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  • fibronectin  (15)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: fibronectin ; tumors ; surgical implantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fibronectins are a family of glycoproteins with modular functional domains. They mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions which are important in embryogenesis, wound healing, metastasis and other processes. We present data on the influence of fibronectin on wound implantation of a murine mammary carcinoma line, TA3Ha. Fibronectin used in these studies was derived from bovine plasma, human serum, human foreskin fibroblasts, and mouse embryo cultures. TA3Ha cells rarely form tumors in the liver of syngeneic mice when injected intravenously but after hepatic wedge resection, 45% (107/240) of the mice develop tumors in the hepatic wound. Wound implantation is markedly reduced when the cells are pre-exposed to 200 µg/ml bovine plasma fibronectin (13%, P = 0.007), human serum fibronectin (0%, P = 0.02), human cellular fibronectin (0%, P = 0.02), or mouse cellular fibronectin (0%, P = 0.04). Lung colonization is also reduced by these fibronectins. These effects are not due to a cytotoxic action of fibronectin, since intraperitoneally injected fibronectin-treated cells form ascites tumor as effectively as do control untreated cells. Local application of a solution containing 0.25 mg/ml mouse cellular fibronectin to the hepatic wound reduces the frequency of tumor implantation from 45% to 5% (1/21, P = 0.001). No tumor implantation inhibition is seen when only suspending medium or albumin in suspending medium is used. The mechanism by which topical application of fibronectin reduces hepatic wound implantation of tumor cells is unclear, but this finding raises an exciting possibility of preventing local recurrence of cancer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: adhesion ; fibronectin ; laminin ; metastasis ; oxidative stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have postulated that murine mammary tumor progression is fueled, in part, by tumor-associated macrophages that deliver sub-lethal oxidative stress to tumor cells. In the present study, we determined whether oxidative stress would affect murine mammary tumor cell attachment to laminin and fibronectin, critical functions in the metastatic process. Sublethal oxidative stress generated by exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1–1000 μM/L) inhibited tumor cell attachment to immobilized laminin or fibronectin. This oxidant effect was blocked in the presence of catalase which removes H2O2. The inhibitory effect on attachment was rapid, with significant inhibition occurring at 5 min; total inhibition was achieved at 60 min with 1 mM H2O2. The oxidative stress effect was partially reversible at 20 h post-treatment and occurred at concentrations of H2O2 that do not adversely affect cell viability or growth. Pretreatment of tumor cells with H2O2 or hypoxanthanine and xanthine oxidase (to generate superoxide radical and H2O2) prior to intravenous injection, enhanced experimental lung tumor colony formation. The enhancement of experimental metastatic potential with enzyme-generated oxidative stress was completely reversed by catalase; the H2O2-mediated enhancement was only partially reversed with catalase. Thus, treatments that inhibit tumor cell attachment to extracellular matrix proteins in vitro enhance experimental metastasis in vivo.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: fibronectin ; RGD peptide ; subendothelial matrix ; transglutaminase inhibitor ; tumor cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An isolated perfused vessel model was used to examine the mechanisms underlying the adhesive interactions between circulating tumor cells and subendothelial matrix in denuded arterioles. Arterioles ranging from 70 to 100mm in diameter were isolated from rat mesentery, transferred to an isolated vessel chamber, cannulated on both ends with glass micropipettes, and perfused with media containing 106 hamster melanoma (RPMI 1856) cells/ml. In a second group of arterioles, the endothelium was denuded by running 2ml of air through the vessel lumen. Since the tumor cells did not adhere to the vessel wall when perfused at physiologically relevant shear rates, perfusate flow was stopped and the tumor cells were allowed to settle onto the vessel wall for 20 min. After counting the number of tumor cells that settled onto the arteriolar wall, perfusate flow was re-initiated and unattached cells were washed away. The number of cells remaining adherent were counted and the percentage of adherent cells (relative to the total number of cells that settled on to the vessel wall during the period of no-flow) were calculated and compared among different groups. We observed that tumor cells are much more adhesive to denuded arterioles than to intact arterioles. To determine the mechanisms responsible for the adhesive interactions that become established and stabilized during the period of flow reduction, denuded arterioles were treated with fibronectin antiserum or Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. Both treatments significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion to denuded arterioles. In subsequent studies, melanoma cells were treated with a transglutaminase inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine (MDC), which reduced the ability of adherent tumor cells to withstand the anti-adhesive effects of a subsequent increase in perfusate flow rate after the period of no-flow. Our data suggest that tumor cells adhere to fibronectin in the subendothelial matrix in denuded arterioles by an RGD-dependent mechanism. Moreover, our observations are consistent with the concept that a transglutaminase-catalysed reaction acts to stabilize the adhesive interactions between subendothelial matrix components and melanoma cells during the period of flow stasis such that the cells are able to withstand subsequent substantial increases in wall shear rate and remain adherent.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: chemotaxis ; colon cancer ; fibronectin ; metastasis ; tumorigenicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract CT 26 murine colon carcinoma cells demonstrated directional migration (chemotaxis) in response to fibronectin (FN). Sub-lines were derived by positive and negative selection to FN across Transwell filters of 8 mm pore size. The FL6 sub-line (positively selected) demonstrated a significantly increased chemotactic response (P 〈 0.01) to FN compared with parental CT 26 cells, while the FU7 sub-line (negatively selected) showed a reduced chemotactic response to FN (P 〈 0.01). Comparable levels of a4, a5, av and b1 integrins, which mediate FN attachment, were expressed on positively and negatively selected sub-lines and parental CT 26 cells. Activation of integrins with Mn 2+ suggested that the integrins expressed on FL6 cells were in the fully activated state; in contrast FU7 cells displayed only partially activated integrins. Cell attachment and integrin activation status of the sub-lines correlated with their chemotactic response to FN. In vivo FL6 cells showed a significantly reduced tumour growth rate s.c. and a reduction in the number of lung colonies formed following i.v. injection compared with parental CT 26 and FU7 cells. In contrast FU7 cells displayed a sig-nificant increase in s.c. tumour growth and the number of lung colonies when compared with the parental line and FL6 sub-line. The results indicate that interaction between integrin receptors expressed on cancer cells and FN plays a central role in the chemotactic response of CT 26 colon carcinoma cells, and that in this model cells selected for chemotaxis to FN displayed a reduced malignant potential.© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: fibronectin ; fibronectin receptor ; malignant glioma ; invasion ; cell migration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to clarify the role of fibronectin in glioma invasion in vivo, we analyzed the relationship between fibronectin-stimulated cell migration and adhesion in 14 primary glioma cells and the expression of fibronectin and the fibronectin receptor in the corresponding tumor tissues. The tumors comprised nine glioblastomas (GB) and five anaplastic gliomas (AG) consisting of two astrocytomas, two oligoastrocytomas and one ependymoma. All glioma cells tested in the primary cell culture were found to migrate to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. The extent of cell migration to fibronectin was not significantly different for the GB and AG groups. On the other hand, cell adhesion to fibronectin in the AG was much stronger than that in the GB group. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that fibronectin positively stained in the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in eight cases and that the fibronectin receptor was positive in tumor cell membranes in 10 cases. In addition, cellular fibronectin isoforms containing ED-A and ED-B sequences were found to be immunolocalized in the tumor cells and the ECM of GB. These isoforms were also specifically expressed in tumor vessels within tumor tissues, but not in those within normal brain tissues. Cell migration tended to be expressed more strongly by glioma cells derived from tumor tissues in which fibronectin was posi-tively immunolocalized in the ECM than from tissues with negative fibronectin in the ECM. Four glioma cells derived from GB whose tumor cells did not positively stain for fibronectin receptors migrated much less extensively to fibronectin than other glioma cells whose tissues showed positive staining for the fibronectin receptor. Of these four GB, two had loss of heterozygosity in the locus of fibronectin receptor b1 gene. These results suggest that fibronectin deposited in the extracellular matrix of tumors, which can be derived from both plasma and the tumor cell itself, strongly promotes the migration of glioma cells, and that expression of the fibronectin receptor may play a critical role in the biological behavior of the tumor cells, particularly in fibronectin-stimulated cell migration in vivo.© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: fibronectin ; K-ras oncogene ; metastasis ; tumorigenicity ; type I collagen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A clone of NIH3T3 transformant (H3) can yield subcutaneous tumors and experimental pulmonary metastasis in nude mice. Compared to H3 in culture, the cells after in vivo tumor growth (H3-N) acquired enhanced tumorigenicity and metastatic ability. Also, indirect immunofluorescence revealed that cellular fibronectin (c-FN) of H3-N was decreased remarkably. We have studied the interactions between H3 and extracellular matrices to elucidate these phenomena. In the present study, we observed the effect of NIH3T3, H3, and H3-N cultured in type I collagen gel. Morphologically in the collagen gel, NIH3T3 assumed an extensive elongated fiber-like shape, H3 assumed a moderately elongated shape, and H3-N assumed a round or spindle shape with short pseudopodia. Compared to conventional cultures on dishes, cell proliferation of all three types was suppressed in collagen gel, but the degree of the suppression was least in H3-N. As a result, H3-N grew fastest in collagen gel. The variants which acquired growth advantage in the subcutaneum of mice also kept it in collagen gel. H3 cells were cultured in type I collagen gel for 4 weeks, a period comparable to that of tumor formation in nude mice. The cells after this long-term culture (H3-C) acquired enhanced tumorigenicity and metastatic ability nearly equal to that of H3-N. FACS analysis revealed that the c-FN of H3-C had decreased to a value comparable to that of H3-N. This means that type I collagen gel as well as subcutaneous tissues could select variants of H3 with less c-FN through proliferation. Moreover, it is suspected that lattices of type I collagen regulate cell proliferation of fibroblast via c-FN.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: cadherins ; cancer ; Copenhagen rat ; fibronectin ; integrins ; prostate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared the levels of mRNA transcripts encoding E-cadherin, N-cadherin,Β 1 integrin subunit,α 5 integrin subunit and fibronectin in the normal rat prostate gland, as well as in tumors derived from three invasive sublines (G, MatLyLu, AT-2) of the Dunning R-3227 rat prostatic adenocarcinoma. E-cadherin mRNA transcripts were only detectable in total RNA extracts prepared from normal rat prostates, whereas N-cadherin mRNA transcripts were only found in normal rat brains. In contrast, the mRNA transcripts encoding theΒ 1 integrin subunit,α 5 integrin subunit and fibronectin were all elevated in the tumors, as compared to the levels of these transcripts in normal tissues. Our results suggest that there is an inverse correlation between cadherin and integrin mRNA levels in rat prostatic tumors.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: adhesion ; chemokinesis ; fibronectin ; glioma invasion ; motility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to investigate the biological role of fibronectin in glioma cell invasion, we studied the relation between migratory responses or adhesiveness of glioma cells to fibronectin and the in vitro invasion in three human malignant glioma cell lines, A172, T98G and U373MG. All these cell lines chemotactically migrated in a dose-dependent manner to fibronectin in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 10 µg/ml, with A172 cells showing the strongest migration and U373 cells the weakest. Checkerboard analyses demonstrated that A172 and T98G cells showed much stronger chemokinetic responses to fibronectin than U373MG cells. In contrast to the migratory responses, A172 and U373MG cells showed an almost equally high adhesion to fibronectin and T98G cells a low adhesion. The degree of expression of the integrin α5 subunit correlated well with the strength of glioma cell adhesion to fibronectin rather than that of migration to the molecule. Furthermore, the cell adhesion to fibronectin was almost completely inhibited by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptides, but the fibronectin-stimulated cell migration was only partially inhibited. An in vitro invasion assay disclosed that U373MG cells invaded the artificial basement membrane barrier the most and A172 cells the least. However, addition of fibronectin to the glioma cells markedly enhanced the invasive activity of A172 and T98G cells but had little effect on that of U373MG cells. These results indicate that fibronectin-stimulated migration can be one of the factors promoting invasiveness of glioma cells and that the chemokinetic activity of fibronectin may play a crucial role in glioma invasion through conferring motor-driving force on the glioma cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: alternative splicing ; fibronectin ; focal adhesion ; focal adhesion kinase ; tyrosine phosphorylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Balb/c 3T3 cell adhesion on substrata coated with fibronectin's (FN) alternatively-spliced EDb, implicated in some tumor cell systems, and its neighboring type III repeats (III7 and III8) induced intracellular signaling coincident with morphological responses. These events were analysed using minigene-expressed proteins containing various permutations of type III repeats of FN. Cells adherent to the tri-repeat protein 7-EDb-8 were compared to those attached to the tri-repeat 8-9-10 which can interact with integrins through RGD and its synergistic sequences. Cell adhesion to 7-EDb-8 generated rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several intra-cellular proteins (particularly the complex at 120-130 kD), with the overall phosphorylation level and its sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors similar to responses on the 8-9-10 tri-repeat. This similarity contrasted with the differential morphological responses of cells mediated by these proteins. Further analysis of the kinetics of pho sphorylation through immunoblotting of two focal adhesion proteins, p125FAK and p130cas, revealed a profile for Balb/c 3T3 adhesion to 7-EDb-8 distinct from that on 8-9-10. EDb mono-repeat was also more potent for inducing both limited cell spreading and FAK tyrosine phosphorylation than its neigh-boring repeats III7 or III8. Examination of cellular localization of FAK and vinculin showed that cells spread on the 7-EDb-8 substratum displayed vinculin-positive focal complex-like structures at the cell periphery, in contrast to the classical focal adhesions seen in 8-9-10-adherent cells. These results suggest that EDb induces cell signaling events, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins, through a mechanism different from that mediated by integrins recognizing sequences in III8-9-10. EDb-dependent signaling may have special significance in some tumor systems. © Rapid Science 1998
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: fibronectin ; invasion ; MAPK ; matrix metalloproteinase ; ovarian cancer cells ; PI-3 kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix appears to trigger a cascade of intracellular signalings. We have previously shown that treatment of ovarian cancer cells, NOM1, with fibronectin (FN) stimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion and thereby activated the invasiveness of cells via the FAK/Ras signaling pathway. By use of chemical inhibitors, we investigated the downstream effectors critical for FN-dependent secretion of MMP-9. Treatment of cells with MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, dramatically suppressed the secretion of MMP-9 activated by FN. Similarly, PI-3 kinase inhibitors, Wortmannin and LY294002, strongly suppressed the FN-dependent secretion of MMP-9 together with the inhibition of Akt activation. In contrast, a specific PKC inhibitor (GF109203X) showed no inhibitory effect on the FN-dependent MMP-9 secretion. Moreover, we found that both the MEK1 inhibitor and the PI3-K inhibitor, but not the PKC inhibitor, strongly suppressed the invasiveness of NOM1 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of dual signaling pathways, MEK1-MAPK and PI3K-Akt, is required for the FN-dependent activation of MMP-9 secretion. Our results suggest the importance of these signaling molecules as a chemotherapeutic target for cancer.
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