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  • WOMEN  (13)
  • nutrient intake  (7)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; PHOSPHORUS ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; CALCIUM ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; RETINOL ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; IRON ; dietary patterns ; VITAMINS ; RECALLS ; POTASSIUM ; vitamin D ; 24-h dietary recall ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; magnesium ; nutrient intakes ; food component intakes ; food group combinations ; reduced rank regression
    Abstract: Objective: To identify combinations of food groups that explain as much variation in absolute intakes of 23 key nutrients and food components as possible within the country-specific populations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects/Methods: The analysis covered single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) from 36 034 subjects (13 025 men and 23 009 women), aged 35-74 years, from all 10 countries participating in the EPIC study. In a set of 39 food groups, reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify those combinations (RRR factors) that explain the largest proportion of variation in intake of 23 key nutrients and food components, namely, proteins, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sugars (sum of mono-and disaccharides), starch, fibre, alcohol, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C (RRR responses). Analyses were performed at the country level and for all countries combined. Results: In the country-specific analyses, the first RRR factor explained a considerable proportion of the total nutrient intake variation in all 10 countries (27.4-37.1%). The subsequent RRR factors were much less important in explaining the variation (〈= 6%). Strong similarities were observed for the first country-specific RRR factor between the individual countries, largely characterized by consumption of bread, vegetable oils, red meat, milk, cheese, potatoes, margarine and processed meat. The highest explained variation was seen for protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium (50-70%), whereas sugars, beta-carotene, retinol and alcohol were only marginally explained (〈= 5%). The explained proportion of the other nutrients ranged between these extremes. Conclusions: A combination of food groups was identified that explained a considerable proportion of the nutrient intake variation in 24-HDRs in every country-specific EPIC population in a similar manner. This indicates that, despite the large variability in food and nutrient intakes reported in the EPIC, the variance of intake of important nutrients is explained, to a large extent, by similar food group combinations across countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888278
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; DIET ; CALCIUM ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; ELDERLY-MEN ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; IGFBP-3 ; FACTOR SYSTEM ; VITAMIN-D ; insulin-like growth factor-I ; insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 ; milk ; NUTRITIONAL FACTORS ; SOMATOMEDIN-C
    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 in women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects: The population are 2109 women who were control subjects in a case-control study of breast cancer nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Control subjects were randomly chosen among risk sets consisting of female cohort members alive and free of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at the time of diagnosis of the index case. Matching criteria were age at enrolment, follow-up time, time of the day of blood collection and study centre. Diet was measured through validated questionnaires. Serum hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The relationship between serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and intake of nutrients and foods was explored by linear regression in models adjusted for energy intake, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, centre and laboratory batch. Results: Serum IGF-I levels were positively related to protein intake (P-trend 〈 0.001), but not related to energy, fat or carbohydrate intake. Positive relationships were observed with the intake of milk (P-trend = 0.007), calcium (P-trend 〈 0.001), magnesium (P-trend = 0.003), phosphorus (P-trend 〈 0.001), potassium (P-trend = 0.002), vitamin B6 (P-trend = 0.03), vitamin B2 (P-trend = 0.001) and inverse relationships with vegetables (P-trend = 0.02) and beta-carotene (P-trend = 0.02). IGFBP-3 was not related with most of the nutrients and foods in this study. Conclusions: In this population, circulating IGF-I is modestly related with the intake of protein and minerals, and with milk and cheese, while IGFBP-3 does not appear to be related with diet
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16900085
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEIN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; nutrient intake ; DRINKING ; MASS INDEX ; WEIGHT ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; ERRORS ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; EPIC-soft ; ITALIAN WOMEN ; SMOKING-HABITS ; UNITED-STATES ADULTS
    Abstract: Background/objectives: Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education and body weight in a sample of adults from 10 European countries. Methods: A 24-h dietary recall interview was conducted on 13 025 men and 23 009 women, aged 35-74 years, from 27 centres participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Means and standard errors of alcohol consumption, adjusted for age, were calculated, stratified by gender and centre. Results: In many centres, higher level drinkers (males consuming 424 g of ethanol/day, equivalent to 42 standard drinks and females consuming 412 g of ethanol/day equivalent to 41 standard drink) obtained more energy from fat and protein and less from sugar than did abstainers. The proportion of energy from starch tended to be higher for male and lower for female higher level drinkers than for abstainers. Female higher level drinkers had a lower body mass index than did abstainers, whereas male higher level drinkers generally weighed more. Male higher level drinkers were less educated than abstainers in Mediterranean countries, but were more educated elsewhere. Female higher level drinkers were usually more educated than were abstainers. Outside the home, consumption (both genders) tended to be at friends' homes, particularly among men in Northern and Central Europe, and in bars in Spain. Conclusions: This study reveals clear geographical differences in drinking habits across Europe, and shows that the characteristics of different alcohol consumption categories also vary.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888282
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; PHOSPHORUS ; NEOPLASIA ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; DIETARY ; CALCIUM ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; RECALL ; IRON ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; POTASSIUM ; MAINTENANCE ; 24-h dietary recall ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; magnesium ; minerals ; nutrient intakes
    Abstract: Background/objectives: Adequate mineral intake is important for the maintenance of bone health, cellular function and general metabolism, and possibly in the aetiology of cancer and other chronic diseases. This study aimed at investigating variation in intakes of selected minerals across 10 European countries participating in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Methods: Nutrient intakes for 36 034 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in 27 centres were obtained using standardized 24-h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). Mean intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium were calculated by centre and weighted by season and day of the week and were also stratified by age group. The contribution of food groups to total nutrient intake was calculated. Results: There was clear geographical variability in intakes, with differences ranging from 35% for magnesium to 90% for iron in men and 36% for potassium to 75% for calcium in women, and a twofold difference in sources of haem iron (meat and fish). There was a geographical gradient in iron intake, with higher intakes in Southern than in Northern Europe and also around a twofold north-south gradient in the contribution of fruits and vegetables to potassium intake. Compared with reference intakes, the majority of age groups and centres had intakes above the recommended levels. Dairy foods and products contributed the most to calcium and phosphorus intake in almost all centres. Cereals and cereal products contributed the most to magnesium and iron intakes, except in Greece and Germany. Conclusions: Intakes of minerals vary substantially throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888269
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; ACID ; WOMEN ; MEN ; fatty acids ; DIETARY ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; antioxidants ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; WEST-GERMANY ; asthma ; EAST-GERMANY ; EPIC-GERMANY ; FATTY-ACID ; ADULT ; ADULTS ; HAY-FEVER ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; INTERVAL ; dietary intake ; dietary fat ; HDL CHOLESTEROL ; LUNG-FUNCTION ; ONSET ASTHMA ; RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS ; YOUNG-ADULTS
    Abstract: Objective: Within a prospective study, we explored the associations between dietary intake of fatty acids, antioxidants and relevant food sources of these nutrients on the clinical manifestation of asthma in adulthood. Method: A total of 105 newly physician-diagnosed cases of asthma from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort were identified during follow-up and matched with 420 controls. Baseline dietary intake was obtained by means of validated food frequency questionnaires. The association of dietary intake variables and asthma risk was explored by unconditional logistic regression models. Results: A high intake of oleic acid (C18: 1 n-9) was positively associated with asthma (P-value for trend 0.035), while no significant associations were found for the other dietary fatty acids. Most prominently, a high margarine intake increased the risk of onset of asthma in adulthood ( adjusted odds ratio ( OR) 3rd tertile: 1.73 (95% confidence interval ( 95% CI): 1.05 - 2.87), P for trend = 0.050), the effect being stronger in men (2nd tertile: OR = 1.66, 3rd tertile: OR = 2.51) than in women ( 2nd tertile: OR = 0.91; 3rd tertile: OR = 1.47). The dietary intake of antioxidants and their main food sources had no effect on asthma risk. Conclusions: In summary, the present results provide evidence that even in adulthood a high margarine intake increases the risk of clinical onset of asthma. Whether oleic acid may serve as a proxy for margarine-derived trans-fatty acids ( C18: 1 t9) remains to be clarified
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15329676
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEIN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; EPIC PROJECT ; METAANALYSIS ; SUBTYPES ; fish consumption ; ERRORS ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; WEIGHT-LOSS ; animal proteins ; EPIC-soft ; plant proteins ; total proteins
    Abstract: Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. Conclusions: This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888272
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  • 7
    Keywords: BLOOD ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; DESIGN ; MEMBRANE ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; fatty acids ; DIET ; DIETARY ; CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; nutrition ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; asthma ; SERUM ; FATTY-ACID ; ADULT ; ADULTS ; RE ; immunoglobulin ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; allergic sensitisation ; INTERVAL ; allergic rhinitis ; ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID ; ATOPIC DISEASES ; dietary intake ; FISH-OIL ; IGE ; n-3 fatty acids ; red blood cell (RBC) membrane ; sensitisation ; SYMPTOMS
    Abstract: Objective: Due to inconsistent results based on dietary intake data, unsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) membranes and diet were used to investigate their association with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting: Bavarian Nutrition Survey II ( 2002 - 03), Germany. Subjects: A total of 568 adult participants, 325 women and 243 men. Methods: By means of logistic regression models, the relation of fatty acids to (i) allergic sensitisation as defined by means of specific serum immunoglobulin E analysis (CAPSX1 class 〉= 2), and ( ii) self-reported allergic rhinitis was examined. Results: A high cell membrane level of eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA, 20: 5 n-3) was inversely associated with allergic sensitisation, the adjusted odds ratio ( OR) and 95% confidence interval ( 95% CI) were 0.52 (0.30 - 0.90) for the highest ( vs lowest) quartile. A similar effect was observed for allergic rhinitis with an OR ( 95% CI) of 0.50 (0.24 - 1.03; P = 0.027 for trend). A higher dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid ( ALA, 18: 3 n-3) was associated with a decreased risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis with ORs ( 95% CIs) of 0.51 (0.28 - 0.93) and 0.43 (0.20 - 0.93), respectively, in the highest quartiles. No other dietary or cell membrane unsaturated fatty acid was significantly associated with the outcome variables, nor was the n-6/n-3 ratio. The strongest effects were observed among subjects under the age of 40 y. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study among adults, a high content of n-3 fatty acids in RBC membranes ( EPA) or in the diet ( ALA) is associated with a decreased risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16015268
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEIN ; ASSOCIATION ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; CALCIUM ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; nutrient intake ; NUTRIENTS ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; VITAMIN-C ; dietary intake ; STANDARDIZATION ; carbohydrate ; eating out of home ; 24-h dietary recall ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; nutrient intakes ; nutrient patterns ; AMERICA ; FOOD-CONSUMPTION
    Abstract: Objectives: To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out-versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 participants aged between 35-74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software programme (EPIC-Soft) that recorded the place of food/drink consumption. Eating OH was defined as the consumption of foods and beverages anywhere other than in household premises, irrespective of the place of purchase/preparation. Nutrient intakes were estimated using a standardized nutrient database. Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Among women, OH eating contributed more to total fat intake than to intakes of protein and carbohydrates. Among both genders, and particularly in southern Europe, OH eating contributed more to sugar and starch intakes and less to total fibre intake. The contribution of OH eating was also lower for calcium and vitamin C intakes. The composition of diet at home was different from that consumed out of home in southern countries, but was relatively similar in the north. Conclusions: In northern Europe, OH and in-home eating are homogeneous, whereas southern Europeans consider OH eating as a distinctive occasion. In most centres, women selected more fat-rich items when eating out.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888277
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; DIETARY ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; EPIC PROJECT ; VITAMIN-C ; VITAMINS ; dietary intake ; STANDARDIZATION ; 24-h dietary recall ; ENDB ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; water-soluble vitamins
    Abstract: Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. Conclusions: This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888270
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; AGE ; WOMEN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; DIET ; EPIC ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; physical activity ; RETINOL ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; EPIC PROJECT ; ADJUSTMENT ; MEAT CONSUMPTION ; dietary intake ; RECALLS ; vitamin D ; energy intake ; LEVEL CORRELATIONS ; 24-h dietary recall ; Vitamin E ; EPIC-soft ; D INSUFFICIENCY ; PLASMA CAROTENOIDS
    Abstract: Objectives: To describe the intake of the fat-soluble nutrients retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin D and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects (age range: 35-74 years) completed a single standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software program (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the fat-soluble nutrients were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database. Results: For all the nutrients, in most centres, men had a higher level of intake than did women, even after adjustments for total energy intake and anthropometric confounders. Distinct regional gradients from northern to southern European countries were observed for all nutrients. The level intake of beta-carotene and vitamin E also showed some differences by level of education, smoking status and physical activity. No meaningful differences in the nutrient intake were observed by age range. Conclusions: These results show differences by study centre, gender, age and various lifestyle variables in the intake of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin D between 10 European countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888271
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