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  • Candida albicans  (70)
  • aflatoxin  (23)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida albicans ; Washing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A simple in vitro assay technique was used to determine the effect of post-filtration washing on the adherence ofC. albicans (NCPF 3736) to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). Washing was carried out with a range of volumes of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), viz. 0, 5, 10 and 20 ml, at a standard flow rate. Both the number ofC. albicans adherent to BEC and the percentage of BEC with adherentC. albicans were significantly decreased (p〈0.001 for each of these measures) after washing with 5 ml PBS. Further increases in the volume of PBS did not significantly decrease either measure of adherence. These data indicate that only a small volume of PBS, 5 ml, is required to achieve the removal of non-adherentC. albicans from the surface of BEC. The result of the adherence assay is not significantly affected by increasing the volume of PBS used. It is concluded that considerable savings in time may be made through using only a small (5 ml) volume of washing buffer at a standard flow rate.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: versiconal ; aflatoxin ; Aspergillus versicolorin C
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The primary product of hydrolysis of versiconal acetate catalyzed by porcine liver esterase and the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction from a soluble extract from mycelia of Aspergillus parasiticus was versiconal. Versiconal was stable at neutral pH for several hours and was rapidly converted to versi-colorin C by treatment with 0.4 M HCl. The addition of NADPH to the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction resulted in conversion of versiconal acetate to both versiconal and versicolorin C. The conversion of versiconal acetate to versicolorin C in the cell-free system is proposed to involve an esterase and an NADPH-dependent cyclase.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 122 (1993), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida albicans ; Candidiasis ; Gastrointestinal candidiasis ; Mycology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We adapted a rat model of gastrointestinal candidiasis for studies of in vivo gastric colonization withCandida albicans. Whereas normal rats cleared a single intragastric inoculum of 5×106 C. albicans from the stomach within 4 hours, rats pretreated with chloramphenicol and gentamicin achieved stable gastric colonization for at least 5 days after administration of this inoculum. We next used this model to study host modifications hypothesized to alter gastric colonization. A first group received dilute HCl 4 hr before yeast inoculation, to induce acute superficial gastric erosions; another group was treated with glucocorticosteroid beginning 12 days before yeast inoculation; and another group received famotidine therapy beginning 3 days before yeast inoculation, to neutralize gastric acidity. Recovery of yeasts from stomachs was significantly different from the control group only in rats treated with steroids; greater colonization was found in the rats so treated. In a final group of experiments, we attempted to inhibit in vivo gastric colonization with yeasts by preincubation of yeasts in vitro with a polyclonal antiserum raised in rabbits against heat-killedC. albicans. We were not able to demonstrate inhibition of gastric colonization by preincubation with this antiserum in this model system.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Androgens ; Candida albicans ; Hormones ; Malassezia furfur ; Pityrosporum ovale ; Steroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cells ofPityrosporum ovale that colonize human pilosebaceous units are constantly exposed to cutaneous androgenic steroids. The aim of our study was to find out whetherP. ovale is susceptible to these hormones. Three strains ofP. ovale were grown in vitro in the presence of various concentrations oftestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, androstanedione, 5-α-dihydrotestosterone andprogesterone (10, 100, and 1000 µg/ml; agar dilution assays). In addition, three strains ofCandida albicans were also exposed to equal concentrations of the same androgens. As a result, allP. ovale strains were suppressed by 1000 µg/mlandrostenedione, which was the strongest inhibitor. The other androgenic steroids also significantly reducedP. ovale growth at different concentrations, depending on the hormone used and the strain tested.Progesterone was inhibitory at the highest concentration for oneP. ovale strain only.Candida albicans was not affected by any of the androgens. These findings demonstrate an in vitro susceptibility ofP. ovale to high concentrations of human androgenic steroids. A relevance of this interaction for the in vivo fungus-host relation is not apparent.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; heat shock mannoproteins ; secretory IgA ; stress mannoproteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of heat shock mannoproteins (HSMPs) reactive with sIgA was demonstrated in several C. albicans strains. The subculture of the C. albicans isolated from mucosal surfaces on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 25 °C switched off the HSMP expression. A re-expression of the HSMPs was obtained in the same medium by shifting the temperature of incubation to 37 °C. However, expression of HSMPs in two strains isolated from deep infections was maintained during several subcultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 25 °C. A glycoprotein of 200 kDa seemed to be the main HSMP reacting with vaginal sIgA. The data presented in this study suggest that factors other than temperature can influence the expression of C. albicans HSMPs and therefore these antigens should be referred as stress mannoproteins.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; cow pea cultivars ; garden pea ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Different cultivars of cow pea and garden pea seeds were surveyed for susceptibility or resistance towards the toxigenic and aflatoxin-producing mould (Aspergillus flavus IMI 102135). The results show that aflatoxin production varied among the different cultivars of both cow pea and garden pea. Morphological and histological characters of the different cultivars tested did not show any relation between colour, shape and size of seeds and the amount of aflatoxin produced. The chemical analysis of the different constituents obtained from both seed coats and seed kernels with susceptible, partially resistant and resistant cow pea and garden pea cultivars revealed that the resistant cultivars of cow pea (namely: Balady cultivar) and garden pea (namely: Melting Sugar cultivar) contained lower levels of sodium and higher levels of phosphate and potassium.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; germ tube ; fructose ; metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of different fructose concentrations (5, 3, 1 and 0 g/l) was tested on Germ Tube (GT) production by Candida albicans strain AS3P, using a Minimal Synthetic Medium (MSM) without (NH4)2SO4. The results obtained showed good GT production in the presence of all the different fructose concentrations and in the absence of any nitrogen source. The greatest GT production was obtained with 3 g/l of fructose vs 1 g/l of glucose, after 4 hr of incubation. On the other hand fructose consumption was lower than that of glucose at all concentrations over the 4 hour period. The data obtained may suggest that fructose is metabolized in a different way from glucose for GT production by C. albicans.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; thiol-blockers ; styryl ketones ; glutathione
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic pathogenic yeast capable of producing alternate morphological forms (yeast or mycelium) in response to environmental changes. The dimorphism of C. albicans plays an important role in the pathophysiology of this organism. The intracellular level of glutathione, which helps to maintain the oxidationreduction potential of the cell, is decreased significantly during the yeast-to-mycelium conversion implicating the possible involvement of thiols in the yeast-to-mycelium transition. To evaluate the possible participation of sulphydryl group(s) containing component(s) in the yeast-to-mycelium transition of C. albicans, we examined the effect of a group of newly synthesized thiol-alkylators on the production of germ tubes from yeast cells. Several conjugated styryl ketones which are thiol-alkylators, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate (a known non-penetrating thiol-blocker) inhibited the yeast-to-mycelium conversion of C. albicans. The thiol-alkylators at 20 μM failed to inhibit four key enzymes (γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase) involved in glutathione utilization indicating that the inhibition of yeast-to-mycelium conversion is not mediated by the inhibition of glutathione metabolic enzymes. Moreover, these results suggest that a key thiol-blocker sensitive component(s) containing a critical sulphydryl group(s) is involved in the yeast-tomycelium transition of C. albicans.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; phospholipases ; Rhodotorula rubra ; virulence factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phospholipases are important pathogenicity determinants inCandida albicans. They play a significant role in damaging cell membranes and invading host cells. High phospholipase production is correlated with an increased ability of adherence and a higher mortality rate in animal models. By means of an egg yolk-containing agar and thePz (= phospholipase activity zone) value according to Price, the present study investigated phospholipase production in 170 strains ofC. albicans. At an incubation temperature of 37 °C,Pz values ranged from 0.395 to 1; no clear relationship was found between clinical origin of the isolates and severity of the disease. In addition toC. albicans, a total of 110 strains of 16 other yeast species were investigated for possible phospholipase production. Only yeasts of the speciesRhodotorula rubra showed phospholipase activity, with mean values exceeding those observed inC. albicans. This result was confirmed by an assay using sterile culture filtrates and phosphatidyl-[3H-methyl]-choline-dipalmitoyl as a substrate. SinceRh. rubra has only rarely been demonstrated as a pathogen in humans, we believe that factors such as reduced growth at 37 °C, absence of dimorphism and low ability of adherence lessen the importance of high phospholipase activity inRh.rubra as a pathogenicity determinant. Therefore, potential virulence factors should always be considered in the context of the whole spectrum of pathogenic determinants.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fluconazole ; Iron ; Candida albicans ; macrophage ; monocyte-derived
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human serum, transferrin, and apotransferrin are known to profoundly inhibit the growth of Candida albicans by iron deprivation. On the other hand, iron overload (iron saturated transferrin) is a serious risk factor for candidiasis in newborn and in leukemic patients. We tested the efficacy of fluconazole and the previously demonstrated synergy of fluconazole and effector cells against C. albicans under iron overload conditions where efficacy might be diminished. We confirm that exogenous iron completely reversed the inhibitory effect of human serum and report that the efficacy of fluconazole against C. albicans was not significantly compromised in a 24 h assay system. Although exogenous iron inhibited fungistatic activity of monocyte-derived macrophages, it did not interfere with the synergistic candidacidal activity of fluconazole and monocyte-derived macrophages. In 72 h assays, where fluconazole had candidacidal activity, exogenous iron did not compromise efficacy of fluconazole, and fluconazole activity was often increased. These in vitro results suggest that effectiveness of fluconazole therapy would not be compromised in iron overload situations in vivo.
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