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  • Aspergillus  (29)
  • dermatophytes  (19)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Versicolorin A ; hemiacetal ; reductase ; Aspergillus ; versicolorin C ; dihydrosterigmatocystin ; aflatoxin G2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Versicolorin A hemiacetal was converted to versicolorin C in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. The rate of reaction catalyzed by the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction was 0.43 nmol min−1 mg−1 with NADPH as cosubstrate and 0.17 nmol. min−1 mg−1 with NADH at 25°C at pH 7.4. The product from incubation of 17-hdyroxy-16,17-dihydrosterigmatocystin with the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction and NADPH was a polar compound which was converted to dihydrosterigmatocystin by 0.4 M HCl. The olar comound is proposed to be the 14,17-hydrated open-chain derivative of dihydrosterigmatocystin. Aflatoxin G2a was also reduced in this system to a polar product tentatively identified as the 13,16-hydrated open-chain derivative of AFG2. The reductase activity may be involved in the formation of reduced intermediates and aflatoxins in cultures ofA. parasiticus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1985/87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M.fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Asymptomatic sites ; dermatophytes ; tinea cruris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty patients clinically suspected of tinea cruris were studied by collecting skin scrapings from the site of their lesions and six clinically normal sites including the thighs, scrotum, crural clefts, natal cleft and the web between their 4th and 5th toes. Dermatophytes were detected in scrapings in 46 (77%) and by culture in 36 (60%) patients from lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was isolated from 32 and Epidermophyton floccosum from 4 patients. Dermatophytes were also isolated with maximum isolation from the scrotum, crural clefts and the natal cleft in that order. Thus, when tinea cruris is treated with topical antifungal agents they should be applied also to the potential carriage sites to prevent recurrence.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alternaria ; Aspergillus ; cytotoxicity ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The predominant fungi present in samples of reject and retail red kidney beans were Aspergillus glaucus, Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. Together with A. ochraceus, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma, these isolates from the reject beans were screened for numerous mycotoxins by TLC. The most consistently produced mycotoxins were penicillic acid (from A. ochraceus and Penicillium spp.) and Alternaria toxins (tenuazonic acid and alternariol). A. glaucus strains were tested for cytotoxicity in three tissue culture cell lines with positive results.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of the hair in 285 sheep from the West Bank of Jordan was analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value for different fungal species found were calculated. Ninenty six species which belong to 36 genera were isolated. Forty one of these species were either well-known agents of animal and human mycoses (Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum nanum, M. canis, and others), or have been isolated from human and animal lesions (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium tropicum, Acremonium kiliense, Aphanoascus fulvuscens, Aspergillus versicolor, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and others). These pathogenic fungi comprised 75.4% of all fungi recovered from the hair of sheep. This animal seems to represent an adequate reservoir for several dermatophytes and several potentially pathogenic fungi.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; Chitin ; Fusarium ; Mosquito ; mycopathogens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract During a short survey of soil and mosquito breeding sites in Lucknow, India for potential mycopathogen from a period of August–October 1996, 11 species of fungi in 5 genera were isolated using live mosquito larvae as host. Aspergillus flavus , A. fumigatus and Fusarium semitectum were the most frequently isolated species. Other fungi recorded were A. niger , A. ochraceus , A. terreus , A. versicolor , Geotrichum candidum , Penicillium verrucosum , Paecilomyces sp. and Fusarium sp. (Liseola/Elegans complex). Insect cell walls are known to contain chitin, so fungal isolates were tested for their chitinase activity on semi synthetic medium containing colloidal chitin. High chitinolytic activities were observed with A. flavus and A. ochraceus. Chitinase producers can be considered as potential pathogens. However, the higher incidence of F. semitectum could not be explained by inability to utilize chitin.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; antifungal ; Aspergillus ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil is presumed to be a major source of inoculum for Aspergillus flavus which contaminates cottonseed and produces the potent carcinogen, aflatoxin. Little is known about the mycoflora of the low desert soils of cotton fields where aflatoxin is a chronic problem. In this study, soils from cotton fields in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California were assayed for filamentous fungi. Forty-two taxa, predominantly in the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, were isolated. To determine whether or not compounds produced by these fungi could be potential inhibitors of A. flavus, extracts of strains of each taxon were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of A. flavus. Twelve taxa produced compounds inhibitory to A. flavus, including several strains of Fusarium solani, Penicillium vinaceum and Aspergillus auricomus.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: biodegradation ; dermatophytes ; dermatophytoses ; keratinophilic fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pattern of incidence of keratinophilic fungi inhabiting the soil of 30 primary schools and 15 public parks in the city of Madras was studied using hair baiting technique. A total number of 31 species belonging to 15 genera were recovered, 16 of which were common to both the school and public park soil. Dermatophytes and closely related species were represented by 9 species, of which the following were the most commonly found species in soil: Chrysosporium tropicum (62.2%), C. keratinophilum (48.8%), M. gypseum (48.8%), C. pannorum (40%), T. mentagrophytes (37.7%), T. terrestre (31.1%) and C. anam. A. cuniculi (24.4%). The fungi encountered have also been discussed in relation to their global distribution.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Mycopathologia 60 (1977), S. 99-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis ; serology ; Absidia ; Aspergillus ; Candida ; Rhizopus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sera from 35 apparently normal humans, 37 compromised human patients, 30 hedgehogs and 30 sheep, were examined for precipitating antibodies to four opportunistic fungi — Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Rhizopus arrhizus — using Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Precipitins to A. fumigatus were almost exclusively confined to specimens obtained from the compromised human group (51% of those examined) while Candida precipitating antibodies were detected in the sera of both normal (26%) and compromised (49%) humans and in 10% of the hedgehog specimens. Serum precipitins against the two phycomycetes included in the investigations were rare. Because of the complexity of most fungal antigen extracts, it appears essential that sera be tested against a number of different antigen concentrations if CIE is to be used with confidence in fungal serology.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; soil ; Western Australia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 from towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6 %) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7 %) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed byMicrosporum cookei (21.7 %) and thenTrichophyton ajelloi (8.0 %). No other dermatophytes were recovered.Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1 % of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5 % of the soil samples.
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