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  • General Chemistry  (15,099)
  • Inorganic Chemistry  (12,279)
  • Ultrastructure  (820)
  • 1990-1994  (10,109)
  • 1970-1974  (9,058)
  • 1955-1959  (5,453)
  • 1915-1919  (3,578)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words     Extremely thermophilic eubacterium ; Calderobacterium hydrogenophilium ; Ultrastructure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract       Calderobacterium hydrogenophilum is an extreme thermophilic, obligately chemoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium. The cells were shown to be non-motile straight rods of average size 0.4 × 2.5 μm. After negative-staining of the whole cells, no flagella were observed. The multilayered cell wall was of type 1 and possessed a crystalline proteinaceous surface layer exhibiting p4 symmetry. The square unit cells had a lattice constant of approximately 11 nm. Cell division occurred by a constriction mechanism. C. hydrogenophilum differred from a similar hydrogen-oxidizing eubacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus, by the absence of intracytoplasmic membrane structures in chemically fixed cells. However, an electron-dense intracytoplasmic hemispherical structure adhering to the inner membrane was frequently observed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopaminergic grafts ; Neuropeptide Y ; Ultrastructure ; Striatum ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In a previous study we demonstrated that grafted dopamine (DA) neurons are able to induce an early and widespread normalization of DA-neuropeptide Y (NPY) interactions in the host striatum previously deprived of its DA input. Since similar recoveries were found to occur in striatal areas densely or poorly reinnervated by the graft, the question was raised as to what mechanisms (synaptic or volumic release) were involved in these functional effects. Ultrastructural analysis of graft-to-host relationships was performed using single — and double — immunolabelling techniques to detect neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NPY, with a view to analysing the early establishment of synaptic connectivity in various areas of the host striatum. Within 1 month of the grafting, TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons showed most of the normal intrinsic morphological features characteristic of adult rat neurons and were found to have established direct relationships with various striatal neuronal populations. TH-NPY relationships were observed only in the area most densely reinnervated by the graft, and their relative frequency was found to be roughly the same as that determined in the intact striatum. Three months after the grafting, this percentage decreased, probably owing to the further elongation in TH-IR axons resulting in a wider distribution of the TH-NPY associations over the host striatum. In the zones distal from the graft, the reinnervation was far from complete and the few TH-IR fibres projected only to some unlabelled elements, mainly of the spiny type, which have been shown to interact normally with both DA afferents and NPY cells and therefore may relay the DA action over the whole striatum on the NPY population. It can be concluded from these data that the rapid and extensive functional normalization of the TH-NPY interactions previously found to occur in the entire striatum may depend on the restoration of direct and indirect synaptic relationships. A diffuse action of DA through non-synaptic mechanisms may also account for the fact that the amine has access to broader striatal populations than to those presumably reached by DA fibres arising from the graft.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-2981
    Keywords: ADP ; Snake ; Thrombocyte ; Ultrastructure ; Waglerophis merremii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ultrastructure of the resting thrombocytes of the snake Waglerophis merremii and the process of ADP aggregation are studied. These thrombocytes are nucleate, ellipsoidal, and contain a marginal band. Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes are few. An open canalicular system, Golgi complex, granules resembling the alpha-granules in human platelets, and structures similar to secondary lysosomes are also present. The activation response of W. merremii thrombocytes to ADP is examined and compared to the morphological alterations in human platelets. The thrombocytes, normally ellipitical in shape, become spheroid with cytoplasmic protrusions, and adhere to one another. The open canalicular system undergoes dilation and the granules cluster at the centre of the thrombocytes. The release reaction of these granules occurs after stimulation by ADP, similar to what happens in human platelets. This similarity may suggest a process of evolutional specialization since thrombocytes in the majority of non-mammal vertebrates are not aggregated by ADP.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Mast cell ; Compound 48/80 ; Ultrastructure ; Quick-freezing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The ultrastructure of mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80 was examined by quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) or freeze-substitution (QF-FS) methods. Peritoneal cells including mast cells of adult male rats were stimulated in vitro with compound 48/80 at 17° C for 0, 10, 30, 60 or 180 s. The QF-DE replicas revealed that the mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80 for 30 s decreased filamentous actin around secretory granules. In the QF-FS specimens, perigranular membranes in mast cells stimulated for 60 s formed pentalaminar structures between adjacent granules in their cytoplasm prior to degranulation. These findings suggest that preparatory states for degranulation occur in the whole cytoplasm of stimulated mast cells at early stages. Moreover, both QF-FS specimens and QF-DE replicas revealed a compact morphological appearance of discharged granules in the extra-cellular space, indicating the existence of considerable content within the granules. Skeletal structures in the granules were also demonstrated on QF-DE replicas prepared after extracting soluble elements from the cytoplasm. It is suggested that the granular contents associated with the skeletal structures are gradually detached from the discharged granules to ensure local concentration in the tissues.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Rat ; Pancreatic beta cells ; Immunocytochemistry ; Ultrastructure ; Insulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract When studied morphologically in semi-thin sections in the rat in vivo, pancreatic beta cells displayed heterogeneous immunoreactivities for insulin and amylin, depending on the islet size and the intra-islet position of the beta cells. In larger islets, cortical beta cells (beta cells with contacts with all islet cell types and with the exocrine parenchyma) which are located in the periphery were more densely immunostained for insulin and amylin than medullary beta cells (beta cells with contacts only with other beta cells) which are located in the centre of the islet. Ultrastructurally, these findings were accompanied by differences in the number of secretory granules and mitochondria. Beta cells in small islets and at extra-islet sites exhibited a dense immunoreactivity. After administration of glibenclamide, immunoreactivities for insulin and amylin were diminished in a time-dependent manner, decreasing first in medullary and thereafter in cortical beta cells of larger islets. Ultrastructurally, the beta cells exhibited the typical signs of stimulation. A minority of beta cells in small islets and all beta cells in extra-islet locations remained unchanged. Thus pancreatic beta cells under basal and stimulatory conditions in vivo exhibit heterogeneity in hormone content and in ultrastructural features. These differences may represent the basis for a functional heterogeneity of the insulin secretory response of the individual beta cell both in vivo and in vitro in states of normal and impaired insulin secretion. As heterogeneity was observed only among beta cells in islets, while single beta cells surrounded by acinar cells exhibited no changes in insulin immunoreactivity, interactions between beta cells as well as between beta cells and other endocrine cells may be critical for expression of heterogeneity within the beta cell population.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Pituitary adenoma ; Sellar gangliocytoma ; Immunohistology ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Three cases of a composite sellar tumour composed of a gangliocytoma and an adenoma are presented. Two patients who showed acromegaly and hyperprolactinaemia had a gangliocytoma and a growth hormone (GH)-prolactin cell adenoma in close proximity. The gangliocytoma contained growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) by immunohistochemistry. At the electron microscopical level, the gangliocytoma was characterized by numerous synaptic vesicles. The third patient, a child with Cushing's disease, presented a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive gangliocytoma in close contact with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting adenoma, the latter a typical densely granulated ACTH cell adenoma. Ultrastructurally, the gangliocytoma revealed synaptic vesicles and sparse secretory granules. The results suggest that gangliocytomas may promote the development of pituitary adenomas by hypersecretion of releasing hormones. Whereas 20 cases of sellar GHRH producing gangliocytomas in acromegaly are reported in the literature, the combination of a CRH-positive gangliocytoma and an ACTH cell adenoma in Cushing's disease is apparently the first case.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Corticobasal degeneration ; Ultrastructure ; Tau ; Glial inclusions ; Progressive supranuclear palsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied brain tissues from three patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) histologically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically. Ballooned neurons in the cerebral cortex and severe degeneration of the substantia nigra were observed in them all and weakly basophilic neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were distributed widely in the basal ganglia and brain stem. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated that the NFTs comprised characteristic 15-nm-wide straight tubules, which showed positive immunohistochemical staining with an antibody against tau, but not ubiquitin. Tau-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies without NFTs also were found in the cerebral cortex and subcortical nuclei, predominantly in the brain stem, and the greatest number of tau-positive glial inclusions occurred in the cerebral gray and white matter of the pre- and post-central gyri. These inclusions comprised tubular structures with diameters of about 15 nm and were localized in the oligodendroglial cellular cytoplasm and processes. These findings indicate that there is a close cytoskeletal pathological relationship between CBD and progressive supranuclear palsy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Vacuolization ; Neurotoxicity ; Neuropathology ; Electron microscopy ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cytoplasmic vacuoles appear in neurons of the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex (PC/RS) of rats after treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. Prominent dilatation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum has been described within 2 h; however, the ultrastructural features of vacuole formation are unknown. To investigate this, the present study examined the PC/RS cortex of male rats (age 60–70 days) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after subcutaneous treatment with 1 mg/kg of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate, 5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine). Subtle mitochondrial dilatation was identified in a few neurons as early as 15 min postdose (MPD). By 30 MPD, dilatation was more pronounced in mitochondria and also involved the endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear space. Ribosomal disaggregation and degranulation were also evident by 30 MPD. At all subsequent time points, dilatation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum progressed in severity. Although the relative involvement of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum varied, glia were not involved. These ultrastructural data suggest that after treatment with MK-801, mitochondrial dilatation precedes involvement of endoplasmic reticulum in vacuolization of susceptible PC/RS cortical neurons. The early mitochondrial effects identified in this study suggest an initial metabolic insult that rapidly progresses to affect endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes. This strengthens the relationship between the ability of certain NMDA antagonists to induce energy perturbations and neuronal vacuoles in the same region of the rat cerebral cortex.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Vacuolization ; Neurotoxicity ; Neuropathology ; Electron microscopy ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cytoplasmic vacuoles appear in neurons of the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex (PC/RS) of rats after treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. Prominent dilatation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum has been described within 2 h; however, the ultrastructural features of vacuole formation are unknown. To investigate this, the present study examined the PC/RS cortex of male rats (age 60 – 70 days) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after subcutaneous treatment with 1 mg/kg of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate, 5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine). Subtle mitochondrial dilatation was identified in a few neurons as early as 15 min postdose (MPD). By 30 MPD, dilatation was more pronounced in mitochondria and also involved the endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear space. Ribosomal disaggregation and degranulation were also evident by 30 MPD. At all subsequent time points, dilatation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum progressed in severity. Although the relative involvement of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum varied, glia were not involved. These ultrastructural data suggest that after treatment with MK-801, mitochondrial dilatation precedes involvement of endoplasmic reticulum in vacuolization of susceptible PC/RS cortical neurons. The early mitochondrial effects identified in this study suggest an initial metabolic insult that rapidly progresses to affect endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes. This strengthens the relationship between the ability of certain NMDA antagonists to induce energy perturbations and neuronal vacuoles in the same region of the rat cerebral cortex.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Anterior horn neuron ; Synapse ; Active zone ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This report deals with an ultrastructural investigation of the synapses of anterior horn neurons in the lumbar spinal cords of five patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who had mild neuronal depletion. Specimens from five age-matched, neurologically normal individuals served as controls. In each instance, the autopsy was performed within 3 h after death. A statistically significant decrease in cell body area, number of synapses and total synaptic length was found in the normal-appearing neurons of the ALS patients. The alterations were more pronounced in neurons with central chromatolysis. However, despite an approximately 20% reduction in the number of synapses, the length of the active synaptic zone of the normal-appearing neurons in the ALS patients was not diminished. This observation may be accounted for by a plasticity to the loss of synapses which maintained the active zone of the remaining synapses to increase synaptic efficiency. It is suggested that when the plasticity of the active zone reaches its limit, the continuing loss of synapses may lead to functional impairment. The capacity of the active synaptic zone to respond to progressive denervation of the anterior horn neurons may preserve motor function or slow the development of motor deficits in the early stage of degeneration of the lower motor neurons.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Human pineal gland ; Pineal parenchymal tumors ; Ultrastructure ; Chromogranin A
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) and 4 normal or cystic pineal glands both by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against glial markers [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and protein S-100] or neural/neuroendocrine markers [neurofilaments (NF), synaptophysin and chromogranin A]. Light microscopy revealed the cellular organization of pinealocytes in the normal gland and in different morphological types of pineal tumors (typical pineocytomas, PPT with intermediate differentiation, mixed PPT exhibiting elements of both pineocytoma and pineoblastoma and pineoblastomas). Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of GFAP and protein S-100 in interstitial cells in nonneoplastic pineal gland. Cell processes were labeled with anti-synaptophysin and anti-NF antibodies. No immunoreactivity was found for chromogranin A in non-neoplastic pineal gland. In pineocytomas, GFAP and protein S-100 were observed in interstitial cells. Synaptophysin and NF were present in the large rosettes of pineocytomas. Synaptophysin, NF and chromogranin A were present in pineocytomas with a lobular arrangement of cells. Anti-chromogranin A immuno-reactivity was also seen in lobular areas of some PPT with intermediate differentiation. Analysis of normal human pineal gland by electron microscopy showed the presence of vesicle-crowned rodlets (VCR or synaptic ribbons), fibrous filaments (F), paired twisted filaments but few dense-core vesicles (DCV) in normal pinealocytes. Tumoral pineal cells appeared to differentiate either towards a neurosensory pathway characterized by the presence of sensory cells elements (VCR and F), or towards a neuroendocrine pathway, with the occurrence of many DCV. Immunogold labeling demonstrated the presence of chromogranin A in neurosecretory granules.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Oocyte ; Ultrastructure ; Zebu ; Nucleolus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the study was to investigate the light and ultrastructural morphology of dominant and subordinate oocytes from zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Healthy cycling animals, which had a well-developed corpus luteum as judged by rectal palpation, were administered cloprostenol to induce luteolysis and therefore ovulation. The animals were slaughtered at days 3–11 post-ovulation, but those slaughtered at days 8–11 received a second injection of cloprostenol at day 7. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated from the largest (dominant) and the second largest (subordinate) follicles, and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Up to day 7, the dominant oocyte presented a peripherally located spherical oocyte nucleus with a compact dense fibrillar nucleolus. After day 7, the nuclear envelope became undulated and the nucleolus vacuolated. The nuclei contained an average of four nucleoli. In addition to vesicles, mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes and cortical granules, the ooplasm contained annulate lamellae and microtubules. Moreover, mitochondrial granules and pleomorphic forms of mitochondria were commonly observed. Some subordinate oocytes exhibited advanced stages of meiotic maturation. It is concluded that (1) the dominant oocyte undergoes certain prematurational changes, including nucleolus vacuolation, in the period from luteolysis up to the presumptive occurrence of the LH peak and (2) subordinate oocytes may undergo meiotic maturation.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Anterior horn neuron ; Synapse ; Active zone ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This report deals with an ultrastructural investigation of the synapses of anterior horn neurons in the lumbar spinal cords of five patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who had mild neuronal depletion. Specimens from five age-matched, neurologically normal individuals served as controls. In each instance, the autopsy was performed within 3 h after death. A statistically significant decrease in cell body area, number of synapses and total synaptic length was found in the normal-appearing neurons of the ALS patients. The alterations were more pronounced in neurons with central chromatolysis. However, despite an approximately 20  % reduction in the number of synapses, the length of the active synaptic zone of the normal-appearing neurons in the ALS patients was not diminished. This observation may be accounted for by a plasticity to the loss of synapses which maintained the active zone of the remaining synapses to increase synaptic efficiency. It is suggested that when the plasticity of the active zone reaches its limit, the continuing loss of synapses may lead to functional impairment. The capacity of the active synaptic zone to respond to progressive denervation of the anterior horn neurons may preserve motor function or slow the development of motor deficits in the early stage of degeneration of the lower motor neurons.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Human pineal gland ; Pineal parenchymal tumors ; Ultrastructure ; Chromogranin A
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have studied 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) and 4 normal or cystic pineal glands both by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against glial markers [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and protein S-100] or neural/neuroendocrine markers [neurofilaments (NF), synaptophysin and chromogranin A]. Light microscopy revealed the cellular organization of pinealocytes in the normal gland and in different morphological types of pineal tumors (typical pineocytomas, PPT with intermediate differentiation, mixed PPT exhibiting elements of both pineocytoma and pineoblastoma and pineoblastomas). Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of GFAP and protein S-100 in interstitial cells in non-neoplastic pineal gland. Cell processes were labeled with anti-synaptophysin and anti-NF antibodies. No immunoreactivity was found for chromogranin A in non-neoplastic pineal gland. In pineocytomas, GFAP and protein S-100 were observed in interstitial cells. Synaptophysin and NF were present in the large rosettes of pineocytomas. Synaptophysin, NF and chromogranin A were present in pineocytomas with a lobular arrangement of cells. Anti-chromogranin A immunoreactivity was also seen in lobular areas of some PPT with intermediate differentiation. Analysis of normal human pineal gland by electron microscopy showed the presence of vesicle-crowned rodlets (VCR or synaptic ribbons), fibrous filaments (F), paired twisted filaments but few dense-core vesicles (DCV) in normal pinealocytes. Tumoral pineal cells appeared to differentiate either towards a neurosensory pathway characterized by the presence of sensory cells elements (VCR and F), or towards a neuroendocrine pathway, with the occurrence of many DCV. Immunogold labeling demonstrated the presence of chromogranin A in neurosecretory granules.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Extraskeletal osteosarcoma ; Brain neoplasms ; Ultrastructure ; Multinucleated giant cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 57-year-old woman with primary intracerebral osteosarcoma is reported. The tumor was identified by computed tomography as a mass with hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe. The surgical and pathological examinations confirmed an osteosarcoma of intracerebral origin. She suffered from repeated local recurrence of the tumor and died about 1 year after the onset. The pathological findings showed features of osteoblastic osteosarcoma with numerous osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin, and partially for actin. Multinucleated giant cells were reactive with vimentin and CD68 antibodies. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were rich with rough endoplasmic reticulum. These findings are consistent with the histological features of skeletal or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. This is the third case of primary intracerebral osteosarcoma reported in the literature and the first one analyzed ultrastructurally.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Extraskeletal osteosarcoma ; Brain neoplasms ; Ultrastructure ; Multinucleated giant cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 57-year-old woman with primary intracerebral osteosarcoma is reported. The tumor was identified by computed tomography as a mass with hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe. The surgical and pathological examinations confirmed an osteosarcoma of intracerebral origin. She suffered from repeated local recurrence of the tumor and died about 1 year after the onset. The pathological findings showed features of osteoblastic osteosarcoma with numerous osteoclastlike multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin, and partially for actin. Multinucleated giant cells were reactive with vimentin and CD68 antibodies. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were rich with rough endoplasmic reticulum. These findings are consistent with the histological features of skeletal or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. This is the third case of primary intracerebral osteosarcoma reported in the literature and the first one analyzed ultrastructurally.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Chick embryo ; Bursectomy ; Female gonads ; Steroidogenic cells ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We examined the ultrastructural characteristics of the medullary steroidogenic cells in left and right female gonads of surgically bursectomized chick embryos killed on the 17th day of incubation. The steroidogenic cells of the bursectomized embryos have a more developed system of cisternae in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum than controls, and their mitochondria show some alterations in the density of the matrix and in the shape of the cristae. On the basis of these results, an enhancement of the steroidogenic activity in both gonads is suggested.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cattle ; Epithelium ; Oviduct ; Secretion ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The non-ciliated (NC) cells of the bovine oviduct epithelium, have been shown to release embryotrophic substances to the oviduct lumen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure, focusing on aspects of the secretory machinery, of NC cells in different segments of the oviduct during and after transoviduct migration of zygotes and embryos. Dairy heifers (n=8) were superovulated with an ECG/cloprostenol regimen, and the time of ovulation was estimated by ultrasound scanning. Samples from the infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus and uterotubal-junction of the oviduct were surgically collected from animals at 19–96 h and 7 1/2; –8 1/2 days after ovulation and processed for transmission electron microscopy, following standard procedures. The NC cells contained characteristic membrane-bound secretory granules composed of a lamellar cortex encaging an amorphous medulla. The two components could still be recognized during extrusion of the granule content into the oviduct lumen by exocytosis. During granulogenesis, small maturing granules without the lamellar structure were observed, but distinct condensing vacuoles were absent. An abundance of granules was found in the early versus the late group. In both groups the uterotubual junction was almost free of granules. This segment, on the contrary, was characterized by the presence of primary and secondary lysosome-like bodies. In the early group the intracellular location of the granules varied between oviduct segments. In the infundibulum they were placed in the supranuclear cytoplasm, in the isthmus they were found in the most apical part of the cells, while in the ampulla an intermediate granule position was noticed. In both groups the uterotubal junction was almost free of granules. This segment, on the contrary, was characterized by the presence of primary and secondary lysosome-like bodies. Cytoplasmic protrusions, often containing nuclei, were more frequent in the late than in the early group. This phenomenon may represent epithelial renewal. In conclusion, the NC cell of the bovine oviduct epithelium possesses an extensive capacity for protein synthesis and secretion. The numbers and location of secretory granules show cyclic and segmental variations. Most granules are present in the infundibulum and ampulla during the period of transoviduct migration of zygote and embryo.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Collagen ; Crystal habit ; Ultrastructure ; Turkey leg tendon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Transmission electron micrographs of fully mineralized turkey leg tendon in cross-section show the ultrastructure to be more complex than has been previously described. The mineral is divided into two regions. Needlelike-appearing crystallites fill the extrafibrillar volume whereas only platelike crystallites are found within the fibrils. When the speciment is tilted through a large angle, some of the needlelike-appearing crystallites are replaced by platelets, suggesting that the needlelike crystallites are platelets viewed on edge. If so, these platelets have their broad face roughly parallel to the fibril surface and thereby the fibril axis, where the intrafibrillar platelets are steeply inclined to the fibril axis. The projection of the intrafibrillar platelets is perpendicular to the fibril axis. The extrafibrillar volume is at least 60% of the total, the fibrils occupying 40%. More of the mineral appears to be extrafibrillar than within the fibrils. Micrographs of the mineralized tendon in thickness show both needlelike-appearing and platelet crystallites. Stereoscopic views show that the needlelike-appearing crystallites do not have a preferred orientation. From the two-dimensional Fourier transform of a selected area of the cross-sectional image, the platelike crystallites have an average dimension of 58 nm. The needlelike-appearing crystallites have an average thickness of 7 nm. The maximum length is at least 90 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of unstained, unmineralized turkey leg tendon shows collagen fibrils very much like shadow replicas of collagen in electron micrographs. AFM images of the mineralized tendon show only an occasional fibril. Mineral crystallites are not visible. Because the collagen is within the fibrils, the extrafibrillar mineral must be embedded in noncollagenous organic matter. When the tissue is demineralized, the collagen fibrils are exposed. The structure as revealed by the two modalities is a composite material in which each component is itself a composite. Determination of the properties of the mineralized tendon from the properties of its elements is more difficult than considering the tendon to be just mineral-filled collagen.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: In vitro ; Bioactive glass ceramic ; Mineralization ; Bone bonding mechanisms ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Rat bone cells were cultured in the presence of bioactive glass-ceramic containing crystalline apatite and wollaston te. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the surface of the seeded ceramic disks revealed that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on the material surface. Soaking in cell-free culture medium showed that no change occurred in the surface structure. However, when cultured with bone cells and observed under a transmission electron microscope, an electron-dense layer was noted initially at the surface of the material, before bone formation occurred. In addition, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis demonstrated the presence of calcium and phosphorus in this layer. Progressively, during the following days of culture, active osteoblasts synthetized and laid down an osteoid matrix composed of numerous collagen fibrils arranged either parallel or perpendicularly to the first-formed electron-dense layer. Mineralization initiated on the ceramic surface dispersed then along the collagenous fibrils, leading to a mineralized matrix which surrounded the ceramic particles. These results demonstrate the capacity of apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic to initiate biomineralization in osteoblast cultures and to achieve a direct bond between the surface apatite layer of the bioactive glass-ceramic and the mineralized bone matrix.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Extremely thermophilic eubacterium ; Calderobacterium hydrogenophilium ; Ultrastructure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Calderobacterium hydrogenophilum is an extreme thermophilic, obligately chemoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium. The cells were shown to be nonmotile straight rods of average size 0.4x2.5 μm. After negative-staining of the whole cells, no flagella were observed. The multilayered cell wall was of type 1 and possessed a crystalline proteinaceous surface layer exhibiting p4 symmetry. The square unit cells had a lattice constant of approximately 11 nm. Cell division occurred by a constriction mechanism. C. hydrogenophilum differred from a similar hydrogen-oxidizing eubacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus, by the absence of intracytoplasmic membrane structures in chemically fixed cells. However, an electron-dense intracytoplasmic hemispherical structure adhering to the inner membrane was frequently observed.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: GnRH-DT vaccine ; Testosterone ; Ultrastructure ; Rat ; Prostate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the effects of active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on the ultrastructure of the rat ventral prostate, male Sprague-Dawley rats received three consecutive intramuscular injections of 10 μg/100g body weight (D-Lys6)-GnRH-diphtheria toxoid conjugate (GnRH-DT vaccine). Following immunization, test animals developed sufficiently high antibody titres to block the pituitary gonadal axis. Consequently testosterone values dropped to the levels in castrates. This therapy leads to atrophy of the prostate. Following immunization a strong immunological response, indicating the presence of considerable amounts of a GnRH-like peptide, was observed in the ventral prostates as early as 14 days after the first injection of GnRH-DT. Immunoneutralisation of GnRH-like activity may contribute to the effects observed.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Cochlea ; Ultrastructure ; Stria vascularis ; Development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mammalian stria vascularis undergoes certain developmental changes in the postnatal rat. The present study was designed to examine the ultrastructure of the stria vascularis in rat pups from immediately after birth to 20 days postpartum. The cochlea were removed with the animals under xylazine (Rompun) anesthesia and were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. Each of the three cell types in the stria were found to contain kinocilia up until 12–17 days of age. The presence of kinocilia in the intermediate and basal cells has not been previously described. Findings suggest that these organelles may serve a motile and/or sensory function to assist in the maturation of cell functions, particularly ion transport, during early stages of development.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
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    Protoplasma 180 (1994), S. 14-28 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Golgi apparatus ; Dictyosome ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Golgi apparatus (GA) of eukaryotic cells consist of one or more stacks of flattened saccules (cisternae) and an array of fenestrae and tubules continuous with the peripheral edges of the saccules. Golgi apparatus also are characterized by zones of exclusion that surround each stack and by an assortment of vesicles (or vesicle buds) associated with both the stacks and the peripheral tubules of the stack cisternae. Each stack (sometimes referred to as Golgi apparatus, Golgi complex, or dictyosome) is structurally and functionally polarized, reflecting its role as an intermediate between the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell surface, and the lysosomal system of the cell. There is probably only one GA per cell, and all stacks of the GA appear to function synchronously. All Golgi apparatus are involved in the generation and movement of product and membrane within the cell or to the cell exterior, and these functions are often reflected as structural changes across the stacks. For example, in plants, both product and membrane appear to maturate from the cis to the trans poles of the stacks in a sequential, or serial, manner. However, there is also strong ultrastructural evidence in plants for a parallel input to the stack saccules, probably through the peripheral tubules. The same modes of functioning probably also occur in animal GA; although here, the parallel mode of functioning almost surely predominates. In some cells at least, GA stacks give rise to tubular-vesicular structures that resemble the trans Golgi network. Rudimentary GA, consisting of tubular-vesicular networks, have been identified in fungi and may represent an early stage of GA evolution.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: α-Amylase ; (1-3, l-4)-β-Glucanase ; Hormones ; Monensin ; Transfection ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A procedure has been developed to isolate protoplasts from mature aleurone layers of the malting variety Alexis and four other barley genotypes. It combines induction of endogenous cell wall degrading enzymes together with use of Onuzuka cellulase R 10 and driselase and results in better yields for two varieties than can be obtained with the huskless variety Himalaya. The viability of the freshly isolated protoplasts is greater than 90% and in spite of the presence of gibberellic acid during isolation procedures, most of the protoplasts are at an early developmental stage, as judged by ultrastructure. Gibberellic acid-induced changes in protoplast structure resemble those reported for Himalaya protoplasts. The protoplasts secrete both α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.73) into the surrounding medium. Transfection studies using a low pI α-amylase promoter to direct chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in aleurone protoplasts from Alexis and Himalaya revealed significant differences in their hormone responsiveness. In the absence of hormones, low levels of expression of the reporter enzyme were obtained in Alexis protoplasts, while high levels were characteristic for Himalaya protoplasts. An 8-fold increase in the expression of the reporter gene was induced by supplying the transfected Alexis protoplasts with gibberellin A3, whereas expression in Himalaya protoplasts remained unchanged. When Himalaya protoplasts were isolated from aleurone layers that had not been incubated with GA3 during the initial stages of protoplasting (the classical procedure), the hormone response of the promoter was 2.5-fold. It is thus possible to optimize the aleurone protoplast isolation procedure for different barley genotypes and mutants of interest in studies of transgenic gene expression and hormone induced secretion of proteins from this unique secretory plant tissue.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1618-0860
    Keywords: Coccolithophorid ; Cruciplacolithus neohelis ; Flagellar apparatus ; Haptophyceae ; Prymnesiophyceae ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The flagellar apparatus ofCruciplacolithus neohelis (McIntyre and Bé) Reinhardt including its transition region is described. The transition region contains a hat-shaped structure, which is suggested to be one of the common features of the Prymnesiophyceae. Its flagellar root system resembles that of most coccolithophorids examined so far, except that only one vestigial crystalline root is present associated with root 1. Two well-developed crystalline roots associated with roots 1 and 2, respectively, appear in the preprophase of nuclear division, suggesting conversion to a mitotic spindle. The taxonomic and evolutionary significance of the flagellar apparatus is discussed.
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  • 27
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    Protoplasma 179 (1994), S. 142-150 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Dinoflagellate ; Eyespot ; Gymnodinium natalense ; Ontogeny ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Ultrastructure and ontogeny of a new type of eyespot in dinoflagellates is described. A marine tidal poolGymnodinium natalense is found to possess a highly organized eyespot whose structure is unique among dinoflagellates. The eyespot is rectangular in ventral view, C-shaped in apical view, and is located posterior to the sulcus. The eyespot is independent of the chloroplast and consists of several (typically six) layers of hemi-cylindrical walls which are concentrically arranged with narrow spacing between them. Each hemicylindrical wall is enclosed by a single unit membrane and is composed of many regularly arranged rectangular crystalline bricks. These crystalline bricks are produced in small vesicles which are formed in the invaginations of the chloroplast. The vesicles containing newly formed crystalline bricks are then transported to the sulcal area to assemble the eyespot. The crystalline bricks are arranged in a neat row within the vesicle termed “eyespot forming vesicle” (EFV), which is located near the sulcus. The hemi-cylindrical wall is constructed within the EFV. Based on the structure of the eyespot, viz. consisting of concentric multi-layered walls, the eyespot is thought to act as a quarter-wave stack antenna.
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  • 28
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    Protoplasma 180 (1994), S. 169-184 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Actin ; Cell-cell communication ; Plasmodesmata ; Regulation ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have used several methods to localise actin associated with plasmodesmata. In meristematic plant material fixed in 0.1% glutaraldehyde/1% paraformaldehyde and embedded in LR White resin, actin was localised (in TEM using 5 nm gold-labelled secondary antibody to C4 anti-actin primary antibody) in the neck region by the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, and also down the length of the plasmodesma, deep in the cell wall. When the chemical fixation was replaced by rapid freezing in liquid propane (without cryoprotectants) and substitution in acetone, the plasmodesmata were labelled in similar positions, but with less background label on sections. While only 8–20% of plasmodesmata were labelled, the label was 10 to 100 fold denser over plasmodesmata than over the surrounding wall indicating specific association with plasmodesmata. We presume the apparent extracellular location of some label was due to the size of the antibodies between the site of attachment and the observed position of the gold particle. Gold label was found in similar locations in material fixed in 3% paraformaldehyde, infiltrated with sucrose, frozen, sectioned (10–12 μm thick), then labelled with antibodies before resin embedding. Furthermore, cell walls in epidermal peels stained with rhodamine-phalloidin showed localised patches of fluorescence, presumably at the site of plasmodesmata (or primary pit-fields), which were connected on either side to fluorescent strands of actin in the cytoplasm. Suspension cultured cells ofNicotiana plumbaginifolia similarly stained showed very faint, narrow fluorescent strands crossing the walls of sister cells, which may indicate actin associated with individual plasmodesmata, shown in TEM to be sparsely distributed in these walls. In addition, the neck regions of cytochalasin-treated plasmodesmata were greatly enlarged and lacked the normal extracellular ring of particles. We propose that actin associated with plasmodesmata stabilizes the neck region and possibly also the cytoplasmic sleeve, and may be actively involved in regulating cell-to-cell transport.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Saprolegnia ; Lectins ; Concanavalin A ; Wheat germ agglutinin ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Ultrastructure ; Pathogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The importance of the surface structure and chemistry in zoospores and cysts of oomycetes is briefly reviewed and the organelle systems associated with encystment described. The surface structure and chemistry of primary and secondary zoospores and cysts ofSaprolegnia diclina (a representative saprophytic species) andS. parasitica (a representative salmonid fish pathogen) were explored using the lectins concanavilin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against a mixed zoospore and cyst suspension ofS. parasitica. The binding of lectins and antibodies to spores was determined using immunofluorescence microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled probes and with electron microscopy with gold-conjugated probes applied to spore suspensions post-fixation. In both species Con A, which is specific for glucose and mannose sugars, bound to both the surface of primary and secondary zoospores (the surface glycocalyx) and their cyst coats and readily induced zoospore encystment. The binding to the cysts appeared to be mainly associated with the matrix material released from the primary and secondary encystment vesicles and which appeared to diminish with time. No binding to germ tube walls was observed with this lectin. The MAb labelling showed a generally similar binding pattern to the primary and secondary cysts to that observed with Con A, although the binding to zoospores was more variable. Primary zoospores bound the antibodies but secondary zoospores appeared less reactive. It is suggested that the MAbs share a common epitope with one or more of the Con A-binding components. In both species WGA, which is specific for amongst other things the sugar N-acetyl glucosamine, bound to localised apical patches on the primary zoospores. This lectin also binds to the ventral groove region of secondary zoospores ofS. diclina, which were induced to encyst by this lectin. In contrast secondary zoospores ofS. parasitica were not induced to encyst by the addition of WGA and showed a patchy dorsal binding with this lectin. WGA also binds to both the inner wall of discharged primary cysts and the young germ tube walls of both species. These observations are discussed both in relation to other oomycete spores and to their possible functional and ecological significance.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Carbohydrates ; Chytridiomycetes ; Extracellular material ; Membranes ; Ultrastructure ; Zoospores
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In development of the primitive fungi, chytridiomycetes, unwalled zoospores bearing single, posterior flagella are transformed into walled, round-cells which elaborate the thallus. Production, structural modification, or release of extracellular material are involved with each transition of developmental stage. This article reviews the variety and developmental changes of extracellular materials found at the cell surface of chytridiomycetes. A cell coat, produced from Golgi-derived vesicles during zoosporogenesis, is visible around free swimming zoospores of some chytridiomycetes. How the zoospore surface receives and transduces signals is not widely explored, but it is known that fenestrated cisternae and simple cisternae, which are integrated into the microbody-lipid globule complex, are spatially and structurally associated with the plasma membrane and flagellar apparatus. This spatial association, as well as the cytochemical localization of calcium in fenestrated cisternae, suggest a mechanism for signal transduction and for regulation of zoospore motility. Zoospores become encased in a new layer of extracellular material as the zoospore encysts. Among some chytrids the source of this material is preexisting vesicles which fuse with the plasma membrane. Among other zoospores, a readily identifiable population of encystment vesicles is not apparent, demonstrating that there is no single pattern or mechanism for zoospore encystment in chytridiomycetes. Encysted zoospores developing into thalli, typically produce cell walls with a microfibrillar substructure. Ultrastructural analysis of walls reveals distinctive architecture and remarkable sculpturing which have been used in systematics of some members of chytridiomycetes. Nothing is known as to underlying controls of cytoskeletal elements and plasma membrane enzyme complexes in wall biogenesis. Many changes in cell surface structures accompany thallus maturation. Septa, many traversed with plasmodesmata, are produced in most chytrid thallus types. As sporangia and resting spores prepare for the production and release of zoospores, additional extracellular layers of material are frequently produced. Polarized deposits of extracellular material become discharge plugs, discharge vesicles, or endoopercula. Interstitial material is also released into cleavage furrows. Circumscissile or localized digestion of walls produce operculate or inoperculate exit ports for zoospore release. Cryofixation preserves more extensive extracellular material than does conventional chemical fixation, and broader application of cryofixation may radically alter our current view of cell surface structure. Thus chytridiomycetes exhibit a range in patterns for the occurrence and subsequent modifications of extracellular materials, even for members within the same order. The most universally recognized role for these extracellular materials is protection. Although there is a reasonable view of the types of extracellular material involved in chytridiomycete development, we have only limited understandings of their biogenesis or roles in regulation and communication, areas awaiting more investigations.
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  • 31
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    Protoplasma 178 (1994), S. 34-47 
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Appressorium ; Cochliobolus sativus ; Electron microscopy ; Thigmotropism ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary GerminatingCochliobolus sativus spores were induced to form appressoria on a variety of artificial surfaces, including replicas of the barley leaf surface. Evidence was obtained for the involvement of chemical and topographic signals during induction of appressorium formation inC. sativus. Germ tube thigmotropism was also observed in vitro. Ultrastructure relevant to appressorium formation was observed, including the germ tube apex, apical swelling of the germ tube apex prior to appressorium formation, the appressorium with associated septation and the penetration peg. Cytochemical probes applied to germlings at the electron microscope level failed to detect α-D-mannan, α-D-glucan, β-D-galactan, D-glcNAc or D-galNAc polymers in the extracellular mucilage associated with the fungal germlings. The ultrastructure of hyphal apices from germlings grown under different nutritional conditions differed with respect to Spitzenkörper morphology, apex shape and in the quantity of associated extracellular mucilage. Experimental findings are discussed relative to current understanding of appressorium induction in more extensively studied systems.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Canine sperm ; Pyospermia ; Ultrastructure ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The red wolf (Canis rufus) is an endangered species with 194 individuals remaining in the wild and in various captive facilities. Breeding efforts at the Graham, WA site (Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium) have involved artificial insemination with fresh or frozen semen in an effort to increase population and maximize the genetic potential of the stock. Electron microscopic observations were made in semen specimens obtained by electroejaculation from mature males prior to their use in an effort to determine semen parameters that might be useful in guiding breeding procedures. Sperm samples were either fixed immediately or treated with capacitating media and fixed after 4 to 7 hr of incubation. Many of the specimens examined were pyospermic (white cell in semen) and showed evidence of spermophagy, primarily by neutrophils. Of the six animals surveyed, only one showed little evidence of spermophagy, and three had extensive pyospermia and spermophagy but this finding was not correlated with fertility. Samples fixed immediately as well as those incubated for several hours showed evidence of spermophagy, indicating that the phagocytosis was not the result of culture. Gene pool restriction and/or captive stress may be contributing factors of reduced semen quality. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Secretory granules ; Golgi apparatus ; Haloperidol ; Ultrastructure ; Pituitary gland, pars intermedia ; Rat (Sprague Dawley)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The formation of secretory granules in chronically hypersecretory melanotrophs in the rat pituitary was studied. Hypersecretion was induced by treatment with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg daily for 7 days), which releases the normal neural dopaminergic inhibition of secretion from the melanotroph. Morphometric analysis showed a 100% increase in the volume fraction of granular endoplasmic reticulum after haloperidol treatment, while the volume fractions of electron-dense granules, electron-lucent granules and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered. The mean diameter of the mature secretory granules was increased by 10%, indicating a 30% increase in mean granule volume. A similar increase in diameter was observed in condensing granules within the Golgi area. With earlier results on the effect of chronic inhibition the study shows that a main adaptive response of the melanotroph to altered secretory conditions is a change in the volume of the secretory granules, regulated by a mechanism that operates at an early stage of granule formation.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Sarcolemma ; Surface tubules ; Smooth muscle ; Endothelial cells ; Fibroblasts ; Ultrastructure ; Lamprey, Lampetra japonica (Cyclostomata)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Numerous tubular structures were observed in the surface region of smooth muscle cells making up the vascular walls in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica; they were designated as surface tubules. The limiting membrane of the surface tubules was connected to the plasma membrane, allowing communication of the lumen of the tubule with the extracellular space. Tannic acid reacted with osmium, serving as an extracellular marker, penetrated into the tubules but not into the intracellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. The surface tubules were grouped in longitudinal parallel rows, separated from each other by tubule-free areas where dense plaques were present. Each tubule was fairly cylindrical (approximately 60 nm in diameter) and often ramified into two or three branches with a blind end. Occasionally, these tubules were encircled by the sarcoplasmic reticulum which was located immediately beneath the plasma membrane. Similar tubules were also observed in the surface region of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the adventitial connective tissue. The possibility that the surface tubules in the present observations are analogous to the smooth muscle caveolae or the striated muscle T-tubule is discussed.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Comb cell ; Growth cone ; Motility ; Substrate ; Basement membrane ; Ultrastructure ; Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The oblique muscle organizer (Comb- or C-cell) in the embryonic medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, provides an amenable situation to examine growth cone navigation in vivo. Each of the segmentally iterated C-cells extends an array of growth cones through the body wall along oblique trajectories. C-cell growth cones undergo an early, relatively slow period of extension followed by later, protracted and rapid directed outgrowth. During such transitions in extension, guidance might be mediated by a number of factors, including intrinsic constraints on polarity, spatially and temporally regulated cell and matrix interactions, physical constraints imposed by the environment, or guidance along particular cells in advance of the growth cones. Growth cones and their environment were examined by transmission electron microscopy to define those factors that might play a significant role in migration and guidance in this system. The ultrastructural examination has made the possibility very unlikely that simple, physical constraints play a prominent role in guiding C-cell growth cones. No anatomically defined paths or obliquely aligned channels were found in advance of these growth cones, and there were no identifiable physical boundaries, which might constrain young growth cones to a particular location in the body wall before rapid extension. There were diverse associations with many matrices and basement membranes located above, below, and within the layer in which growth cones appear to extend at the light level. Additionally, a preliminary examination of myocyte assembly upon processes proximal to the growth cones further implicates a role for matrix-associated interactions in muscle histogenesis as well as process outgrowth during embryonic development.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Endocrine pancreas ; Ontogeny ; Ultrastructure ; Dicentrarchus labrax (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The primordial cord and the primitive, single and primordial islets present in the 3 earliest stages of the developing endocrine pancreas of sea bass were studied ultrastructurally. The primordial cord consisted of type I and II cells and was included in the gut. Besides these cell types, X cells were seen in the primitive islet. The single islet was made up of type I, II, III and IV cells. A correlation between these endocrine cell-types and cells previously identified immunocytochemically, was established. Type I, II, III and IV cells, correlated respectively with SST-25-, insulin-, SST-14- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells, and could be related to the D1, B, D2 and A cells, respectively, of older larvae and adult sea bass. Each cell type shows characteristic secretory granules from its first appearance. A progressive development of the organelles and an increase in the number and size of the secretory granules, whose ultrastructure also varied, was observed in the endocrine cells of the primordial cord and the succeeding islets. In 25-day-old larvae at the beginning of the fourth developmental stage, the primordial islet, the first ventral islet found, was close to a pancreatic duct and blood vessel, and consisted of type I and II cells whose ultrastructure was similar to that of the type I and II cells in the primordial cord. These data suggest a ductular origin for the pancreatic endocrine cells in the ventral pancreas. It is suggested that although endocrine cells undergo mitosis, their increase in number during the earliest development stages is principally due to the differentiation of surrounding cells.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Endocrine pancreas ; Ontogeny ; Ultrastructure ; Dicentrarchus labrax (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The big and secondary islets of sea bass larvae were characterized ultrastructurally from, 25 to 60 days after hatching. From the 25th day, big islets consisted of inner type II and III, external type I and peripheral type IV cells. From the 55th day, type V cells appeared in limited peripheral areas. Secondary islets, first found in 32-day-old larvae, were made up of inner type II and III, external type I, and peripheral either type IV and V cells (type I islets), or only type V cells (type II islets). Type I cells contained secretory granules with a fine granular, low-medium electron-dense material, whereas the secretory granules of type II cells were smaller and had a high electron-dense core with diffused limits; needle and rod-like crystalloid contents were occasionally found. Type III secretory granules posessed a homogeneous, high or medium electron-dense material with or without a clear halo. Type IV cells had secretory granules with a polygonal dense core embedded in a granular matrix and granules containing a high or medium electron-dense material. Type V cells had secretory granules with a fine granular, high or medium electron-dense content. These cell-types correlated with cells previously identified immuno-cytochemically, as regards to their distribution in the islets, and related to those characterized ultrastructurally in adult specimens. Thus, types I, II, III, IV and V correspond to D1, B, D2, A and PP cells, respectively. From the 32nd day onwards, endocrine cells of all the different types were found grouped, type V cells also being observed in isolation close to pancreatic ducts and/or blood vessels. Small groups consisting of type I and II cells were found in 40-day-old larvae. A mitotic centroacinar ductular cell containing some secretory granules similar to those of type I cells, was seen adjacent to a type I cell. As the larvae grew older, the endoplasmic reticulum developed, the number of free ribosomes decreased, and the number and size of the secretory granules increased. Dark type I, II, III, IV and V cells were found in the islets and cell clusters from the 55th day onwards.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; spindle pole body ; spore formation ; meiosis II ; S. pombe ; spo mutants ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In order to characterize the morphological steps defined by sporulation (spo) genes during the formation of ascospores in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we performed an electron microscopic study of the ultrastructure of the spindle pole body (SPB) and of the development of the forespore membrane during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) in sporulation-deficient (spo) mutants (spo4, spo5, spo14 and spo18). No difference was found in terms of the function and the structure of the SPB during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) between the four mutants and wild-type cells. However, during meiosis II, the spo4 and spo18 mutants underwent nuclear division but in neither case were the SPBs modified nor were forespore membranes formed. The SPBs of the spo18 mutant diminished in size after meiosis II and eventually disappeared after 18 h in sporulation medium. By contrast, the SPBs of the spo4 mutant remained unchanged even after an 18-h incubation. The outer plaques of SPBs of spo5 and spo14 mutants were sufficiently modified to allow them to initiate development of the forespore membrane, but the membrane had an abnormally expanded lumen and did not enclose the nuclei during meiosis II. The spo5 mutant produced anucleate spore-like bodies while the spo14 mutant formed unorganized structures with irregular peripheries which, presumably, contained spore-wall precursors, instead of anucleate spore-like bodies. We conclude that the modification of the SPB is essential for the formation of ascospores and at least two genes (spo5 and spo14) participate in the development of the forespore membrane. The defective phenotypes define discrete steps in the development of ascospores, which proceeds via steps defined by the mutant spo4, spo18, spo14 and spo5 genes respectively. Our observations provide further substantial evidence that the SPB plays a pivotal role in the normal development of ascospores in yeasts.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Electric fish ; Pacemaker ; GABA ; Glutamate ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The medullary pacemaker nucleus of Hypopomus triggers each electric organ discharge (EOD) by a single command pulse. It consists of electrotonically coupled ‘pacemaker’ cells, which generate the rhythm, and ‘relay’ cells, which follow the pacemaker cells and excite the spinal motoneurons of the electric organ. The pacemaker cells receive two inputs from the complex of the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus (PPn), a GABA-ergic inhibition and a glutamatergic excitation. Relay cells, on the other hand, receive two glutamatergic inputs, one from a subnucleus of the PPn, the PPn-C, and a second from the sublemniscal prepacemaker nucleus (SPPn). We have labelled afferents to the pacemaker nucleus by injecting HRP to specific sites of the prepacemaker complex. By using immunogold-labelled antibodies and en-grid staining techniques, we demonstrated GABA and glutamate immunoreactivity in labelled synaptic profiles of ultra-thin sections of the pacemaker nucleus. The two types of synapses were interspersed on the surfaces of pacemaker cells, with GABA-immunoreactive synapses apparently representing the GABA-mediated input of the ‘PPn-I’, an inhibitory subdivision of the PPn, and glutamate-immunoreactive synapses representing the input of the ‘PPn-G’, an excitatory subdivision of the PPn. Only glutamate-immunoreactive synapses were found on relay cells.
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  • 40
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    Mycopathologia 128 (1994), S. 181-192 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin B1 ; Embryo ; Mature ; Ultrastructure ; Zea mays L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mature maize (Zea mays L.) embryos were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 25 µg/ml for 9 days. With increasing toxin concentration above 2 µg/ml, primary root elongation of germinated embryos was progressively inhibited, to reach a maximum value of 81% at 25 µ/ml toxin. An ultrastructural investigation of the subcellular alterations induced following toxin exposure provided evidence of deteriorative changes in several compartments of the plant cell. Alteration in membrane integrity (e.g., the tonoplast, plasmalemma and inner mitochondrial membrane) was a frequent feature of many cells. Apparent fusion of vacuoles, incorporation of cytoplasmic components into vacuoles and intravacuolar membrane whorls might be interpreted as deteriorative alterations. The results are discussed in the light of ultrastructural findings for other plant systems exposed to similar AFB1 concentrations, as well as findings for animal systems.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Lymphocytes ; Mice ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This investigation sought to determine whether splenic lymphocytes obtained from Balb/C mice exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) showed any ultrastructural changes which could account for the immunodysfunction attributable to aflatoxins. Lymphocytes obtained from Balb/C mice administered aflatoxin B1 in olive oil daily for three weeks were studied using both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The lymphocytes demonstrated ultrastructural changes primarily in the mitochondria where marked internal dissociation of the cristae was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. All other cellular organelles were unaffected. No significant alterations in external structure were observed under scanning electron microscopy. The findings of this study indicate that AFB1 administration does not affect the surface topography of lymphocytes, but AFB1, by causing extensive mitochondrial damage, may affect the way in which these cells function. This could be a possible explanation for the immunodysfunction associated with AFB1.
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  • 42
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Drug research ; Medicinal chemistry ; Natural products ; Taxol ; Total synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: One can view plants as a reference library of compounds waiting to be searched by a chemist who is looking for a particular property. Taxol, a complex polyoxygenated diterpene isolated from the Pacific Yew, Taxus brevifolia, was discovered during extensive screening of plant materials for antineoplastic agents during the late 1960s. Over the last two decades, interest in and research related to taxol has slowly grown to the point that the popular press now seems poised to scoop each new development. What was once an obscure compound, of interest only to the most masochistic of synthetic chemists and an equally small number of cellular biologists, has become one of the few organic compounds, which, like benzene and aspirin, is recognizable by name to the average citizen. In parallel, the scientific study of taxol has blossomed. Physicians are currently studying its effects on nearly every known neoplasm. Biologists are using taxol to study the mechanisms of cell function by observing the effects of its interactions with the cellular skeletal systems. Synthetic chemists, absorbed by the molecule's unique and sensitive structure and functionality, are exploring seemingly every available pathway for its synthesis. Indeed, the demand for taxol has risen so in the last five years that alternative sources to the extraction of T. brevifolia are being vigorously pursued. Because of the rapidly expanding scope of research in the multifaceted study of taxol, those who are interested in the field may find acquisition of a reasonable base of knowledge an arduous task. For this reason, this account attempts to bring together, for the first time, in a cogent overview the chemistry and biology of this unique molecule.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: X-ray absorption spectroscopy ; Amorphous materials ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Although the effect on which X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS spectroscopy) is based has been known for about 70 years, up until about 20 years ago it had not found any application. The reasons for this were on the one hand the shortage of efficient X-ray sources, and on the other hand the lack of a suitable theoretical description. With the advent of synchrotron radiation the situation has changed completely. Today, EXAFS spectroscopy is applied to a variety of very different problems and used more and more frequently to answer chemical questions. The extraordinary behavior of EXAFS spectroscopy that allows the determination of local structures in almost any mixture, independent of the sample's physical state as well as element-specifically with high sensitivity, carries with it the danger that the amount of the obtainable structural information will be overestimated. A realistic estimate of the capability of EXAFS spectroscopy has in the meantime been achieved for crystalline materials, but not for amorphous materials. In this case the viewpoints range from complete rejection to overinterpretation of the EXAFS spectrum. In this article an attempt is made to show how EXAFS spectroscopy can be applied in the investigation of noncrystalline materials. First, the measurement techniques, data analysis procedures, and the simulation of EXAFS spectra are explained. Starting with the simplest systems, the amorphous metals and nonmetals, and using representative but not necessarily current examples, an explanation is given of the structural information provided by EXAFS spectroscopy, of how the local environment about the two components can be determined in binary systems, and of how even the crystallization process and structural changes can be investigated in chemical reactions. Thereafter, EXAFS studies on solutions, molecular liquids, and melts are presented. The final section is concerned with typical applications of EXAFS spectroscopy, the investigation of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts as well as the elucidation of active sites in enzymes.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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