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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: Transducer model ; layered nonlinear function ; image restoration ; eddy current
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We describe in this short paper a new imaging model for the spatial magnitude response of an absolute eddy current transducer to a flaw. This model is appropriate for image restoration purposes in that it captures the transducer response with sufficient accuracy for image restoration, yet is simple enough to be computationally practical. The model described in this paper is based on a simple resistive loop approximation to the transducer impedance changes induced by a flaw, and is efficiently implemented as layers of linear blurring functions and nonlinear point operations. The model is shown to accurately reflect the magnitude response of an absolute transducer to an EDM slot in a non-ferrous alloy. Furthermore, the model is shown to produce good restoration results for both synthetic and real images of flaws. The model may be adapted to a particular combination of absolute transducer and surface flaw type by optimizing the model parameters, either by forming the partial derivatives with respect to the parameters and minimizing by gradient descent, or by a straightforward implementation of a neural net back-propagation algorithm. Other types of eddy current transducers may be modeled by simply modifying the spatial layers to combine the local terms appropriately for the geometry of the transducer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: eddy current ; ferromagnetic resonance ; fatigue crack ; stress intensity factor ; crack opening ; displacement ; closure stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A general theory of eddy current flaw response, appropriate to both standard low frequency and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) probes, is developed for simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional open and closed surface flaw geometries. This analysis, based on the assumption of a uniform interrogating field applied to the flaw by the probe, shows that flaw opening responses increase with the operating frequency of the probe. Experimental results using both types of probe confirm this result for realistic practical geometries, where variations of crack mouth opening displacement under load provide useful information about crack dimensions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: remote field ; eddy current ; magnetic saturation ; stress corrosion cracking ; finite element calculations ; skin depth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique is of potential interest for inspecting pipelines for stress corrosion cracking. Magnetic saturation techniques would allow higher operating frequencies and scanning speeds to be used. The use of selectively-saturated regions (windows) near the exciter and detector offers additional advantages. Finite element, analytic, and experimental measurements are presented in this paper. They show that, while saturation techniques are helpful, the effects are less than initially estimated from simple skin depth approximations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: eddy current ; impedance ; liftoff ; conductivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The change in complex impedance between an ideal one-turn circular coil located above and parallel to a conducting half space with respect to a similar isolated coil has been calculated. From this result, a series expansion of the integrand allows the solution to be approximated by terms expressed as complete elliptic integrals. Results have been calculated for the change in impedance as a function of the liftoff distance and the conductivity of the half space for a coil of representative radius.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: eddy current ; impedance ; lift-off ; flaw ; NDE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The problem of detection and characterization of a flaw in a conducting half-space using an eddy-current coil oriented parallel to the interface is examined. An expression is derived for a first order approximation for the change in complex impedance due to a flaw located within the conducting medium. The overall impedance is a function of the radius and lift-off distance of the test coil and the conductivity of the material. An analytical expression is derived for the change in impedance as a function of the electric fields at the position of the flaw. It is found to be an integral over the volume of the flaw of the electric fields found with and without the flaw being present. The limiting case of a degenerate point flaw may be examined in greater detail by allowing the field in the presence of the flaw to be approximated by the unperturbed field. For flaws small enough that the field does not vary much over its volume, the field may be even further approximated by using just the value of the field at the position of the centroid of the flaw. Plots are shown to illustrate the behavior of the change in impedance as a function of the radial range of the flaw and the depth of the flaw centroid, using previously derived expressions for the fields for the unflawed case.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: finite element modeling ; eddy current ; absolute probe ; steam generator tubing ; NDE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Finite element analysis techniques are applied to the problem of predicting signals from an absolute eddy current probe in the tube sheet region of a PWR steam generator for the purpose of optimizing the probe coil geometry and determining the feasibility of using such a probe to characterize the condition of the tube and tube sheet crevice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: eddy current ; theoretical models ; computer analysis ; NDE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Available theoretical models for predicting defect responses in eddy-current NDE apply only to defects of spheroidal shape. In this paper, the boundary-element integral-equation approach is extended to allow for defects of more irregular shape. Sample results for cylindrical and conical voids are presented and discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: Photoinductive imaging ; eddy current ; corner crack
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We applied a laser-excited eddy current (EC) imaging technique, or so-called photoinductive (PI) imaging, to characterize corner cracks at the edge of a bolt hole. Crack images with excellent signal-to-noise-ratios were obtained. The PI signals revealed the geometrical shape of the electrical-discharge-machined (EDM) notches that were either triangular or rectangular. The results show that this technique is promising to characterize the length, as well as possibly the depth and shape, of corner cracks. In this paper we present measurement results of 0.25-mm, 0.50-mm, and 0.75-mm rectangular and triangular EDM notches. We also show measurement results of a very small notch (〈0.25 mm) which would be difficult to detect with conventional eddy current techniques. The dependencies of PI signals on laser chopping frequencies and eddy current frequencies are also examined. To demonstrate the photoinductive imaging capabilities to image actual cracks, we display images of fatigue cracks grown in a Ti-6Al-4V hole specimen. Finally, we present comparisons of the photoinductive imaging results with usual eddy current images obtained from a 0.75-mm triangular EDM notch using a rotating bolt-hole scanner. This article intends to verify experimentally that the photoinductive imaging technique has a potential to become a useful nondestructive testing method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: ac potential difference ; eddy current ; fatigue crack measurement ; skin effect equation ; large skin depth ; NDE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract This paper considers the solution of the skin-effect or Helmholtz equation, ∇2ψ=k 2ψ, for the two-dimensional flow of a uniform alternating current perturbed by a plane crack of uniform depth. Herek is the ratio of crack depthd to skin depth δ. When the skin depth is large compared with the crack depth andk f 0, the quasi-static approach to this problem ignores the terms on the right-hand side and constructs solutions from Laplace's equation which are essentially dc solutions and are correct to orderk. In this paper we consider behavior near the limit when the skin depth is large and give solutions which are correct to orderk 2. In an example we relate the results to the interpretation of readings from an ac potential difference instrument applied to the measurement of surface-breaking cracks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: NDE ; inspection systems ; reliability ; probability of detection ; computer simulation ; eddy current ; ultrasonics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract CANDU pressurized heavy water reactors contain several hundred horizontally-mounted zirconium alloy pressure tubes. Following a pressure tube failure, a pressure tube inspection system called CIGARette was rapidly designed, manufactured and put in operation. Defects called hydride blisters were found to be the cause of the failure, and were detected using a combination of eddy current and ultrasonic scans. A number of improvements were made to CIGARette during the inspection period. The ORCHID computer program models the operation of the delivery system, eddy current and ultrasonic systems by imitating the on-reactor decision-making procedure. ORCHID predicts that during the early stage of development, less than one blistered tube in three would be detected, while less than one in two would be detected in the middle development stage. However, ORCHID predicts that during the late development stage, probability of detection will be over 90%, primarily due to the inclusion of axial ultrasonic scans (a procedural modification). Rotational and axial slip could severely reduce probability of detection. Comparison of CIGARette's inspection data with ORCHID's predictions indicate that the latter are compatible with the actual inspection results, though the numbers are small and data uncertain. It should be emphasized that the CIGARette system has been essentially replaced with the much more reliable CIGAR system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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