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  • Variation  (15)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Development ; Embryology ; Variation ; Facial vein ; External jugular vein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La v. jugulaire externe (VJE) est de plus en plus utilisée par les cliniciens comme voie d'abord thérapeutique ou de monitorage. Dans la perspective de l'utilisation clinique de la VJE, des dissections ont été réalisées sur 80 régions cervico-céphaliques de 40 sujets adultes d'origine indienne. Bien que plusieurs exemples d'affluents aient été retrouvés, une v. faciale (VF) de taille considérable a été observée, descendant obliquement pour rejoindre la VJE dans le cou. Nous l'avons retrouvé dans quatre cas (5 %). La distance séparant l'angle de la mandibule et le confluent entre la VF et la VJE varie de 55 mm à 104 mm. La VF pourrait être la voie de communication persistante depuis la v. primitive linguo-faciale jusqu'à la VJE de développement secondaire. Ce canal anastomotique est présent durant quelque temps chez le foetus. Il regresse ensuite. Il peut ne pas involuer chez certains individus, sa persistence étant à l'origine de cette variation.
    Notes: Summary The external jugular v. (EJV) is increasingly being used for therapeutic procedures and monitoring by clinicians. In view of this clinical relevance, dissection was done on the head and neck regions in 40 adult cadavers of Indian origin to detect variations of the EJV. Though several patterns of tributaries were found, a facial v. (FV) of considerable size was observed coursing obliguely to join the EJV in the neck in four cases (5%). The distance of the junction of the FV and the EJV from the angle of the mandible ranged between 55 and 104 mm. This may represent a persistent communication of the primitive linguofacial v. with the secondarily developing EJV. This anastomotic channel is present for some time in the fetus but later undergoes retrogression. Its persistence in some individuals results in this variation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Optic canal ; Variation ; Duplicate ; Radiology ; CT scan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé 3 crânes humains secs, 2 avec une duplication bilatérale, 1 avec une duplication unilatérale ont été réunis. Leurs caractéristiques morphologiques ont été étudiées. Les canaux optiques étaient divisés par un septum d'épaisseur variable, à la partie postérieure du canal, en un canal large en position usuelle et un petit canal en-dessous du précédent. Le crâne porteur d'une duplication unilatérale du côté droit avait une barrière osseuse formant le canal carotico-clinoïdien. Un des crânes était désarticulé et le sphénoïde présentait une duplication des canaux optiques par de fins septa fendus. Deux crânes, non désarticulés, ont été examinés en radiographie conventionnelle et en tomodensitométrie et les données ont été comparées à celles de l'examen anatomique.
    Notes: Summary Three dry adult human skulls, two with bilateral and one with unilateral duplication of the optic canal were found. Their gross morphologic features were studied. Optic canals were separated by a septum of variable thickness dividing the posterior part of the canal into a large canal in the usual position and a smaller one inferior to it. The skull with unilateral duplication of the right side had a bony bar forming the carotico-clinoid canal. One of the skulls was disarticulated and its sphenoid had bilaterally duplicated optic canals divided by thin septa, both having a slit. Conventional radiography and CT scans for the optic canal were performed on two of these skulls but not on the disarticulated bone, and the imaging representations of these features were correlated with the anatomic findings on the dry skull.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Xiphoid branch ; Internal thoracic artery ; Variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The study presents the incidence of a variant terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery (ITA). The ITA’s were cannulated in situ, injected with coloured latex and dissected together with its branches in 62 cadavers. Unlike the usual termination of the ITA bifurcating into the musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries, this third branch arose from the medial border of the ITA at the level of the 6th costal cartilage. As it descends it inclines medially towards the angle between the xiphoid process and the 7th costal cartilage, giving off 2 or 3 fine branches to the lower sternum. It then passes deep to this angle and can be observed on the anterior surface of the xiphoid process, terminating in fine branches distributed to the inferior aspect of the xiphoid cartilage. It is proposed that this branch at the “trifurcation” of the ITA be termed the xiphoid branch. This branch was noted in 61.3%. An incidence of 30.7% was seen on the right and 21% on the left with bilateral presence in 9.7%. The xiphoid branch contributes to the supply to the lower sternal region and may be of special importance when the collateral supply to the region is compromised in the event of the internal thoracic or superior epigastric artery damage or when used as a conduit in coronary artery by-pass grafts.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Abductor digiti minimi muscle ; Accessory belly ; Variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Accessory fasciculi of the hypothenar muscles have been involved in vascular and nerve compressions. During a routine dissection an accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle arising from the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle was found in the lower third of the forearm. The accessory fasciculus ran through Guyon’s canal enclosing the ulnar nerve and vessels. It was attached by means of two tendons where the fibres of the abductor digiti minimi muscle ended in a single pennate form. This anatomic variation was associated with a marked reduction of the caliber of the fourth tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and a split of the median nerve. The nerve supply arose from the ulnar nerve. A fibrous band originating from this accessory muscular belly was found covering the median nerve. Based on the development of muscles and fibrous structures within the hand and forearm, as well as on our results, we consider the present anomalies as an unusual persistence of an undifferentiated group of mesenchymal cells. These belong to the superficial muscular anlagen layer of the hand, just between the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle blastema (which has the capacity of migration) and that for the abductor digiti minimi muscle.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Superior gemellus m. ; Piriformis m. ; Sciatic n. ; Variation ; Anatomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a case with double superior gemellus and double piriformis mm. associated with the sciatic n. dividing high and passing between the two piriformis mm. in the same lower extremity. This abnormality has not previously been described in the literature. As many musculoskeletal structures may be involved in sciatica, the supernumerary superior gemelli and piriformis mm. may exert pressure on the sciatic n. and this should be taken into account by clinicians.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Palmaris longus muscle ; Variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is extremely variable both in number and form. We present the first reported case of three-headed reversed PLM in a 36-year old woman. The relevant literature is reviewed. Variations of the muscles of the forearm and specifically the PLM are not uncommon. However, different rates are given for the types and agenesis of PLM. In one study, the incidence of agenesis was 12.8% and other anomalies were 9%. 15 cases of reversed PLM have been reported in the literature. In our case, the three-headed PLM was resected. The patient’s symptoms resolved and at 1-year follow-up she remains symptom-free.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Lumbrical muscle ; Variation ; Hand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Usually the four lumbrical muscles arise from the tendons of flexor digitorum profundus and insert into the extensor expansions on the radial side of the corresponding fingers. This special case showed a very rare variation of a unipennate fourth lumbrical muscle of the right hand; the muscle fibre bundles originated on the radial side of the flexor digitorum profundus and coursed horizontal on its radial side, deep to the palmar aponeurosis and in front of the deep transverse metacarpal ligament over the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint. At the level of this joint, its tendon divided into one radial and one ulnar slips. Both heads surrounded the tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus muscles, and found their insertion into the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, as well as their bony attachment into the proximal and even more into the middle phalanx.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Azygos vein ; Variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Lors d'une dissection pratiquée dans notre laboratoire, nous avons observé des variations multiples du système veineux azygos; la veine hémi-azygos était absente; les 8ème, 9ème et 10ème veines intercostales s'unissaient en un tronc commun qui croisait obliquement la colonne vertébrale en avant de l'aorte et en arrière de l'oesophage pour aller se jetter dans la veine azygos au niveau des 7ème et 8ème vertébres thoraciques. La 7ème veine intercostale postérieure gauche croisait également la colonne vertébrale en avant pour rejoindre le tronc commun. Il apparait par conséquent important de bien connaître les différents trajets du système azygos afin de prendre des précautions particulière pendant la chirurgie du médiastin. La connaissance de ces variations permet aussi d'interpréter correctement les examens radiologiques.
    Notes: Summary In a dissection performed in our department, we observed multiple variations of the azygos venous system. The hemiazygos vein was absent. The posterior 8th, 9th, and 10th intercostal veins united and their common trunk crossed the vertebral column obliquely lying anterior to the aorta and posterior to the esophagus and opening into the azygos vein at the level of T7–T8 vertebrae. The 7th left posterior intercostal vein also crossed the column anteriorly and joined the common trunk. The present report identifies the variable positions and courses of the veins related to the azygos system. It is important to keep in mind that different courses of the azygos system do exist, so that extra caution is required during surgery of the mediastinum and also in appropriately interpreting the radiographs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Azygos vein ; Variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In a dissection performed in our department, we observed multiple variations of the azygos venous system. The hemiazygos vein was absent. The posterior 8th, 9th, and 10th intercostal veins united and their common trunk crossed the vertebral column obliquely lying anterior to the aorta and posterior to the esophagus and opening into the azygos vein at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. The 7th left posterior intercostal vein also crossed the column anteriorly and joined the common trunk. The present report identifies the variable positions and courses of the veins related to the azygos system. It is important to keep in mind that different courses of the azygos system do exist, so that extra caution is required during surgery of the mediastinum and also in appropriately interpreting the radiographs.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Superficial ulnar artery ; Axillary artery ; Ulnar artery ; Variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Anomalous superficial ulnar arteries were found bilaterally during routine dissection of the upper limbs of a 60-year-old male cadaver. In the left arm, the superficial ulnar artery originated from the axillary artery. It crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran anteromedial to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery was also rudimentary and gave rise to only a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. In the hand, it anastomosed with the radial artery, completing the superficial palmar arch. The radial artery was larger than usual and the deep palmar arch was formed only by the radial artery. In the right arm, the superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery at the level of the inter-epicondylar line. Additionally there were “inverse palmaris longus muscles” bilaterally. This was a rare case in which the superficially ulnar artery originated from a different source on each side accompanied by anomalies of the palmar arches on one side.
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