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  • computerized tomography  (39)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Subarachnoid haemorrhage ; computerized tomography ; cerebral angiography ; brain ischaemia ; vasospasm ; hydrocephalus ; unknown aetiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors review the literature on subarachnoid haemorrhage of unknown aetiology (SAHUE) and analyze a personal series of 212 patients diagnosed as SAHUE. These patients represent 30% of all cases of primary SAH admitted over a 14.5 year period. The age, sex, antecedents and initial clinical presentation of patients with SAHUE were indistinguishable from those of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to ruptured aneurysm (SAHRA). However, the present series of SAHUE compare favourably with both a personal and a previously reported series of SAHRA insofar as clinical grade on admission (94% of patients in grades I–II of Botterell), presence of blood on CT (51%), vasospasm (5%), ischaemic deficits (3.3%), persistent hydrocephalus (3.5%), rebleeding (6%) and fatal result (3.9%) are concerned. The amount of blood on CT scan in our patients with SAHUE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of brain ischaemia and hydrocephalus but did not correlate with the Botterell grade on admission or final outcome, which were good in the majority of cases regardless of the presence or not of visible cisternal haemorrhage. The results of the present series confirm that the final prognosis of patients with primary SAH showing normal four-vessel cerebral angiography is essentially favourable.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Cerebellar haemorrhage ; computerized tomography ; obstructive hydrocephalus ; managament ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The records of 50 cerebellar haemorrhages were reviewed retrospectively. In this series the most important factor for clinical development, management and mortality was the presence of obstructive hydrocephalus (p〈0.01). Slowly progressive (type 1) and abruptly developing (type 2) deterioration of consciousness was significantly related to high mortality; this holds also true for the combination of hydrocephalus with an haematoma diameter 〉 3 cm. Larger haematomas had a higher mortality but this relation, analyzed alone, did not reach statistical significance (p〉0.05). In cases with hydrocephalus mortality could significantly be reduced by surgical evacuation of the haematoma (p〈0.01). The treatment of cerebellar haemorrhages must be directed at resolving obstructive hydrocephalus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Epidermoid cyst ; diploic cyst ; tension pneumocephalus ; computerized tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Head injury ; computerized tomography ; intracranial haematoma ; intracranial pressure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors analysed the serial computerized tomography (CT) findings in a large series of severely head injured patients in order to assess the variability in gross intracranial pathology through the acute posttraumatic period and determine the most common patterns of CT change. A second aim was to compare the prognostic significance of the different CT diagnostic categories used in the study (Traumatic Coma Data Bank CT pathological classification) when gleaned either from the initial (postadmission) or the control CT scans, and determine the extent to which having a second CT scan provides more prognostic information than only one scan. 92 patients (13.3% of the total population) died soon after injury. Of the 587 who survived long enough to have at least one control CT scan 23.6% developed new diffuse brain swelling, and 20.9% new focal mass lesions most of which had to be evacuated. The relative risk for requiring a delayed operation as related to the diagnostic category established by using the initial CT scans was by decreasing order: diffuse injury IV (30.7%), diffuse injury III (30.5%), non evacuated mass (20%), evacuated mass (20.2%), diffuse injury II (12.1%), and diffuse injury I (8.6%). Overall, 51.2% of the patients developed significant CT changes (for worse or better) occurring either spontaneously or following surgery, and their final outcomes were more closely related to the control than to the initial CT diagnoses. In fact, the final outcome was more accurately predicted by using the control CT scans (81.2% of the cases) than by using the initial CT scans (71.5% of the cases only). Since the majority of relevant CT changes developed within 48 hours after injury a pathological categorization made by using an early control CT scan seems to be most useful for prognostic purposes. Prognosis associated with the CT pathological categories used in the study was similar independently of the moment of the acute posttraumatic period at which diagnoses were made.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Intramedullary metastasis ; computerized tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors describe two cases in which computerized tomography (CT) revealed the presence of cervical intramedullary metastases in the form of increased density areas.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Benign intracranial hypertension ; pseudotumour cerebri ; intracranial arteriovenous malformation ; computerized tomography ; contrast enhancement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A nine-year-old boy, presenting only with signs of increased ICP, underwent computerized tomography. This examination demonstrated no abnormalities in the precontrast scan. Following C. E., it showed scattered areas of blood-like density in both hemispheres, as well as a presumedly abnormal vessel in the left occipital region and dilated vein of Galen, sinus rectus, and tentorial veins. The presumptive diagnosis of left occipital AVM was not confirmed by angiography, which also ruled out obstructions of the intracranial sinuses. The possible mechanism responsible for this atypical CT picture is briefly discussed in the light of pertinent literature. It is suggested that careful consideration should be given to the indications for angiography in similar cases, in the presence of a “hypervascular” aspect of the postcontrast CT scan, particularly if a considerable amount of contrast medium has been used.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Fungal brain abscess ; computerized tomography ; antifungal chemotherapy ; phaeohyphomycosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three cases of brain abscesses caused by Ramichloridium obovoideum are reported. Inspite of adequate antifungal chemotherapy and multiple surgical procedures, all the three patients died of the rupture of a recurrant abscess into the ventricles. Ramichloridium obovoideum was identified as the causative fungus of these brain abscesses. Clinical, histological and mycological features of these cases are described. To our knowledge this is the first time that this fungus is isolated from a brain abscess in Saudi Arabia. The possibility that this life threatening cerebral mycosis may be endemic in this part of the world is considered.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 111 (1991), S. 108-113 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Cystic meningioma ; computerized tomography ; differential diagnosis ; surgical treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Five cases of meningiomas associated with cysts are reported. In a review of the literature the authors stress the importance and difficulty of the preoperative accurate diagnosis and the differential diagnosis from other cystic tumours to avoid misdiagnosis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Real time intraoperative ultrasound imaging ; computerized tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experience with the use of intraoperative ultrasound (US) imaging in over 300 patients are presented in this paper and discussed with special reference to various pathomorphologies as well as their identifiability within the brain/intracranium. In 201 of these patients, the pathomorphological peculiarities in US could be compared with preoperative CT findings. As a general result, all investigated lesions could be identified during intraoperative US investigations with the exception of small aneurysms. Most of the lesions gave at least partly higher echosignals than normal brain tissue, except arachnoid cysts. Size and shape of lesions were comparable in US and CT with the exception of some gliomas; in the latter group, the diffuse image in US was more akin to the situation likely to be found by the surgeon during operation, wheras CT used to give a misleading picture of a more or less clearly delineated tumour. US allowed more accurate differentiation between intratumoural necrosis and cysts than CT: the latter was misleading in many instances. At the present state of development, real time US imaging does not allow a histopathological diagnosis. The ease of handling and the high quality of morphological imaging, however, warrant a number of practical applications in daily neurosurgical practice.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Epidural haematoma ; conservative management ; computerized tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Conservative management of epidural haematoma (EDH) depends on a balance between expansion and resorption rate of the clot. 15 patients with EDH whose CT scans demonstrated a small EDH and were asymptomatic or with minor symptoms or with a delayed diagnosis were treated conservatively. The thickness of haematoma ranged between 4.9–40.8 mm. In two patients, the haematoma extended from the posterior fossa to the supratentorial region. In 7 patients, additional intracranial pathology was detected. None of the patients had neurological deterioration on follow up. The second CT was performed on second day at the earliest, in fourth week at the latest. We conclude that the patients with EDH who are neurologically stable during the first 24 hours after trauma, with small EDH and with minor or no symptoms or signs, might be candidates for conservative management. An absolute precondition for conservative management is close supervision of the patient.
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