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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1985/87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M.fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Asymptomatic sites ; dermatophytes ; tinea cruris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty patients clinically suspected of tinea cruris were studied by collecting skin scrapings from the site of their lesions and six clinically normal sites including the thighs, scrotum, crural clefts, natal cleft and the web between their 4th and 5th toes. Dermatophytes were detected in scrapings in 46 (77%) and by culture in 36 (60%) patients from lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was isolated from 32 and Epidermophyton floccosum from 4 patients. Dermatophytes were also isolated with maximum isolation from the scrotum, crural clefts and the natal cleft in that order. Thus, when tinea cruris is treated with topical antifungal agents they should be applied also to the potential carriage sites to prevent recurrence.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of the hair in 285 sheep from the West Bank of Jordan was analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value for different fungal species found were calculated. Ninenty six species which belong to 36 genera were isolated. Forty one of these species were either well-known agents of animal and human mycoses (Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum nanum, M. canis, and others), or have been isolated from human and animal lesions (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium tropicum, Acremonium kiliense, Aphanoascus fulvuscens, Aspergillus versicolor, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and others). These pathogenic fungi comprised 75.4% of all fungi recovered from the hair of sheep. This animal seems to represent an adequate reservoir for several dermatophytes and several potentially pathogenic fungi.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: biodegradation ; dermatophytes ; dermatophytoses ; keratinophilic fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pattern of incidence of keratinophilic fungi inhabiting the soil of 30 primary schools and 15 public parks in the city of Madras was studied using hair baiting technique. A total number of 31 species belonging to 15 genera were recovered, 16 of which were common to both the school and public park soil. Dermatophytes and closely related species were represented by 9 species, of which the following were the most commonly found species in soil: Chrysosporium tropicum (62.2%), C. keratinophilum (48.8%), M. gypseum (48.8%), C. pannorum (40%), T. mentagrophytes (37.7%), T. terrestre (31.1%) and C. anam. A. cuniculi (24.4%). The fungi encountered have also been discussed in relation to their global distribution.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; soil ; Western Australia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 from towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6 %) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7 %) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed byMicrosporum cookei (21.7 %) and thenTrichophyton ajelloi (8.0 %). No other dermatophytes were recovered.Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1 % of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5 % of the soil samples.
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  • 6
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    Springer
    Mycopathologia 93 (1986), S. 61-63 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal activity ; algae ; dermatophytes ; pathogenic yeasts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antifungal activity of 15 mediterranean algae species on some dermatophyte strains (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and Torulopsis glabrata) has been tested following a modification of Aubert's technique. Among the algae species studied, Falkenbergia rufolanosa is the most active in front of all the fungi tested.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1982/84
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1982 to 1984 in the United States. The survey included 59 locations with data from 49 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 46.8%, T. tonsurans 33.3%, T. mentagrophytes 10.1%, Microsporum canis 4.5%, Epidermophyton floccosum 3,5%, M. gypseum and T. verrucosum both 0.7%, M. audouinii and T. terrestre both 0.1%, and T. violaceum 0.06%. No isolations of M. ferrugineum or T. schoenleinii were reported. Temporal increases were observed for frequencies of T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans and M. canis, and decreases occurred for frequencies of E. floccosum and T. rubrum when the data from this survey were compared by the goodness of fit test to data of the 1979 to 1981 survey. The percent of dermatophyte isolations identified as T. tonsurans correlated significantly with the percentage of blacks in cities of 100000 or more people.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Hendersonula ; Scytalidium ; azoles ; dermatophytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The in vitro activity of seven azole compounds viz clotrimozole, isoconazole, bifanazole, fluconazole oxyconazole, Bay n 7133 and Bay L 9139 was investigated against 47 clinical isolates of pathogenic non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and dermatophytic fungi. The isolates included Hendersonula toruloidea-26, Scytalidium hyalinium-5, Scytalidium japonicum-1, Trichophyton rubrum-5, Trichophyton tonsurans-3, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes-4, Epidemophyton floccosum-2, Microporum gypseum-2 isolates. The drugs were significantly more active against the dermatophytes (MIC range 0.025–1.56 μg/ml) than non-dermatophytes (MIC range 0.39–6.25 μg/ml). Isoconazole showed more activity than the rest of the azole compound tested. Clotrimazole, fluconazole, oxyconazole, bifonazole were comparable in their inhibitory activity against both dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes. The azole derivatives, Bay n 7133 and Bay L 9139 showed higher MIC range i.e. gave a range of 0.39–1.56 μg/ml for dermatophytes and 1.56–6.25 μg/ml for non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of all the drugs tested were mostly within 2–8 times their MIC values.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; cows ; donkeys ; rabbits ; cats ; dogs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of hair of 111 cows, donkeys, rabbits, cats, and dogs were analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value of the different fungal species isolated were calculated. Total numbers of species 56, 45, 48, 23, and 11 were recovered from cows, donkeys, rabbits, cats, and dogs respectively. The majority of the keratinophilic fungi isolated were either well-known mycotic agents or have been recovered from various animal and human lesions. These comprised 87.8%, 66.7%, 61.4%, 59.3%, and 55.2% of the hair mycoflora in cats, dogs, rabbis, cows, and donkeys respectively. Seven species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, Microsporum gypseum, M. nanum, T. ajelloi, and M. canis. Cats harboured the largest number of dermatophytes (5 species), followed by cows (4 spp), rabbits (3 spp), and donkeys and dogs (1 sp). The role of these animals in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic fungi is discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: cycloheximide-resistant fungi ; dermatophytes ; keratinophilic fungi ; pathogenic and potentially pathogenic fungi ; polluted habitats ; wastewater irrigation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of raw city wastewater irrigation on biodiversity and population densities of a cycloheximide-resistant (CH) fungal community was studied in 13 field soils receiving either raw city wastewater or normal irrigation, and in raw city wastewater in the Nablus area, using the hair baiting technique (HBT) and a surface soil dilution plating (SSDP) technique. Three of these fields [one had been receiving raw city wastewater for more than ten years and was designated a heavily polluted field, and the other 2 were cultivated for the first time and were either irrigated with raw city wastewater (newly polluted field) or normal irrigation water (nonpolluted)], were sampled 4–7 times over a 9-month period. The other ten fields, which had been under raw city wastewater irrigation for more than 10 years, were sampled only once. Fifty-seven CH-resistant species belonging to 18 genera were recovered, of which 49 species were recovered from soil habitats and 28 species from raw city wastewater. The HBT had shown to be more efficient in the isolation of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic fungi including dermatophytes. A higher percentage of this group of fungi was recovered from the three main field soils studied using HBT (70% of all isolates), than the SSDP (35.5%); no dermatophytes were recovered by the SSDP method. Two dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton ajelloi), and five more fungi (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, and C. pannorum), were recovered from these habitats. Wastewater irrigation seemed to have affected the fungal population densities, with the highest population densities being found in the heavily polluted field soil, while lower population densities were found in the nonpolluted field soil. Increases in organic matter were also observed as a result of sewage effluent irrigation. However, basic similarities in the biodiversity of CH-resistant fungal communities existed in nonpolluted and polluted field soils, and raw city wastewater. Comparable numbers of fungal species were recovered from the three main field soils. The species most commonly found in those habitats included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, Geotrichum candidum, and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Field soils receiving either raw city wastewater or normal irrigation water, were found to be rich in pathogenic and potentially pathogenic CH-resistant fungi, including dermatophytes, with raw city wastewater yielding the highest percentage (81%), followed by the newly wastewater irrigated field (77.7%), the nonpolluted field (67%), and the heavily polluted field (63.4%). Hygienic measures should therefore be taken to control the spread of these fungi in the environment of human communities, and to avoid mycotic infections among farmers.
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