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  • aqueous solutions  (102)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Enthalpy of dilution ; aqueous solutions ; group interaction enthalpies ; Savage-Wood principle ; cyclohexanol ; formamide ; hexamethylenetetramine ; mannitol ; myoinositol ; dimethylformamide ; trioxane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Enthalpies of dilution of aqueous systems containing hexamethylenetetramine, alone and in ternary system with each of mannitol, myoinositol, cyclohexanol, formamide, dimethylformamide, and trioxane have been determined. The data have been treated in terms of the Savage-Wood additivity principle and first estimates for the pairwise groups interaction enthalpies of N/N, CH2/N, CHOH/N, COHN/N and −O−/N have been made. The results are discussed in light of all other known group interaction enthalpies. The limitations and utilities of the Savage-Wood principle are reviewed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of solution chemistry 12 (1983), S. 295-301 
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Partial molar volumes ; van der Waals volumes ; betaine hydrochlorides ; volumes of proton ionization ; group contributions ; aqueous solutions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution for a number of hydrochlorides and sodium salts of N-methyl derivatives of α, ω-aminocarboxylic acids in water at 25°C are measured and related to their van der Waals volumes. Results indicate that 4.96±0.48 water molecules hydrate a betaine hydrochloride. Volumes of proton ionization and interaction terms are evaluated. Group contributions to the partial molar volumes are also reported.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Nonelectrolytes ; aqueous solutions ; ultrasonic velocity ; type II clathrate structures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ultrasonic velocities (u) have been measured for various concentrations (x), and (du/dx) x=0 evaluated, in dilute aqueous solutions of nonelectrolytes which form solid clathrate structures of type II, or are members of a homologous series of alcohols, ketones or cyclic ethers. Changes in (du/dx) x=0 in these classes of compounds were found to be correlated with changes in structure. Elongation of the hydrocarbon chain by addition of a CH2 group is accompanied by an increase in (du/dx) x=0 . Replacement of C−C by C=C, C−H by C−OH, CH2) by −O−, and CH−OH by C=O, lead to decreases in (du/dx) x=0 . It is postulated that maximal values of (du/dx) x=0 should be observed for hydrocarbons with only single C−C bonds.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Group additivity ; amino acids ; aqueous solutions ; enthalpy of dilution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Enthalpies of dilution both of solutions of N-acetylsarcosinamide and of ternary solutions equimolal in N-acetylsarcosinamide and N-acetylglycinamide, N-acetyl-L-alaninamide, N-acetyl-L-valinamide or N-acetyl-L-leucinamide have been determined by a microcalorimetric method. The results were employed to calculate the pairwise enthalpic coefficients for both homotactic (like-like) and heterotactic (like-unlike) solute interactions. These pairwise interaction coefficients have been analyzed by means of a group additivity approach and some comments on the utility of this, when applied to such systems, are made.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Ln(ClO4)3 ; La(ClO4)3 ; Pr(ClO4)3 ; Nd(ClO4)3 ; Gd(ClO4)3 ; Er(ClO4)3 ; Yb(ClO4)3 ; Lu(ClO4)3 ; trivalent lanthanide salts ; hydration ; aqueous solutions ; near-IR spectra
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The near infrared spectra of water in aqueous solutions of La(ClO4)3, Pr(ClO4)3, Nd(ClO4)3, Gd(ClO4)3, Er(ClO4)3, Yb(ClO4)3, Lu(ClO4)3, and NaClO4 have been measured in the concentration range from 0.3 to 2.5 mol-dm−3, at 25°C. The relative contents of ‘free’ OH groups in the 1.0, 1.6, and 2.2M solutions have been calculated from extinction coefficients for water at 1160 nm. They increase with increasing salt concentration and are greater in solutions of the lighter lanthanide perchlorates at any fixed molarity. The results are discussed in terms of the stoichiometry and structure of hydrated cations of trivalent lanthanides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Solubility ; Henry's law coefficients ; Ostwald coefficients ; aqueous solutions ; nitrogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The solubility of nitrogen in pure liquid water was measured in the pressure range 45 to 115 kPa and in the temperature range 5 to 50°C. These data are used to obtain Henry coefficients H 2,1 (T,P s,1 ) at the vapor pressure P s,1 of water. The temperature dependence of H 2,1 (T,P s,1 ) is accounted for by both a Clarke-Glew (CG) type fitting equation, and a power series in T−1, as suggested by Benson and Krause (BK). The imprecision of our measurements is characterized by an average deviation of ±0.038% from a four-term CG equation, and by an average deviation of ±0.042% from a three-term BK equation. From the temperature variation of H 2,1 (T,P s,1 ) partial molar quantities referring to the solution process, such as enthalpies and heat capacities of solution, are obtained. They are given in tabular form, together with H 2,1 (T,P s,1 ) and derived Ostwald coefficients L∞, at rounded temperatures. Finally, experimental results are compared with values calculated via scaled particle theory.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Freezing points ; aqueous solutions ; group interactions ; trioxane ; dioxane ; inositol ; mannitol ; cyclohexanol, formamide, and acetamide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Freezing temperatures of dilute aqueous solutions of equimolar mixtures of 1,3,5-trioxane with myo-inositol, d-mannitol, cyclohexanol, formamide, and acetamide, and 1,4-dioxane with myo-inositol, d-mannitol, formamide, and acetamide have been measured. These data yield pairwise Gibbs energies of interactions between the molecules in an aqueous solution. Using the group additivity principle, the results also yield the pairwise functional group Gibbs energies of interaction for the ether group with the hydroxyl and amide group. These results have been combined with all available data from the literature to yield the Gibbs energy and enthalpy of interaction of amides, ethers, alcohols, and saccharides in aqueous solution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Freezing points ; aqueous solutions ; group interactions ; hexamethylenetetramine ; inositol ; mannitol ; cyclohexanol ; formamide ; acetamide ; dioxane ; trioxane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Freezing temperatures of dilute aqueous solutions of hexamethylenetetramine and mixtures of hexamethylenetetramine with myo-inositol, d-mannitol, cyclohexanol, formamide, acetamide, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,3,5-trioxane have been measured. These data yield pairwise molecular Gibbs energies of interaction between the molecules in an aqueous solution. Using the additivity principle, the results also yield the pairwise functional group Gibbs energies of interaction in an aqueous solution for the amine nitrogen with itself and with the hydroxyl, amide, ether, and methylene groups.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Densities ; apparent molal volumes ; Pitzer equation ; aqueous solutions ; water ; high temperature ; calcium chloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Densities of aqueous calcium chloride solutions are reported for molalities up to 6.4 mol-kg−1 at temperatures from 50 to 200°C and at 20.27 bar. Apparent molar volumes calculated from experimental densities were fitted to the equations of Rogers and Pitzer, and the temperature dependence of the Pitzer parameters were obtained. The standard deviation of fit for the apparent molar volumes is 0.21 cm3-mol−1 from 50 to 200°C at 20.27 bar.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Freezing points ; aqueous solutions ; group interactions ; ethyl acetate ; methyl formatemyo-inositol ; D-mannitol ; formamide ; trioxane ; dioxane ; acetamide ; hexamethylenetetramine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Freezing temperatures of dilute aqueous solutions of ethyl acetate and mixtures with myo-inositol, D-mannitol, formamide, 1,3,5-trioxane, 1,4-dioxane, acetamide, hexamethylenetetramine, and methyl formate have been measured. In addition, freezing temperatures of dilute aqueous solutions of methyl formate and mixtures with the above solutes have been measured. From these data, the pairwise molecular Gibbs energies of interaction between the molecules were calculated. Using the additivity principle, the pairwise functional group Gibbs energies of interaction were calculated for ester group interactions with a variety of other functional groups.
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