plus reproductibles. Par analyse planimètrique de cellules isolées, colorées histochimiquement, il apparait que les ostéoclastes constituent plus de 90% de la masse de l'échantillon. Les concentrations de la phosphatase acide et de certaines enzymes, liées au nucléotide pyridinique, entrant dans le métabolisme de l'acide citrique, sont déterminées dans des échantillons d'ostéoclastes, pesant de 0,2 à 2,0 μg, isolés à partir de rats normaux et parathyroidectomisés. L'activité en aconitase, mesurée en direction de la transformation de citrate en isocitrate, est de 0,5–0,8 M/Kd/H, la plus faible des activités étudiées. Les activités en GDH et NADP-ICDH sont 5 à 10 fois supérieures que celle de l'aconitase, mais seulement un dixième à un tiers de celle de la phosphatase acide, de la déshydrogénase lactique ou malique.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Technik beschrieben, welche die Isolierung von Osteoklasten für biochemische und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen ermöglicht. Als Ausgangsmaterial zur Zellisolierung wurden Abstriche von Metaphysenknochen benützt. Die Verwendung von Abstrichen bietet gegenüber Knochenschnitten wichtige Vorteile, wie z.B. eine bessere Erhaltung der cytologischen und enzymatischen Eigenschaften sowie die Gewinnung von unverletzten Zellen, welche leichter verarbeitet werden können und besser reproduzierbare Daten ergeben. Durch planimetrische Analyse der histochemisch gefärbten Ausstriche von isolierten Zellen konnte nachgewiesen werden, daß die Osteoklasten über 90% des gesamten Probenmaterials ausmachen. Die Mengen verschiedener Enzyme, welche an Pyridinnukleotid gebunden und am Citronensäuremetabolismus beteiligt sind, sowie der sauren Phosphatase wurden in Osteoklastenproben bestimmt, welche ein Gewicht von 0,2–2,0 μg hatten und aus Knochen von normalen und mit Parathyroidextrakten behandelten Ratten isoliert worden waren. Die Aktivität der Aconitase, welche in der Richtung von Citrat zu Isocitrat gemessen wurde, war mit 0,5–0,8 M/Kd/H die niedrigste aller untersuchten Aktivitäten. Die Aktivitäten der GDH und der NADP-ICDH waren 5–10mal höher als jene der Aconitase, entsprachen jedoch nur einem Zehntel bis einem Drittel derjenigen der sauren Phosphatase, der Laktat- oder der Malatdehydrogenase.
    Notes: Abstract A new method is described by which osteoclasts can be isolated for biochemical and electron microscopic analyses. As a source of cells for isolation by microdissection, imprints of metaphyseal bone were used. The use of imprints provides important advantages over bone sections, including a higher degree of cytologic and enzymatic preservation, and the delivery of whole cells which are more readily manipulated and which yield data that are more readily reproduced. By planimetric analysis of the histochemically-stained isolated cell samples, it was shown that osteoclasts represent over 90% of the sample mass. The levels of several of the pyridine nucleotide-linked enzymes involved in citric acid metabolism, as well as acid phosphatase, were determined in osteoclast samples weighing 0.2 to 2.0 μg isolated from normal and parathyroid-treated rats. Aconitase activity measured in the direction of citrate to isocitrate was 0.5–0.8 M/Kd/H, the lowest of the activities studied. The activities of GDH and NADP-ICDH were 5 to 10 times higher than that of aconitase but only a tenth to a third that of acid phosphatase, lactic or malic dehydrogenase.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Small lymphocytes ; Throracic duct lymph ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die charakteristische Feinstruktur der durch Drainage des Ductus thoracicus des Menschen gewonnenen Lymphocyten wurde beschrieben, ihre Größe und Kern-Plasma-Relation durch planimetrische Verfahren ermittelt. Zwei morphologisch unterschiedliche Formen kleiner Lymphocyten konnten beschrieben werden: Zellen, die durch einen chromatinarmen Kern und relativ lockeres Cytoplasma gekennzeichnet sind, das zahlreiche Zellorganellen (Golgifeld, Centriolen, Mitochondrien und freie diffus verteilte Ribosomen) einschließt, sowie Zellen mit chromatinreichen Kern und dichtem Cytoplasma mit auffallend wenig Mitochondrien, jedoch relativ zahlreichen freien Ribosomen. Eine mögliche funktionelle Bedeutung dieser beiden morphologisch unterschiedlichen kleinen Lymphocyten wird diskutiert. Danach werden die Zellen der ersten Gruppe als differenzierte Zellformen, die der zweiten jedoch als immunologisch aktivere kleine Lymphocyten angesehen.
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of small lymphocytes of human thoracic duct lymph is described and planimetric studies of their size and nucleus-cytoplasm relationship are made. Two morphologically different small lymphocytes could be recognized; cells with a nucleus with little chromatin and a relatively light cytoplasm inclosing many organelles (Golgifield, Centriol, Mitochondria, Monoribosomes), cells with compact chromatin and dense cytoplasm including only a few mitochondria but many monoribosomes. The possible function of these morphological different small lymphocytes was discussed. The first group is a well differentiated cellform, the second one may contain more immonulogical active small lymphocytes.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bivalve ; Molluse ; Shell ; Carbonates ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La technique du bombardement à l'aide d'ion d'argon est utilisée pour réduire l'épaisseur de la coquille de carbonate de calcium des bivalvesMytilus etMercenaria pour examen au microscope électronique par transmission et en diffraction électronique; une comparaison est réalisée à l'aide de répliques simples, servant de témoins. Les résultats obtenus confirment les études antérieures de répliques et de microscopie par balayage. De plus, une structure “aérée” est mise en évidence dans la coquille des aragonites, et surtout dans le nacre deMytilus. Cette structure est interprêtée comme un artefact induit par la chaleur, formé par l'inclusion d'eau et de matériel organique, interprétation qui concorde avec les études chimiques et de microscopie électronique.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Beschießung mit Argonionen wurde angewendet, um die Dicke von Calciumcarbonat-Schalen der zweischaligen MuschelnMytilus undMercenaria zu reduzieren. Diese Technik erlaubte die Ausführung von Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie und Elektronendiffraktion, wobei gleiche Proben nach einer bereits bestehenden Methode vorbereitet und als Kontrollen herangezogen wurden. Es wurden zusätzliche Resultate zu den Muschelstruktur-studien erhalten, welche früher publizierte Arbeiten unterstützen, die mit der Abklatschmethode und der Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie ausgeführt worden waren. Zusätzlich wurde eine „schaumartige” Struktur der Muschelaragoniten, besonders im Perlmutter vonMytilus, beobachtet. Da es sich um ein durch Hitze verursachtes Artefakt handelt, wird diese Struktur als Einschlüsse von Wasser und organischem Material interpretiert, was den Befunden von verschiedenen veröffentlichten chemischen und elektronenmikroskopischen Arbeiten entspricht.
    Notes: Abstract Use is made of the argon ion-bombardment technique to reduce the thickness of calcium carbonate shells of the bivalvesMytilus andMercenaria for transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, with comparison of single-stage replicas of similar specimens serving as controls. As an additional approach to shell structure studies, it gives results which support earlier published work with both replicas and scanning microscopy. In addition, a “frothy” structure is detected in the shell aragonites, especially inMytilus nacre. As a heat-induced artifact, it is interpreted as representing trapped water and organic material inclusions, an interpretation consistent with several published chemical and electron microscope studies.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Callus ; Osteoclast ; Endocytosis ; Lysosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La bordure en brosse des ostéoclastes de cals de fractures de rats présente des plissements complexes de la membrane cytoplasmique formant des canaux étroits. L'absorption d'un produit exogène opaque aux électrons (des macromolécules de dioxyde de thorium) s'effectue par l'intermédiaire de ces canaux, par un «courant» membranaire. Les contenus des canaux sont transférés à des lysosomes («granules spécifiques»), situés sous la bordure en brosse. Dans des «régions de transition», adjacentes à cette dernière, l'absorption de dioxyde de thorium se fait par «vésiculation membranaire» (endocytose classique).
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Der gekrauste Rand der Osteoklasten im Frakturcallus von Ratten besteht aus komplexen Einstülpungen der Plasmamembran, die enge Kanälchen bildet. Die Absorption einer exogenen, elektronisch dichten Verbindung, Thoriumdioxyd, erfolgt durch diese Kanäle, offenbar durch einen „Membranfluß”. Der Inhalt der Kanäle wird zu den Lysosomen („spezifische Granula”) geführt, welche unter dem gekrausten Rand liegen. In „Übergangsgebieten”, welche sich neben dem gekrausten Rand befinden, scheint die Aufnahme der Thoriumdioxydpartikel durch „Bläschenbildung in der Membran” (konventionelle Endocytose) stattzufinden.
    Notes: Abstract The ruffled border of osteoclasts in the fracture callus of rat consists of complex infoldings of the plasma membrane forming narrow channels. Absorption of an exogenous, electron-dense compound, thorium dioxide, has been shown to take place via these channels, apparently through “membrane flow”. The contents of the channels are transferred to lysosomes (“specific granules”) located subjacent to the ruffled border. In “transitional regions” adjacent to the ruffled border, uptake of thorium dioxide particles appeared to occur through “membrane vesiculation” (conventional endocytosis).
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Lung mouse tumors ; Chemical carcinogen ; Ultrastructure ; Pneumocyte II ; Crystalline inclusions ; Interstitial fibrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The pulmonary tumours induced in Swiss mice by NMUR seem to be constituted for the most part by cells closely related to the granular pneumocytes (pneumocytes II ou B). Other rarer cells, of epithelial bronchiolar aspect, may take part in the proliferation. The ultrastructural study of tumoral cells suggest that their secretory functions are disturbed. The origin of the crystalline intratumoral structures is discussed, as well as their possible relationship with the production of surfactant. The peritumoral areas are characterized by a dense interstitial flbrosis in which the collagen fibers are associated with an elastoid substance.
    Notes: Resumé Les tumeurs pulmonaires induites chez la souris swiss par le NMUR apparaissent essentiellement constituées de cellules apparentées aux pneumocytes granuleux (pneumocytes II ou B). D'autres cellules plus rares, de morphologie épithéliale bronchiolaire peuvent participer á la prolifération. L'étude ultrastructurale des cellules tumorales suggère que leurs fonctions secrétoires sont perturbées. Le mode de formation des structures cristallins intratumorales est discuté, ainsi que leur rapport éventuel avec la production du surfactant. Les territoires péri-tumoraux sont caractérisés par une fibrose interstitielle dense où les fibres de collagène sont associées à uns substance élastoïde.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Photoreceptor ; Bryozoa ; Larva ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pigmented spots of bryozoan larvae have often been implicated in photoreception due to their preferential occurrence in larvae with positive phototactic behavior. Results of light and electron microscopic studies of Bugula neritina show that the larvae possess two spots, each with a basal sensory cell situated at the base of a pit-like depression. The embedment of the pit and its basal cell in a pad of subepidermal pigment cells allows for directional illumination. The basal sensory cell produces a ball-like mass of non-motile cilia. The configuration of the axoneme is typical of kinocilia and unlike the arrangement previously described for ciliary photoreceptors. Elaboration of receptor organelle membrane surface area is accomplished uniquely by multiple cilia oriented so that large portions of each cilium lie perpendicular to the direction of incident light. The pigmented spot directly contacts the underlying equatorial nerve ring which also connects with the major larval locomotor organ. The pigmented spots of B. neritina are the only potential photoreceptor structures which have been studied by electron microscopy in the three lophophorate phyla. The use of ciliary membranes as the potential photoreceptor organelle allies the bryozoan pigmented spot with the ciliary type photoreceptor which occurs most prevalently in deuterostome animals.
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  • 17
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    Cell & tissue research 123 (1972), S. 486-495 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pomatoceros triqueter ; Cytokinesis ; Surface folding ; New surface membrane ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The first cleavage division of Pomatoceros triqueter eggs is described. Time-lapse microcinematographic and electron microscopic studies revealed that, prior to division, the plasma membrane was folded into pleats. These were not present after division. This fact pointed to an unfolding of the plasma membrane which enabled it to cover the increased surface area resulting from cleavage. It is suggested that the pre-cleavage folds are derived from the membranes of the cortical granules, which continue releasing their contents into the perivitelline region following fertilization and first division. Filamentous material in the form of a band was present subjacent to the plasma membrane in the region of the furrow. The individual filaments of this band measure 5 to 7 nm in cross section, the dimensions being similar to those described for other kinds of dividing cells.
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  • 18
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    Cell & tissue research 126 (1972), S. 1-16 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Oocyte ; Rana pipiens ; Ultrastructure ; Cytochemistry ; Enzymes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In early diplotene frog oocytes incubated to illustrate thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase) activity, reaction product is uniformly distributed within the compartments of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope as well as within the saccules and small vesicles comprising the dictyosomes. With continued oocyte development the reaction product becomes concentrated in localized regions of the dictyosome saccules. Eventually, the enzyme is no longer apparent within the endoplasmic reticulum, but is concentrated in the cisternae of the inner dictyosome saccules. The variations noted suggest that the enzyme is synthesized early in diplotene by the endoplasmic reticulum and is subsequently transported to the Golgi apparatus where it is consistently observed at later developmental stages. TPPase activity is also present in the Golgi apparatus of follicle and theca cells as well as in ovarian epithelial cells. The enzyme is also detected in micropinocytotic vesicles contained within the cells comprising the follicle envelope and in intercellular spaces of the follicle. Horseradish peroxidase injected into the coelomic cavity is transported via micropinocytotic vesicles into and through the cells comprising the follicle envelope and in intercellular spaces. The exogenous protein is not found even after a prolonged time period in early diplotene oocytes. The protein is, however, present in large spherical and “tubular” vesicles in the cortex of vitellogenic oocytes approximately 500 microns in diameter. The possible functional role of the enzyme TPPase during oogenesis is discussed.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Epithelial cells ; Echinoderm ; Asterina gibbosa ; Regeneration ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'évolution ultrastructurale de la cellule neuroépithéliale a été faite, chez Asterina gibbosa, au cours de la régénération du bras. La dédifférenciation de la cellule, provoquée par l'amputation, se manifeste par la perte de sa partie apicale et la régression des structures cytoplasmiques: vésiculisation du Golgi et de l'ergastoplasme, fragmentation des microtubules. L'activation qui accompagne la dédifférenciation, se manifeste par la formation d'un nucléole au centre du noyau. Elle correspond à la reprise des synthèses d'ARN. La cellule dédifférenciée est caractérisée par un nucléole excentré et l'abondance des ribosomes libres. La différenciation débute par le regroupement en rosettes des ribosomes et le développement des canalicules ergastoplasmiques. Le Golgi réapparaît au voisinage du noyau. Les mitochondries se disposent aux pôles basal et apical de la cellule, où les microtubules se reconstitutent. En fin de différenciation, les cellules se réorganisent pour édifier un épithélium cicatriciel limité par une basale. Le tissu épidermique se différencie à partir des éléments de même origine sans l'intervention de cellules souches.
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructural differentiation of the neuroepithelial cell in the course of regeneration in Asterina gibbosa has been investigated up. Cell differentiation, induced by cutting the arm off, is characterized by loss of the apical cell pole and alteration of cytoplasmic structures: vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus and the ergastoplasm, fragmentation of microtubules. Activation, which parallels dedifferentiation, induces the appearance of a nucleolus in the center of the nucleus. This means that RNA synthesis is starting again. A dedifferentiated cell shows an eccentric nucleolus and many free ribosomes. Differentiation beginning, clusters of ribosomes and the development of tubular ergastoplasmic formations can be observed. The Golgi apparatus is located near the nucleus. Mitochondria gather at basal and apical part of the cell, where also microtubules are forming again. In the last stage of differentiation, cells are joining up and build a scar epithelium resting on a basement membrane. Epidermic tissue differentiates only from epidermic cells. Blast cells have no part in this process.
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  • 20
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    Cell & tissue research 126 (1972), S. 157-181 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Nerve degeneration ; Nerve regeneration ; Crayfish ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cut and crushed crayfish claw nerves were examined with the electron microscope at intervals up to 6 months after lesion. In sections 1 centimeter distal to the lesion there were no signs of degeneration among the giant motor axons even after many months. Swelling of glial wrappings was observed within 48 hours of nerve severance and was particularly notable in the innermost glial layer, the adaxonal layer. Golgi elements, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria accumulated in the glia. These changes were perhaps indicative of a greater supportive role required by the severed axons. Regeneration from the proximal stumps of the giant axons began within one week and had proceeded across the lesion gap by 4 weeks. Axon sprouts appeared to travel toward the terminals within the glial sheaths of the distal giant axon segments. Before regeneration was complete, as determined by a simple behaviour test, the regenerating axons occupied increasing proportions of the sheath space. After regeneration was complete occasional degenerations were seen among the sprouts. These degenerations may have occurred in regenerating axons which had grown to the incorrect muscles. The original distal giant axons probably degenerated, as well, after regeneration was complete. There was no evidence of rehealing of proximal and distal segments of the axons.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Spermatozoon ; Chilopoda ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le spermatozoïde de Lithobius forficatus L. a été étudié grâce aux microscopes électroniques, classique et à balayage. Le spermatozoïde a une longueur d'environ 2 mm et comprend deux parties: la tête, avec l'acrosome et le noyau, et la queue, divisée en zone de liaison, pièce intermédiaire et pièce terminale. L'acrosome, entouré par du matériel fibrillaire exogène, a environ 4 μ de long sur 0,2–0,3μ de large. Le noyau spiralé (300 à 400 μ de long) est constitué d'un axe fibrillaire et d'une spire granulaire dans la région postérieure. La zone de liaison est composée de la partie basale différenciée du noyau et des parties antérieures du complexe flagellaire et de la pièce intermédiaire. La pièce intermédiaire, particulièrement longue (1,5 mm environ) est formée par le flagelle entouré de ses gaines et du manchon mitochondrial. La pièce terminale est un court prolongement flagellaire (6 à 7 μ). Les spermatozoïdes matures (prélevés dans les vésicules séminales) ont une structure mitochondriale légèrement différente de celle des spermatozoïdes prélevés dans le testicule.
    Notes: Summary The spermatozoon of Lithobius forficatus was investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The spermatozoon has a length of about 2 mm long, it is subdivided into a head with acrosome and nucleus, and a tail with a connecting piece, a middle piece and an end piece. The acrosome, surrounded by exogenous fibrillar material is about 4 μ long and 0.2–0.3 μ wide. The spiral nucleus (300–400 μ in length) consists of a fibrillar axis and of a whorl of granular material in the posterior part. The connecting piece is composed of the basal differentiated part of the nucleus and the anterior parts of the flagellar complex and middle piece. The latter is particularly long (about 1.5 mm) and consists of the flagellar complex and the mitochondrial sheath. The flagellar end piece is short (6–7 μ). Mature spermatozoa (seminal vesicles) have a mitochondrial structure slightly different from those within the testis.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Glandulae submaxillares ; Mammals ; Acinar cell granules ; Ultrastructure ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Granules in acinar cells show considerable variations in size, shape, electron-density and molecular organisation of secretory material. Discrete organelles with an electron-dense homogenous matrix are seen in the guinea-pig and to some extent in the male hamster. Similar organelles with moderate electron-density are seen in the cat and dog. Acinar cells of the cat, hamster, guinea-pig and to a lesser extent the rat, contain discrete, pale granules and also confluent organelles arising from two to three of the pale particles. Composite, electron-pale secretory units are observed in the dog and rabbit. No correlation could be elicited between the histochemical reactivity of the acinar cells and the content of the secretory enzymes. The relationship between the histochemical reactivity and ultrastructural appearance of acinar cell granules and the organelles containing kallikrein, trypsin-like proteases and amylase seems much more important and functionally relevant. Morphological aspects of the intracellular transport and secretion of granules are discussed.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Glandulae submaxillares ; Mammals ; Duct cell granules ; Ultrastructure ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Discrete, PAS-positive granules of relatively uniform electron-density and size characterise the intercalated duct cells of mammalian submaxillary glands. Smaller, electron-dense organelles are seen in the cells at the junction of the intercalary-striated duct region in the guinea-pig. The large granules of variable electron-density which are observed in the proximal, modified intercalary cells in the rabbit closely resemble the granules in the acinar cells of the guinea-pig. Several populations of granules differing in size are found in the striated granular tubules of the rat and hamster; the organelles in the rat show two grades of electron-density whereas those in the hamster are uniformly dense. Numerous small granules with compactly arranged intragranular material occupy the apical part of the striated ducts of the cat, dog and rabbit. The chemical composition of each population of duct cell granules is unknown. The question whether granules containing kallikrein, trypsin-like enzymes and amylase are stored in the duct cells is discussed.
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  • 24
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    Cell & tissue research 124 (1972), S. 39-43 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ruminal epithelium ; Zonulae occludentes ; Goat ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Pansenepithel besitzt in den tiefen Hornzellen, die an das Stratum granulosum grenzen, eine Barriere. Diese Barriere, die das Labyrinth der Interzellularräume gegen das Pansenlumen verschließt, ist mit Zonulae occludentes ausgestattet.
    Notes: Summary The deep horn cells of the goat ruminal epithelium, which border the stratum granulosum, form an important component of the epithelial barrier. This barrier of the intercellular labyrinth presents zonulae occludentes (tight junctions).
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  • 25
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    Cell & tissue research 128 (1972), S. 1-18 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Muscle ; Slow ; Denervation ; Structure ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The slow anterior latissimus dorsi muscle (ALD) of the pigeon was denervated surgically and examined after varying post-operative intervals. Muscles were studied with respect to changes in weight, histological and ultrastructural alterations, and changes in size and number of fibers. The weights of the denervated muscles increased over the contralateral control, reaching a maximum hypertrophy in the first 18 days, but the hypertrophy persisted for several months. The fibers of the denervated muscle did not hypertrophy. They showed a gradation in size from the posterior to the anterior border, with the fibers in the anterior third of the muscle being the smallest. After measuring cross-sectional sizes from the anterior, middle, and posterior thirds of the muscle, the overall fiber change was one of atrophy. Morphologically, the fibers showed various signs of pathological changes, including nuclear proliferation, swelling and migration away from the sarcolemmal position, vacuolation, myofibril degeneration, connective-tissue infiltration and replacement of the fibers, and regenerative activities in the form of budding and myoblast formation. A condition termed a peripheral rim of degeneration is described. Although many abnormal conditions were found in these denervated muscles, much of the muscle appeared normal; the neurotrophic relationship of slow muscle is discussed.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Saccus vasculosus ; Cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons ; AChE-positive fibre connections ; Synapses on coronet cells ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der Saccus vasculosus von Anguilla anguilla, Cyprinus carpio und Amiurus nebulosus wurde lichtmikroskopisch mit der AChE-Reaktion und dem fluoreszenzhistochemischen Monoaminnachweis, sowie elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Lichtmikroskopisch weisen die Liquorkontaktneurone und ihre Fortsätze eine starke AChE-Aktivität auf, während die Krönchenzellen inaktiv sind. Die AChE-positiven Fortsätze der Nervenzellen bilden Bündel, die in den Nervus sacci vasculosi eintreten und im Tractus sacci vasculosi weiterziehen. Diese AChE-positive Bahn kann nach Kreuzung zur Gegenseite bis in das Neuropil des Thalamus ventralis verfolgt werden. Die Liquorkontaktneurone des Saccus vasculosus, der Nervus und Tractus sacci vasculosi, sowie der Nucleus sacci vasculosi weisen keine Monoaminfluoreszenz auf. Auf den Perikaryen der Krönchenzellen kommen Synapsen vor, deren praesynaptisches Cytoplasma außer synaptischen Bläschen und Mitochondrien 800–1000 Å große granulierte Vesikel aufweist. Die Perikaryen der Liquorkontaktneurone enthalten neben den üblichen Cytoplasmabestandteilen dense core Vesikel, deren Durchmesser 700–900 Å beträgt. Axone, in denen granulierte Vesikel (Durchmesser 800 oder 1300 Å) vorkommen, bilden mit diesen Perikaryen Synapsen. Im basalen Teil des Saccusepithels findet man granulierte Bläschen (Durchmesser 800 oder 1400 Å) enthaltende Nervenfasern unterschiedlichen Durchmessers, ferner Synapsen. Der Nervus sacci vasculosi enthält klein- und großkalibrige, marklose Nervenfasern und vereinzelte Synapsen, während der Tractus sacci vasculosi aus vorwiegend kleinkalibrigen, marklosen Fasern besteht.
    Notes: Summary The vascular sac of Anguilla anguilla, Cyprinus carpio and Amiurus nebulosus has been studied by light microscopy using AChE reaction and the fluorescence histochemical method for the demonstration of monoamines, and by electron microscopy. As demonstrated light microscopically, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contacting neurons and their processes exert a strong AChE activity, while the coronet cells are inactive. The AChE-positive processes of the neurons form bundles that enter the nervus sacci vasculosi and pass on in the tractus sacci vasculosi. After crossing to the opposite side, this AChE-positive bundle can be traced into the neuropil of the ventral thalamus. Neither the CSF contacting neurons of the vascular sac, nor the nervus, tractus and nucleus sacci vasculosi show any monoamine fluorescence. As demonstrated electron microscopically, there are synapses on the perikarya of the coronet cells, their presynaptic cytoplasm being characterized by mitochondria, synaptic and granulated vesicles (diameter about 800 to 1000 Å). The perikarya of the CSF contacting neurons contain dense-core vesicles (diameter about 700 to 900 Å) besides of the usual cytoplasmic components. Axons displaying granulated vesicles with a diameter of 800 Å or 1300 Å, form synapses on these perikarya. In the basal part of the saccus epithelium, there are nerve fibres of different calibres containing dense-core vesicles (diameter about 800 Å or 1400 Å) and forming synapses. The nervus sacci vasculosi is characterized by thin and thick, unmyelinated nerve fibres, and rare synapses, while the tractus sacci vasculosi is composed of mainly small, unmyelinated fibres.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Sensory receptors ; Acarina ; Amblyomma americanum ; Palpal organ ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Palps of the tick Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acarina: Ixodidae; nymphal stage) were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The terminal palp segment (IV) bears the so-called “palpal organ”, a cluster of 10 short, blunt-tipped sensilla. All sensilla (except for the center sensillum) receive a dual innervation: 2 mechanoreceptive dendrites which terminate in the socket membrane plus several chemoreceptive dendrites (4–12) which enter the lumen. The thick-walled cuticular shaft possesses 2–3 small pore openings (100 Å) below the tip, thus establishing communication between dendrites and environment. Two structurally different types of palpal sensilla exist: The A-type has a characteristic doublelumen and always contains 4 dendrites, the B-type features a single lumen and a specially layered cuticular shaft with 6–12 dendrites. The fine structure of the tick palpal receptors corresponds closely to that of known contact chemoreceptors in insects.
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  • 28
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    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 126 (1972), S. 446-453 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Eye ; Manduca sexta ; Ommatidia ; Retinula ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The superposition eye of the sphingid moth, Manduca sexta was explored by means of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Specifically examined were the corneal nipple array, corneal lens, crystalline cones and tracts, photoreceptor cells and their axons. Descriptions of the external ultrastructure of the components were correlated, where possible with previously published accounts of internal ultrastructure as obtained from TEM studies. A key finding was the demonstration of the axial rotation of the eccentrically situated retinular cell, its externally noted prominence and the arrangement of the other photoreceptor cells composing the retinula. Because of the interest in superposition eye theory, the functional significance of various preretinular optic components was reviewed where it specifically related to Manduca.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Aphid cornicle ; Basal lamina ; Oenocyte ; Holocrine secretion ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Light- and electron-microscopic observations on the cornicles of the rose aphid Macrosiphum rosae are presented, and discussed in relation to conflicting interpretations of cornicle structure and function. Lipid filled cornicle secretory cells occupy the lumen of the cornicle and extend into the abdominal cavity. The aphid is readily induced by mechanical stimuli to release cornicle secretory cells from a pore at the tip of the cornicle. The holocrine secretory cells are disrupted and release their lipid contents on leaving the body. They are enclosed within an acellular membranous sac that is apparently identical in structure with the basal lamina of the epidermis. The ultrastructure and anatomical relationships of the cornicle secretory cells suggest that they are oenocytes invaginated with the epidermal basal lamina, and are not anatomically or embryologically related to fat body.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Muscle tissue ; Pentastomid ; Body wall ; Parasite ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of the body wall muscle of the pentastomid Reighardia sternae is described. The muscle fibres are separated from one another and form two layers, circular and longitudinal. They are cross-striated with approximately 11 actin filaments surrounding each myosin filament. The T-system consists of simple in-pushings of the sarcolemma. The SR is also simple and forms both dyadic and triadic contacts with the T-system tubules and dyadic contacts with the sarcolemma. Electron-dense inclusions occur, usually in the vicinity of the Z-lines, and it is suggested that these may be composed of unsaturated lipids.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Oocytes ; Chilopoda ; Vitellogenesis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans l'ovocyte de Lithobius forficatus L., les trois types classiques de réserves vitellines apparaissent successivement: glycogène, globules lipidiques et vitellus protéique. La synthèse du glycogène semble effectuée au contact des membranes ergastoplasmiques. Les globules lipidiques paraissent élaborés à partir d'un matériel qui transite par le reticulum puis l'appareil de Golgi. Le vitellus protéique est d'origine exogène et pénètre dans l'ovocyte par pinocytose. L'ovocyte mûr est très riche en réserves vitellines et ne renferme qu'une mince couche cytoplasmique périphérique, pauvre en organites.
    Notes: Summary In the oocyte of Lithobius forficatus L., the three classical types of vitelline reserves appear successively: glycogen, lipid droplets, and protein yolk. Glycogen synthesis seems to occur in contact with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid droplets appear to be elaborated from a material which passes through the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Protein yolk originates elsewhere and enters the oocyte by pinocytosis. The mature oocyte is almost completely filled with yolk. There remains only a thin outer coat of cytoplasm with very few organelles.
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  • 32
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    Cell & tissue research 130 (1972), S. 302-311 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Gonadal development ; Sex determination ; Germ cells ; Mollusca ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of the gonad, from hatching through sexual maturity and oviposition, has been studied in Arion ater rufus and Deroceras reticulatum. At hatching, the gonad is comprised of several acini. These acini are hollow structures, the walls of which are generally one or two cell layers thick. This cell layer consists of intermingled germinal and non-germinal cells. Eventually, each acinus is divided into two compartments (cortical and medullar) by a layer of auxiliary cells. The auxiliary cells appear to differentiate into Sertoli and follicle cells. These three non-germinal cell types appear to form an uninterrupted cell barrier that isolates the female germ cells in the cortex from the male germ cells in the medulla. Thus, although these animals are hermaphroditic, the male and female germinal lines differentiate in physiologically isolated compartments.
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  • 33
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    Cell & tissue research 130 (1972), S. 279-301 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Gonadal development ; Sex determination ; Germ cells ; Mollusca ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A cytological study has been made, at the light- and electron-microscope levels, of gonadal development in Arion circumscriptus. The gonad appears to be ectodermal in origin and is composed of two cell lines—germinal and non-germinal. These two lineages are established in the embryo. The germinal line is first represented by primordial germ cells while the non-germinal line is first represented by auxiliary cells. The primordial germ cells differentiate into spermatogonia and oogonia, the auxiliary cells into Sertoli cells and follicular cells. Spermatogonia and oogonia differentiate about the time of hatching. All subsequent germ cells appear to differentiate from these initial populations of spermatogonia and oogonia. The concept of a germinal epithelium, as a cell layer in which germ cells differentiate from indeterminate germ cells throughout the life cycle, is not supported by this study. A model for sex determination of the germ cells is proposed based on the hypothesis that sexually non-determined primordial germ cells are distributed into two physiologically isolated compartments (a male medullar compartment and a female cortical compartment). The spermatogonia and oogonia then differentiate in two different microenvironments.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Vitelline membrane ; Chorion ; Ephestia ; Follicle cell ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ultrastructural studies on developing egg chambers of the moth, Ephesita kühniella reveal that the precursors of the vitelline membrane are synthesized within follicle cells which are in contact with the oocyte. The vitelline membrane precursors appear to be synthesized by the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and this material apparently moves to the Golgi cisternae where the definitive vitelline membrane precursor body is produced. The previtelline bodies are then secreted into the spaces between the oocyte and follicle cells, where they fuse to form a continuous membrane. Chorion formation begins with the deposition of a layer of tubules at the outer edge of the vitelline membrane which coalesce to form the inner edge of a thin, striated layer. In subsequent stages, several compartmented layers are rapidly secreted external to the striated layer, giving rise to the mature chorion.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Arteries ; DOCA hypertension ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the unconstricted superficial epigastric and femoral arteries is described in normal rats and in animals with hypertension induced by unilateral nephrectomy, by subcutaneous injections of desoxycorticosterone acetate and drinking of 1% NaCl. The femoral artery showed by far the greater response to the DOCA-saline treatment. In both vessels, the smooth-muscle cells changed from the normal spindle shape to a blunt ended outline with numerous pinocytotic vesicles and prolific collagen production. With long term hypertension, particularly in the femoral artery, the smooth-muscle cell profiles became very irregular. Hypertrophy of the organelles of the smooth-muscle cells was associated with an increase in the intercellular material which gradually changed from a mainly collagenous character to mainly vesicular. Lysosomal activity indicated cell disintegration. White blood cells adhere to the endothelium in hypertensive rats and there was an increase in subendothelial material. The number of intimal smooth-muscle cells increased noticeably in the femoral artery. In both arteries, the adventitial fibroblasts hypertrophied in hypertensive rats. In animals with an elevated blood pressure the morphological response was observed as early as 4 to 7 days after initiation of treatment.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ultimobranchial glands ; Anurans ; Second cell type ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The comparative fine structure of ultimobranchial (UB) glands of adult Israeli anurans (Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda, Hyla arborea) taken in the wild during the breeding season is presented. Common aspects of the UB secretory cells are considered with especial reference to secretory granules, lipid droplets and tonofilaments. In B. viridis a second cell type with large electron-dense cytoplasmic granules is found in UB follicles. R. ridibunda and H. arborea UB follicles have a second cell type similar to goblet cells in appearance and these appear to be discharging their mucoid contents into the lumina of the follicles. The possible significance of these various cell types is considered.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Fetal metanephros ; Renal nerves ; Renal tubules ; Macula densa ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen an den Nachnieren 13–16 Wochen alter menschlicher Feten wird gezeigt, daß die Macula densa und andere Abschnitte des Mittelstücks der Niere von marklosen Nervenfasern innerviert werden. Nervenfasern gelangen mit den Gefäßen an die Tubuli. Synapsen finden sich innerhalb der Tubulusmembran an der Basis der Tubulusepithelien. Eine Synapse wurde an der parietalen Bowmanschen Kapsel nahe dem Gefäßpol des Glomerulus beobachtet. Die Mehrzahl der bisher am Tubulus beobachteten Axonendigungen scheint cholinergen Neuronen zuzugehören, jedoch ist eine weitere Abklärung in Verbindung mit histochemischen Methoden erforderlich. Die Bedeutung der Innervation für die Funktion des Nephron ist schwer einzuschätzen, zumal experimentelle Untersuchungen hierzu fehlen. Auch Befunde nach Nierentransplantation lassen wegen der möglichen postoperativen Persistenz und Regenerationsfähigkeit intrarenaler Nervenfasern keine eindeutigen Rückschlüsse zu. Möglicherweise ist mit dem Nachweis der Innervation auch das regulierende Agens für den „kontraktilen Apparat“ der Niere bzw. des Nephron gefunden. Interessanter weiterer Befund ist die Beobachtung synaptischer Nerv-Endothel-Kontakte in kleinsten Nierengefäßen (Endarteriolen).
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopic study of the metanephros of 13–16-week-old human fetuses shows that the region of the macula densa as well as other segments of the distal convoluted tubule are innervated by unmyelinated nerve fibers. Nerve fibers reach the tubules alongside blood vessels. Synapses are found within the basal lamina of the tubular epithelia. One synapse was seen in the parietal part of the Bowman's capsule near the vascular pole of the glomerulus. Present evidence suggests mainly cholinergic innervation of the distal tubule, but verification using other histochemical methods is necessary. In the absence of experimental studies, it is difficult to determine the functional role of the innervation of the nephron. Observations after renal transplantation are not conclusive in view of possible postoperative persistence and regeneration of intrarenal nerve fibres. It may well be that innervation controls the “contractile apparatus” of the kidney. Synaptic contacts between axons and endothelial cells of the smallest renal arterioles may also have functional significance.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Compound eyes ; Coleoptera ; Ultrastructure ; Dark-light-adaptation ; Irregularities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The structures of the eyes of two Staphylinid beetles, one large (Creophilus erythrocephalus—18 mm in length) and one small (Sartallus signatus—3 mm in length), were compared. 1. The gross structure of the two eyes is the same: a) biconvex corneal lens, b) crystalline cone of “acone type”, c) narrow crystalline thread and thickening of cone cell extensions just above the rhabdom, d) seven retinula cells plus one basal cell, and e) almost the same corneal refractive index and optical properties of the corneal cuticle. Considerable differences exist in size, shape and arrangement of rhabdom, retinula cells and their axons. The smaller size of the eye of Sartallus is caused by reduction of number of facets rather than cell size, and, in fact, retinula cells and rhabdom have been found to be larger in the smaller beetle. 2. Structural changes during dark-light-adaptation affect crystalline cone, position of screening pigment and size of intercellular spaces between the retinula cells. In the dark-adapted state the cone retracts a little and the crystalline tract becomes wider. A thickening of cone cell extensions occurs just above the rhabdom. Screening pigment migrates to a more distal position and intercellular spaces between the retinula cells considerably increase in size as compared with the light-adapted eye. 3. Both eyes are rich in irregularities. An attempt to classify anomalies of compound eyes has been made. The number of cone cells and principal pigment cells varied, in some cases, from 1–5 and 0–3 respectively. Basal retinula cells did not always contribute to the rhabdom. 4. Interferometrical observations reveal the extreme optical homogeneity of the entire corneal cuticle of the eyes of both species. No layers of different refractive index or optical separation of adjacent ommatidia can be found. The refractive index of the cornea of Creophilus is 1.469; that of Sartallus is 1.488. 5. Functional consequences of the changes which occur during dark-light-adaptation are discussed. Exposure to intense light appears to cause a rapid aging of retinula cells, which is indicated by an increase of onion- and multivesicular bodies.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ovary ; Gastropoda ; Follicle cells ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Ovar von Viviparus contectus besteht, wie licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen ergeben, aus einem langen, terminal verzweigten dünnen Schlauch, dessen Wand von einem Epithel aus Oocyten in allen Entwicklungsstadien und Follikelzellen gebildet wird. Das Vorkommen von Oogonien in den Ovarien adulter Weibchen ist zweifelhaft. Die Follikelzellen sind als Begleitzellen der Oocyten im allgemeinen extrem langgestreckt. Mit ihrer Basis sitzen sie einer dünnen Basalmembran fibrillärer Struktur auf, wie sie bisher nur für Mollusken beschrieben wurde. Die Follikelzellen enthalten große Mengen von Vesikeln, einen bemerkenswert gut ausgebildeten Golgi-Apparat, spärliches rauhes endoplasmatisches Retikulum und zahlreiche heterogene cytosomale Einschlüsse. Charakteristisch für die Zellen sind außerdem in der Längsrichtung liegende cytoplasmatische Mikrotubuli und vereinzelte Kinetosomen. Obwohl keine direkten morphologischen Beziehungen zwischen Follikelzellen und Oocyten festgestellt werden konnten, wird vermutet, daß die Follikelzellen Material degenerierender Oocyten aus dem Lumen des Ovars resorbieren und speichern. Dieses kann den heranwachsenden Oocyten zugute kommen.
    Notes: Summary The ovary of Viviparus contectus was studied light and electron microscopically. It consists of an extended and terminally branched duct, its wall being formed by oocytes of all stages and by follicle cells. The existence of oogonia in the adult females cannot be established with certainty. According to their relationship to the growing oocytes the follicle cells are in general extremely elongated. At the basis they are attached to a thin basement lamina having a fibrillar structure hitherto only known in molluscs. The follicle cells contain many vesicles, a remarkably well-developed golgi apparatus, some rough endoplasmic reticulum, and many heterogeneous cytosomes. Characteristic for these cells are also cytoplasmic microtubules oriented longitudinally along the cell axis. Kinetosomes can rarely be seen. Although there are no apparent direct interrelationships between follicle cells and oocytes, it is suggested that they are engaged in resorbing material of degenerating oocytes from the lumen of the ovary and in storing materials which may be used by the growing oocytes.
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  • 40
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    Cell & tissue research 133 (1972), S. 163-179 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Excretory organ ; Ileum ; Blatella germanica ; Ultrastructure ; Microprobe analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'iléon de Blatella germanica est un important segment d'accumulation minérale. Les nombreuses concrétions d'origine ergastoplasmique, contiennent du phosphore, du chlore, du calcium, du magnesium, du potassium et du fer dans un stroma glycoprotéique. La paroi de ce segment protodéal est constituée d'un type cellulaire unique caractérisé par la présence de feuillets apicaux et d'invaginations basales, différenciations membranaires décrites dans d'autres organes de transit, mais dont la coexistence constitue l'originalité de l'iléon. La signification physiologique de ce segment digestif est discutée.
    Notes: Summary The ileum of Blatella germanica is an important proctodeal segment of mineral accumulation. The numerous concretions, elaborated by the ergastoplasm, contain P, Cl, Ca, Mg, K and Fe in a glycoproteic matrix. The epithelium of this segment is composed by only one type of cells which are characterized by apical leaflets and basal infoldings. These membraneous differenciations have been already described in other transit organs, but their coexistence is typical of the ileum. The physiological significance of this digestive segment is discussed.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ultimobranchial glands ; Urodeles ; Cell types ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of the ultimobranchial (UB) glands of two common laboratory urodeles, viz., larval axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw and adult Pleurodeles waltlii Micahelles, is described and compared in what is believed to be the first ultrastructural report on urodele UB glands. The axolotl UB gland shows a wide variety of form, being represented by an elongated diffuse series of follicles and sometimes by one or two large discrete terminal follicular bodies. In these axolotl UB glands up to four cell categories are distinguishable including a tonofilamentous cell and a secretory cell that is possibly homologous with calcitonin-producing C cells of anurans or other vertebrates. These two cell categories are also found in the Pleurodeles gland. The possible significance of the various cells is considered.
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  • 42
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    Cell & tissue research 131 (1972), S. 429-436 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hormone granules ; Thyroid (C-cells) ; Anterior Pituitary ; Ultrastructure ; Freeze-etching method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Gefriergebrochene Präparate (mit und ohne Ätzung) der Adenohypophyse und der C-Zellen der Schilddrüse von Ratte und Meerschweinchen wurden elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Bei den Hormongranula dieser Zellen verlaufen die Bruchflächen im allgemeinen zwischen den beiden Membranflächen oder zwischen Granulum-Inhalt und Membran. Nur relativ selten werden Granula quergebrochen. Auf beiden Hälften der gespaltenen Membranen der C-Zellgranula werden etwa mit gleicher Häufigkeit Proteinpartikel (100–200 Å) gefunden. Bei den Granula der somatotropen Zellen treten auf der dem Plasma anliegenden Membranhälfte deutlich mehr Proteinpartikel auf als auf der dem Granuluminhalt anliegenden Hälfte. Der Inhalt der somatotropen und C-Zellgranula erscheint bei dieser Präparationsmethode aus einer dichten Packung von 80–100 Å großen Partikeln zu bestehen. Eine besonders strukturierte Zone zwischen Membran und Granuluminhalt konnte bei den bisherigen Untersuchungen nicht festgestellt werden. Durch Ätzung der Gefrierbrüche ließen sich keine zusätzlichen strukturellen Details der Granula darstellen. Eine durch Auswertung von stereoskopischen Aufnahmen gewonnene Größenverteilungskurve für die C-Zellgranula wird vorgelegt.
    Notes: Summary Freeze-fractured preparations (with and without etching procedures) of guineapig and rat thyroid (C-) cells and anterior pituitary (somatotropic-) cells have been investigated with the electron microscope. The hormone granules of these cells in general split either between the two lamellae of their unit membrane or between the granule contents and the unit membrane. Only rarely cross-broken granules have been observed. Inner and outer lamella of the unit membrane of the C-cell granules contain in more or less similar frequency moderate amounts of protein particles of 100–200 Å diameter. In case of the somatotrophs the outer lamella contains higher numbers of these particles than the inner one. The contents of the C-cell and somatotroph granules seems to consist of densely packed 80–100 Å particles. A particular zone between contents and membrane (as observed on micrographs with conventional electron microscopy) could not be detected on freeze-fractured preparations. The etching procedure does not reveal additional details of the granule structure. A size distribution curve of the C-cell granules as determined from stereo-pairs, is given.
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  • 43
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    Cell & tissue research 131 (1972), S. 497-517 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Granulosa cells ; Oocyte ; Pig ; Mitochondria ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pig oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells obtained from mature Graafian follicles at a stipulated time near to ovulation were studied in some details electronmicroscopically. Particular emphasis is given to the corona radiata cell processes and to the heterogeneous population of mitochondria in the oocyte. The corona radiata cell processes contain various components such as filaments, mitochondria, multivesicular bodies and lipid droplets in their matrix. The contact relationship of the corona radiata cell processes to the oocytes is maintained by desmosomes. Usually, the two parallel surface membranes forming the desmosome are separated by a space of about 200 Å. Occasionally, the two membranes approximate each other to form a junction having a “gap” of about 70 Å. Apparently the membranes become fused in some regions. Of particular interest is the distribution and structural characteristics of the single-membrane-bounded structures, and their relationship to the cytomembranes and the mitochondria. On the basis of the present and earlier (Norberg, 1972) observations, the question arises whether the formation and development of mitochondria of pig oocytes depend, at least partly, on a metamorphosis of single-membrane-bounded structures derived from less complex membraneous elements. Final conclusions concerning this problem demand integrated morphological and biochemical investigation regarding the biosynthesis of mitochondria.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pars intermedia ; Hypothalamus ; Anurans ; Hormone release ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the pars intermedia of Rana catesbeiana tadpoles was studied following isolation from the hypothalamus, in vivo after sectioning of the pituitary stalk, and in vitro after implantation of the pituitary into a piece of tail fin. Both experimental procedures were followed by rapid and sustained skin darkening. Pituitaries from normal light and dark adapted tadpoles served as controls. In 4-hour disinhibited glands, melanotrophs revealed hyperactive Golgi bodies, colloid vesicles (1–2 microns) in close proximity to axon terminals, and no apparent loss of secretory granules. At 24 hours extracellular colloid adjacent to axon terminals was found, and extensive arrays of RER appeared in the melanotrophs. Obvious granule loss from secretory cells occurred within a week, by which time the cytoplasm was occupied by large cisterns of SER and RER and abundant free ribosomes. Dense core vesicles (600–900 Å) in aminergic nerve terminals disappeared shortly after isolation of the pituitary from the hypothalamus, and only decreasing numbers of translucent vesicles (200–300 Å) were found. The functional significance of these changes is discussed, with particular emphasis on the mode of acute hormone release.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Islets of Langerhans ; Grass-snake ; Crystalline B-granules ; Ultrastructure ; Crystallography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Kristalline B-Granula im Pankreas der Ringelnatter besitzen die Form von Rhombendodekaedern (a ≈ 11 nm, kubisch-raumzentriertes Gitter). Diese Diagnose wird abgeleitet von den Ergebnissen der dreidimensionalen Rekonstruktion von Serienschnitten, der optischen Diffraktometrie und aus dem Vergleich mit Kristallmodellen. Die Bedeutung kristalliner B-Granula wird erörtert.
    Notes: Summary Crystalline B-granules of grass-snake islets of Langerhans have been shown to possess the shape of rhombic dodecahedra (a ≈ 11 nm, cubic body-centered lattice). Three-dimensional reconstructions from serial sections, optical diffractometry and comparison with crystal models were the techniques utilized. The significance of crystalline B-granules is discussed.
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  • 46
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    Cell & tissue research 132 (1972), S. 15-24 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Digestive diverticula ; Bivalves ; Peroxisomes ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopy of the digestive diverticula of the protobranch bivalve, Nucula sulcata, revealed the presence of peroxisomes in the basal regions of the epithelial cells lining the main and secondary ducts, and in the digestive and secretory (basophil) cells of the tubules. Those in the secretory cells are elongate and somewhat flattened, while those of the other cell types have a spherical form. Two distinct types of nucleoid are normally present within the secretory cell peroxisomes, one compact, crystalline, and finely polytubular, the other comprising isolated secondary tubules arranged in a linear series across the width of the organelle. The peroxisomes of the digestive and duct cells contain coarsely polytubular cores arranged in two clusters orientated more or less at right angles; the duct cell peroxisomes may also contain a second nucleoid in the form of a compact finely polytubular core. Sections incubated in a medium containing 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and hydrogen peroxide reveal an electron dense reaction product within the peroxisomes of all the cell types. Catalase is considered to be responsible for the reaction.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neurohypophysis ; Rat ; Perivascular cells ; Neurosecretion ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study is to investigate the ultrastructural features of perivascular cells as found in the neural lobe of the hypophysis. In particular, an inquiry was made into the nature of the relationship of such cells to neurosecretory fibers and endings. The latter, in fact, are often invaginated within the perivascular cells and enveloped by their processes; furthermore, they often reveal a certain number of empty granules as well as characteristics of degenerative nature. In the course of this study the localization of the perivascular cells has been investigated as well as that of their processes within the extensive interlobular network typical of the hypophysial neural lobe of rodents. Based on the data gathered, the hypothesis is put forward that the perivascular cells play an important role in the turnover of neurosecretory endings, both under physiological and experimental conditions, contributing thereby to the release of post-hypophysial hormones.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Salivary glands ; Octopus ; Nerves ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le canal salivaire contient dans sa paroi deux types de nerfs, moteurs et sécréteurs. Le diamètre des fibres nerveuses est en moyenne plus faible dans les nerfs moteurs, où il diminue encore en direction des glandes, tandis qu'au contraire celui des fibres sécrétrices augmente, accentuant ainsi les différences morphologiques entre les deux ners. Ces différences de calibre entre les fibres sont en rapport avec le nombre plus ou moins élevé des neurites qu'elles comportent, et dont les mésaxones ont des formes variées. Les caractères cytologiques des cellules satellites et des axones des deux types de nerfs sont comparables. Les axones contiennent des vésicules de types morphologiques très divers dont la signification est discutée.
    Notes: Summary Two types of nerves, motor and secretory, are found in the wall of the salivary duct. The average diameter of the motor fibers is smaller and decreases still more towards the glands, while on the contrary it increases for the secretory fibers. The disparity of diameter between the two types of fibers is due to the different number of neurites they contain, embedded in satellite cells with mesaxons of various forms. Axons and satellite cells have similar cytological features in the two types of nerves. Vesicles of several morphological types occur in the axons; their significance is discussed.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Salivary glands ; Octopus ; Innervation of musculature ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les fibres nerveuses, souvent composées, qu'on peut trouver dans le tissu conjonctif séparant les fibres musculaires du canal, ou les tubules de la glande, sont très comparables morphologiquement aux fibres des troncs moteurs. Leurs cellules satellites, qui contiennent de grosses inclusions, nombreuses et très denses aux électrons, engainent les axones pratiquement jusqu'au niveau des terminaisons. Les jonctions neuromusculaires sont caractérisées par l'accumulation de petites vésicules claires, accompagnées de quelques vésicules plus grandes et à »coeur« dense. Les axones présentent aussi le long de leur trajet des segments plus ou moins dilatés où existent des vésicules de types très variés, et dont la signification est discutée.
    Notes: Summary Nervous fibers, often composite, can be found in the connective tissue between the duct muscular fibers, or the gland tubules. They are morphologically similar to the motor trunks fibers. Their satellite cells, containing numerous electron-opaque large inclusions, can be seen round the axons nearly to the nerve endings. Neuromuscular junctions are characterized by the accumulation of small clear vesicles, intermingled with some larger dense-cored vesicles. Axonal swellings, with numerous vesicles of various types, can also be seen along the course of the nerve fibers; their significance is discussed.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Diplopoda ; Organ of Gabe ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Das Gabesche Organ von Schizophyllum sabulosum ist paarig und liegt im seitlichen Clypeolabrum. Es wird von Axonen des Nervus labri medialis erreicht, der vorher Seitenzweige abgegeben hat. 2. Die Axone gehören neurosekretorischen Zellen des Protocerebrum an und enthalten Neurosekret. Die Elementargranula sind recht gleichmäßig ellipsoid, der große Durchmesser beträgt ca. 1200 Å. Die Axone enden im Organ und stellen dessen extrinsische Komponente dar. 3. Außerdem gibt es zwei intrinsische Zelltypen: 1) Drüsenparenchymzellen mit axonartigen Fortsätzen und 2) gliaartige Zellen. Die Parenchymzellen bilden Sekret in Form opaker Vakuolen, die deutlich größer als die Neurosekretgranula sind. Auffällig ist das überwiegend vesikuläre endoplasmatische Reticulum. Die Mitochondrien liegen in der Nähe von myelinähnlichen Körpern; ihre Außenmembran ist stellenweise vakuolig vorgewölbt. Die axonartigen Fortsätze enthalten viele längsorientierte Mikrotubuli. 4. Die langen Fortsätze der gliaartigen Zellen umhüllen die Parenchymzellen und die extrinsischen Axone meist in mehreren Schichten. Es gibt aber auch Bereiche, in denen vor allem die Fortsätze der Parenchymzellen und die extrinsischen Axone nackt sind. 5. Das Organ ist gegen das umgebende Hämocoel von einer dicken, lamellierten Stromahülle abgegrenzt. Auch Interzellularräume sind mit Stroma gefüllt. 6. Das Organ wird mit der Cerebraldrüse einiger Chilopoden und gewissen endokrinen Organen anderer Diplopoden und Insekten verglichen.
    Notes: Summary 1. The paired organ of Gabe of Schizophyllum sabulosum is situated in the lateral clypeolabrum. It is innervated by axons of the medial labral nerve, which divides in several branches before reaching the organ. 2. Axons extend from neurosecretory cells of the protocerebrum and contain neurosecretory droplets, which are almost ellipsoid and about 1,200 Å in diameter. The axons terminate in the organ and constitute its extrinsic elements. 3. In addition, there are two types of intrinsic cells: (1) parenchyma cells with axon-like processes and (2) glia-like cells. The parenchyma cells produce secretory material in the form of opaque vacuoles, which are clearly larger than the neurosecretory granules. The preponderantly vesicular endoplasmic reticulum is conspicuous. Also characteristic are the mitochondria, whose superficial membranes are expanded locally, and which lie in the near vicinity of myeline-like bodies. The axon-like processes contain many microtubuli oriented in longitudinal direction. 4. The slender processes of the glia-like cells envelop both parenchyma cells and extrinsic axons usually in several layers; but there are also regions in which the processes of the parenchyma cells and, above all, the extrinsic axons are naked. 5. The organ is delimited from the surrounding hemocoele by a thick laminated stroma. Intercellular spaces are also filled with stroma. 6. The organ is compared with the cerebral gland of some chilopods and with certain endocrine organs of other diplopods and insects.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Chemoreceptors ; Locusta ; Clypeo-labrum ; Light and electron microscopy ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The A1 sensilla are asymmetric in distribution. Each sensillum contains five bipolar neurons, the distal regions of which extend to the tip of a cuticular cone which has a terminal pore. This was shown with the scanning electron microscope, but was not seen in section. The receptor-lymph cavity of the tormogen cell and the basal cavity of the neurilemma cell contain an electron-dense material unlike other contact chemoreceptors of Locusta prepared for electron microscopy in the same manner. Isolated axons of unknown function occur below the basement membrane and also between epidermal cells surrounding the sensillum.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Oligodendroglia ; Monkey ; De-afferentation ; Ultrastructure ; Densebodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopical examination of the norma and de-afferented ‘laterall geniculate body’ of the monkey following paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde vascular perfusion revealed distinctive morphological features of different types of oligodendrocyte. These cells were normally situated as perineuronal satellites or in relation to axons and capillaries. A wide range of nuclear and cytoplasmic densities were displayed by both satellite and interfascicular oligodendrocytes. The following distinctive features for the identification of ligodendrocytes were utilised: the presence of large quantities of free ribosomes and ribosomal rosettes, microtubular profiles, dense marginal aggregation of nuclear chromatin together with light patches and numerous nuclear pores; but the absence of broad cytoplasmic processes, glycogen and gliofibrils. Circumferential perinuclear organization of the cytoplasmic organelles was typical of oligodendrocytes. Particular attention was paid to perineuronal satellite cells in view of the known transneuronal atrophy in the de-afferented geniculate body. Some cells having a nuclear pattern of oligodendrocytes but showing hyalinisation of perikaryon were seen in de-afferented laminae. A notable feature was the presence of variegated “osmiophilic bodies” in the perikaryon of oligodendrocytes also situated in the de-afferented laminae. A cell type combining the features of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes was classified as ‘intermediate neuroglia’.
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  • 53
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    Cell & tissue research 125 (1972), S. 210-228 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Regio olfactoria ; Teleosts ; Anguilla anguilla ; Ultrastructure ; 3 Different receptor types
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Flimmerepithel von Anguilla anguilla besteht aus 4 Zellarten: Flimmerzellen, Stützzellen, Basalzellen und Schleimbecherzellen. Flimmerzellen enthalten im oberen Zelldrittel zahlreiche Mitochondrien und tragen an ihrer Oberfläche bis zu 140 Kinocilien. Die Basalkörper dieser Kinocilien haben lange Wurzelfilamente, von denen ein Teil ins Zellinnere zieht; der andere Teil verläuft parallel zur Oberfläche und verbindet benachbarte Basalapparate. — Ein Übergangsepithel verknüpft das Flimmerepithel mit dem Riechepithel. Im Riechepithel finden sich außer den Zellarten des Flimmerepithels die Rezeptoren. Bei einheitlichem Aufbau des Zellkörpers lassen sich aufgrund rein morphologischer Unterschiede der Vesiculae olfactoriae 3 Rezeptortypen unterscheiden: 1. Cilien-Rezeptor, 2. Mikrovilli-Rezeptor und 3. „Pfriem“-Rezeptor. — Der Cilien-Rezeptor trägt unterhalb der Vesicula olfactoria in einer Einschnürung 4–8 sensorische Cilien, die alle auf gleicher Höhe entspringen. Zwei gegenüberliegende sensorische Cilien schließen einen konstanten Winkel von 60° ein. — Der Mikrovilli-Rezeptor trägt auf seiner abgerundeten Vesicula olfactoria 30 bis 60 Mikrovilli von 0,1 μm Dicke und bis zu 5 μm Länge. Der Mikrovillus wird von einem zentralen, 160 Å weiten, Tubulus durchzogen. Unterhalb der Vesicula olfactoria liegen mehrere Centriolen. Die Rezeptornatur dieser Zellen wird durch ein Axon unterstrichen. — Der „Pfriem“-Rezeptor besitzt eine 0,8 μm breite und bis zu 4 μm lange Vesicula olfactoria ohne sensorische Cilien und ohne Mikrovilli. Im Lumen der Vesicula olfactoria befinden sich neben Neurotubuli auch Fibrillen von 40–50 Å Durchmesser, die gebündelt auftreten. An der Basis des Köpfchens liegen mehrere Centriolen.
    Notes: Summary The ciliary and olfactory epithelia of the olfactory folds in Anguilla anguilla were studied with the electron microscope. The ciliary epithelium is composed of ciliary cells, supporting cells, basal cells, and mucous cells. The ciliary cells contain numerous mitochondria in their apical portion and bear up to 140 cilia. The ciliary basal bodies have rootlets, some of which project towards the central part of the cell, and others parallel to the cell surface thereby connecting neighbouring basal bodies. A transitional epithelium is located between the ciliary and olfactory epithelia. The olfactory epithelium is composed of the same 4 cell types of the ciliary epithelium and besides contains three morphologically different receptor cell types: ciliary receptor cells, microvillous receptor cells, and receptors with a single rodshaped free appendage. The ciliary receptors have 4 to 8 “sensory” cilia which project from below the vesicula olfactoria, each forming a constant angle of about 30° with the vertical cell axis. The vesicula olfactoria of the microvillous receptors bears from 30 to 60 microvilli, each of 0.1 μm diameter and up to 5 μm length. Each microvillus of this receptor type contains a central tubulus of 160 Å diameter. Few centrioles are located closely to the vesicula olfactoria. The third receptor type, which has neither cilia nor microvilli, is characterised by a single rod-shaped appendage of 0.8 μm diameter which projects up to 4 μm above the epithelial surface. This appendage contains neurotubules and fibril bundles; some centrioles lie close to the base of the appendage.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neurohypophysis ; Rat ; Exocytosis ; Freeze-etching ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neural lobes of rats subjected to severe acute haemorrhage under sodium pentobarbitone anaesthesia were examined electron microscopically and the ultrastructure compared with that in anaesthetised and unanaesthetised controls. Changes in the localisation and numerical distribution of elementary granules and small vesicles in the neurohypophysial nerve endings of bled rats were consistent with the occurrence of exocytosis. The occurrence of “exocytotic profiles” was observed more frequently in freeze-etched tissue samples as compared with the material fixed for conventional electron microscopy. The ratio of small vesicles: elementary granules was shown to be significantly increased (P〈0.005) in the nerve endings of neural lobes from bled rats. Equally, the numbers of exocytotic profiles related to 1000 μm2 of neurohypophysial tissue area were significantly greater (P〈0.005) in bled rats.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Amnion-Umbilical-cord-Skin ; Sheep ; Differentiation of the epithelia ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Ektoblastderivate Amnion-, Nabelstrang- und Hautepithel von 14 Schaffeten zwischen 1,1 und 44 cm SSL wurden elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Das Amnionepithel ähnelt dem anderer Säuger; die tonofibrillenreichen Zellen sind mit Mikrovilli besetzt, seitlich sind sie stark miteinander verzapft. Das Schlußleistennetz bleibt bis zur Geburt erhalten. Der Golgiapparat ist kräftig entwickelt. Glatte Mikropinozytosevesikel von 600–800 Å Ø am basalen und seitlichen Plasmalemm werden mit fortschreitender Entwicklung zahlreicher. Größere Vakuolen fehlen. Das Nabelstrangepithel bleibt im Gegensatz zu anderen Spezies ein geringfügig modifiziertes Amnionepithel ohne eigene Differenzierung. In der zweiten Trächtigkeitshälfte sind die Interzellularräume durchschnittlich weiter als im peripheren Amnionepithel. Mikropinozytosebläschen kommen auch an apikalen Mikrovilli vor. Die Epidermis ist schon im einschichtigen Stadium nicht amnionähnlich, die apikalen Mikrovilli sind wesentlich spärlicher und kürzer, die Interzellularräume sind oft einfacher geformt, basal finden sich bereits Hemidesmosomen. Bei größeren Feten werden die Interzellularräume sehr eng, die Mikrovilli stehen in Gruppen. Weder in den glykogenbeladenen Peridermzellen noch in den Basalzellen sind Pinozytosevesikel, Fruchtwasservakuolen oder andere Indizien für einen Fruchtwassertransport zu finden.
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the derivates of the ectoblast, the epithelia of the amnion, umbilical cord and skin has been studied in fetal sheep ranging from 1.1 to 44 cm CRL. The amniotic epithelium is similar to that of other mammals. The cells are rich in tonofilaments, they carry microvilli and are interdigitated with one another. Terminal bars are retained until birth. The Golgi apparatus is well developed. Smooth micropinocytotic vesicles with a diameter of 600–800 Å on the basal and intercellular cell membranes become more numerous with progressing development. Larger vacuoles are missing. The epithelium of the umbilical cord, contrary to that of other species, remains a slightly modified amniotic epithelium without special differentiation. The intercellular spaces are on the average wider in the second half of pregnancy than those in the peripheral amniotic epithelium. Micropinocytotic vesicles occur also on the apical microvilli. In the single layer stage the epidermis is dissimilar to that of the amniotic epithelium. The apical microvilli are far less numerous and shorter, the intercellular spaces are often of a more simple structure. Hemidesmosomes occur in the basal cell membrane. Later the intercellular spaces become very narrow, the microvilli are present in clusters. Pinocytotic vesicles, amniotic fluid vacuoles or other indications of amniotic fluid transport are to be found neither in the glycogen-rich peridermal cells, nor in the basal cells.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Mitochondria ; Cytomembranes ; Oocyte ; Pig ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An ultrastructural study of the mature follicular oocytes in domestic pig demonstrate a morphological relationship between the mitochondria and the cytoplasmic membranes immediately surrounding the yolk globules of the cells. Frequently, the cytoplasmic membranes are observed to be in close proximity of the mitochondria or are found to be continuous with the outer mitochondrial membrane. Sometimes the cytoplasmic membranes are found to display the formation of one or more oval loops of different diameter located at their presumed ends or free in the nearby cytoplasm. The significance of these observations is discussed in the light of the available informations, which suggest that the cytomembrane system in certain phases of development may take part in the formation of mitochondria.
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  • 57
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    Cell & tissue research 124 (1972), S. 39-43 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ruminal epithelium ; Zonulae occludentes ; Goat ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Pansenepithel besitzt in den tiefen Hornzellen, die an das Stratum granulosum grenzen, eine Barriere. Diese Barriere, die das Labyrinth der Interzellularräume gegen das Pansenlumen verschließt, ist mit Zonulae occludentes ausgestattet.
    Notes: Summary The deep horn cells of the goat ruminal epithelium, which border the stratum granulosum, form an important component of the epithelial barrier. This barrier of the intercellular labyrinth presents zonulae occludentes (tight junctions).
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Median eminence ; Rat ; Neurovascular contacts ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the median eminence of the rat axons of the supraoptic-paraventricular-hypophyseal tract with elementary neurosecretory granules (150–200 mμ) traverse the internal zone. Terminals containing dense core vesicles 60–120 mμ in diameter end on the portal capillaries of the median eminence. A unique organisation of the primary portal capillaries is shown. Endothelial cells have many fenestrae. The pericapillary space has numerous extensions all of which represent a special zone around the endothelial tube. The fine structural organisation and function of the neurovascular contacts in the median eminence are discussed.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lateral-line organ ; Eel (Anguilla japonica) ; Mechanoreceptor ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sensory epithelium of the lateral line organ of the common eel consists of two types of cells, (sensory and supporting). The sensory cell bears a kinocilium together with about 40 to 60 stereocilia on its surface. The kinocilium is situated either at rostral or at caudal margin of this cilial group. Such polarity of the cilial group of one cell is inverse to that of an adjacent cell. Two types of crystal-like inclusions exist in the sensory cells, consisting of granules 100 Å in diameter. Granules in one type are arranged regularly whereas those in the other rather irregularly. Two types of nerve endings exist at the base of sensory cells: one is predominant in number and contains few vesicles, accompanied by a dense spherical body surrounded by small vesicles in the sensory cell and the other is rare in number and contains many vesicles, accompanied by a small flat sac just beneath the plasma membrane of the sensory cell. The supporting cells contain numerous mitochondria, a well developed Golgi apparatus and rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and surround a sensory cell completely. Physiologic significance of some of these components is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource