Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Colonization of barley grain by Aspergillus flavus and formation of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Hyphopichia burtonii were studied over a three-week period in all combinations of 20 or 30 °C and 0.97, 0.95 or 0.90 aw. Grain colonization was assessed initially by observing hyphal extension on the grain surface, using scanning electron microscopy, and then from the proportion of seeds infected and numbers of colony forming units (cfu) formed. Aflatoxin b1 concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody. These studies showed that interaction between A. flavus and other fungi in paired culture had different effects on both colonization and aflatoxin formation depending on the species involved and environmental conditions. Germination of A. flavus spores was unaffected by the presence of other species on the grain surface. Subsequently, three principal patterns of A. flavus colonization of barley grain were observed through the incubation period in the presence of other fungal species: (a) colonization unaffected by the presence of other species; (b) colonization initially slower in the presence of other species but later differing little from pure cultures; and (c) colonization adversely affected by the presence of other species. Five main patterns of aflatoxin B1 production were observed relative to pure culture but with no consistent relationship with species, aw, temperature or incubation period; (a) little changed; (b) increased slowly; (c) decreased; (d) enhanced; and (e, f) increased initially but later decreased to (e) the same level as in pure culture or (f) to less than in pure culture. Generally, production of aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus was less than in pure culture but sometimes was changed only slightly by the presence of P. verrucosum, F. sporotrichioides or H. burtonii or was temporarily enhanced.
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