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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 107 (1976), S. 205-206 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Torulopsis ; Yeast ; New species ; Beer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new species of the genus Torulopsis has been isolated from several different samples of German Pilsener Beer. A description of the new species is given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; Amoebae ; Aminopeptidases ; Acid proteases ; Regulation ; Development ; Differential gene activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cultivation of Physarum polycephalum amoebae in two media with different protein contents revealed a regulation of aminopeptidases and proteases depending on the albumin content of the medium: in growing amoebae and plasmodia the aminopeptidases have similar isoenzyme patterns and relative activities against nitroanilides. One alanine and four leucine aminopeptidase isoenzymes were found within the slightly acid pH range. During growth amoebae secrete—different from plasmodia—leucine aminopeptidase into the medium with low protein content. In an albumin-rich medium additional alanine aminopeptidase activity was found. Out of nine plasmodial proteases four were found in amoebae too. Only one band (pI 3.6) was present in the protein-poor medium. No protease activity could be detected in the proteinrich medium.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Cell wall ; Chitin ; Colloidal gold ; Galactomannan ; Lectin ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The location of galactomannan on the surface ofSchizosaccharomyces pombe cells was reexamined by scanning electron microscopy by an indirect but specific method using gold markers. The polysaccharide was found on the cell surface and at the end beginning to grow but not on the wall established by division. Galactomannan was also localized onS. pombe thin sections by transmission electron microscopy using the same method. The polysaccharide was found deposited in two layers in the cell wall, i.e. at the periphery of the wall and near the plasmalemma. The septum was also marked but mainly near the plasmalemma. These results indicated that the polysaccharide is elaborated onto the outside of the wall during extension but not during septum formation. When thin sections ofS. pombe were marked with gold granules labeled with wheat germ agglutinin, marking was found in vacuoles but not in the cell wall. This confirmed thatS. pombe cell wall is devoid of chitin.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Streptococcus cremoris ; Cell wall proteinase ; Calcium dependency ; Regulation ; Translational control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The persistent accumulation of proteinase (PIII) activity in the cell wall of Streptococcus cremoris strain AM1 during growth depends on the presence of Ca2+-ions in the medium. In the absence of calcium initial accumulation of activity in the cell wall is observed, followed by a decrease to a low final level. Under this condition no increase of proteolytic activity is found in the extracellular fluid. A possible function of calcium in the stabilization of the enzyme is discussed. Prolonged accumulation of catalytically active proteinase PIII in the cell wall occurs in the absence of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis. This process involves de novo protein synthesis supported by preformed proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid, which is possibly either intrinsically long-lived or is stabilized following its transcription. The level of the extracellular concentration of amino acids and/or peptides regulates the translation of newly synthesized proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid and, possibly, the growth of the organism in milk.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Yeast ; Compartmentation ; Vacuoles ; Lysosome ; Cytosol ; ATPase ; Phosphatases ; Proteases ; Polyphosphate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Almost all the vacuoles (about 95%) remained intact after “polybase-induced lysis” of the yeast protoplasts. These vacuoles could be sedimentated together with other cell organelles which were equally well preserved, leaving as a supernatant a cytosol fraction which was essentially uncontaminated by the contents of disrupted vacuoles. After density gradient centrifugation more than half of the vacuoles were recovered in a fraction which was highly purified as judged from the measurement of several marker enzymes and from light and electron microscopic observations. Polyphosphate, which has been shown to be located exclusively in the vacuolar sap of protoplasts, was used as a vacuolar marker to determine the yields of vacuoles in the different fractions obtained from the density gradients. It was also used to assess the overall distribution of lytic enzymes in the cytosol and in the vacuome. The results indicate that the following enzyme activities are mostly, if not exclusively (〉90%), located in the vacuome, probably all in the typical large vacuoles present in the protoplasts: exo-and endopolyphosphatase, proteases A and B, carboxypeptidase Y, an aminopeptidase, RNase, α-mannosidase, and phosphatases which hydrolyze a number of different substrates. The polyphosphatases are thus in the same compartment as the polyphosphate. The activities of some other hydrolases, notably of a Mg2+ dependent, Oligomycin and NaN3 insensitive ATPase and alkaline phosphatase, were partially associated with the vacuoles. The activities of pyrophosphatase, tripolyphosphatase, α-glucosidase, and aminopeptidase active in the presence of EDTA, were located almost exclusively in the soluble, cytosolic fraction.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Collagenase ; Alkaline protease ; Temperature control ; Oxygen control ; Regulation ; Vibrio alginolyticus ; Secretion exoproteins ; Cerulenin ; Quinacrine ; Microbial ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The production of an extracellular collagenase and an alkaline protease by Vibrio alginolyticus during stationary phase was inhibited by a temperature shift from 30 to 37°C and by a lack of oxygen. The stability of the exoproteases was unaffected by incubation at 37°C and aeration. The optimum growth temperature for the V. alginolyticus strain was 33.5°C Aeration enhanced the rate of growth of exponential phase cells. Temperature and oxygen did not affect the growth of stationary phase cells when the exoproteases were being produced. Macromolecular synthesis in stationary phase cells was not affected by temperature. There was no rapid release of the exoproteases after temperature shift down and chloramphenicol inhibited the production of the enzymes when added at time of temperature shift down from 37 to 30°C. The regulation of exoprotease production by temperature and oxygen was specific and has implications regarding the ecology of V. alginolyticus. Cerulenin, quinacrine and O-phenanthroline inhibited the production of the exoproteases.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Pyrophosphate ; Polymerie acid-soluble poly-phosphates ; Budding process ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In the cells of hybrid yeast strain Saccharomyces N.C.Y.C. 644 SU3 (Karlsberg collection), a large amount of pyrophosphate (30–300 μmol/g of dry weight) accumulates whatever the aeration conditions and the content of glucose in the medium. The content of pyrophosphate is 10–1000 times higher than that of ATP. At the early and mid-exponential growth phases two maxima of pyrophosphate accumulation are observable. The periods of maximal pyrophosphate accumulation in yeast coincide with those of the minimal content of polymeric acid-soluble polyphosphates and intense budding. In the light of the data obtained, the question is discussed as to the relationship between the metabolism of pyrophosphates and acid-soluble polyphosphates in yeast.
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