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  • Candida albicans  (20)
  • fungi  (9)
  • dermatophytes
  • 1990-1994  (33)
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Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 111 (1990), S. 55-59 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; dried-fish ; fungi ; salt-preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of dried-salted fish from markets in Kandy, Sri Lanka was studied with emphasis on visibly spoiled dried fish. A total of 61 fungal isolates from 25 dried-fish were isolated and identified. The most prevalent fungus wasAspergillus niger. Species ofAspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. restrictus, Aureobasidium spp.Basipetospora halophila (a genuinely halophilic fungus)Cladosporium herbarum, Gliomastix, spp.,Penicillium chalybeum andPenicillium expansum were present. The isolated fungi did not grow in synthetic media containing more than 30% sodium chloride.Aureobasidium spp. andGliomastix spp. did not grow on dried-fish under laboratory conditions. The protective exoskeleton appeared to prevent fungal growth on dried shrimp. TheA. flavus strains isolated were not aflatoxigenic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; ammonium ; physiology ; medium ; growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans strain B 311-10 with and without starvation was cultivated in the minimal synthetic medium of Shepherd et al. [18], modified without biotin, aminoacids, low glucose concentration [20] and with decreasing amounts of (NH4)2SO4, to determine the optimal growth requirement for this strain. All the experiments were carried out under sterile conditions at 25 °C in a thermostat with initial O.D.s (675 nm) of 0.500 and 0.100. Cell growth was generally monitored everyday for six days with a spectrophotometer by determining the absorbance of the cultures at 675 nm. All the experiments were repeated three times and a statistical analysis of the data with a probability of 99% and 1% of error was performed to confirm the validity of the results. Best growth was obtained with starved cells at an initial O.D. of 0.100 and with a 0.1 g/L concentration of (NH4)2SO4. At this concentration, the growth of C. albicans B 311-10 was best between the first and the fourth day with the maximum at the third day. With (NH4)2SO4 concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 g/L, cell growth was the same.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1985/87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M.fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; adenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate ; cyclic AMP ; yeast-mycelium transition ; dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition in Candida albicans was induced by exogenous yeast extract, adenosine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 3′∶5′ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and its analogue N6, O2′-dibutyryl adenosine 3′∶5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) in defined liquid medium at 25°C. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was found to delay germ tube formation in yeast cells, whereas the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, theophylline and caffeine, induced a Y-M transition. Intracellular and extracellular cyclic AMP levels increased during the yeast-mycelium transition and maximum levels of intracellular cyclic AMP coincided with maximum germ tube formation. Of the many inducers and inhibitors of germ tube and mycelium formation in C. albicans tested, including incubation at 37°C or in the presence of 1.5mM CaCl2, the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (R24571) added together with CaCl2 induced the highest intra- and extracellular cyclic AMP levels. These results confirm the involvement of cyclic AMP in the yeast-mycelium transition of C. albicans.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 118 (1992), S. 103-107 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Soil ; fungi ; truffle ; Tirmania nivea ; T. pinoyi ; Terfezia boudieri ; T. claveryi ; Helianthemum lippi ; Saudi Arabia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil fungi of areas in the North-Eastern region of Saudi Arabia where truffles are native were surveyed. Forty-three species of fungi belonging to twenty genera were isolated. Most were recovered from soils underneath or around truffle ascocarps: thirty species from soil under the surface of Tirmania nivea ascocarps, twenty-four from Terfezia boudieri soil and twenty species each from Tirmania pinoyi and Terfezia claveryi soils. Rhizosphere soil of Helianthemum lippi, on the other hand, yielded twenty-four fungal species while only fourteen fungal species were found in soil without vegetation. The total counts of fungi/g soil were highest in soils from the under surface of truffles, followed by rhizosphere soil, with the lowest in soils without vegetation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal azoles ; Antifungal drug antagonism ; Candida albicans ; Imidazoles ; Miconazole ; Triazoles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Asymptomatic sites ; dermatophytes ; tinea cruris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty patients clinically suspected of tinea cruris were studied by collecting skin scrapings from the site of their lesions and six clinically normal sites including the thighs, scrotum, crural clefts, natal cleft and the web between their 4th and 5th toes. Dermatophytes were detected in scrapings in 46 (77%) and by culture in 36 (60%) patients from lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was isolated from 32 and Epidermophyton floccosum from 4 patients. Dermatophytes were also isolated with maximum isolation from the scrotum, crural clefts and the natal cleft in that order. Thus, when tinea cruris is treated with topical antifungal agents they should be applied also to the potential carriage sites to prevent recurrence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: mixed poultry feeds ; fungi ; Aspergillus flavus ; aflatoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey was carried out in Reunion island to obtain data on the occurrence of fungi, aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxins, total aerobic bacteria and salmonellae of 150 samples of mixed poultry feeds and raw materials. These were collected at five farms over a 3-month period during the warm rainy season. White corn and Brazilian soybean meal seemed to present a better microbiological quality than yellow corn and US soybean meal. Mixed poultry feeds presented a high total mold count reflecting the mold flora of raw materials. The most frequent and abundant fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. glaucus group, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., A. candidus, Mucor spp., A. restrictus, Scopulariopsis spp., Cladosporium spp. and A. versicolor. Of the 118 A. flavus strains screened, 42 (35.6%) were aflatoxigenic. Yellow corn samples were the most frequently contamined with aflatoxigenic strains (54.5%), followed by mixed feeds (44%). Of the 66 samples tested, 24 (36%) contained aflatoxins (traces to 22 ng/g). A good correlation seemed to exist between presence of at least one aflatoxigenic strain per sample and presence of aflatoxins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 110 (1990), S. 63-76 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Caffeine ; Candida albicans ; mitotic recombination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Caffeine at concentrations of 0.5 × 10−2 M or higher inhibited cell replication and induced gene segregations in Candida albicans cultured on defined complete medium. Both responses increased incrementally with increasing caffeine concentrations, and were more severe during incubation at 37 °C than 25 °C; at 37 °C, caffeine levels above 1.5 × 10−2 M caused cellular inactivation. Caffeine effects occurred only under conditions permitting cell growth, and their magnitudes were greater for unbudded than budding cells, were influenced by cellular genetic backgrounds, and were unaffected by the presence of adenine in the medium. Evaluations of segregations for recessive auxotrophic markers of a four member linkage group carried heterozygously in a cis arrangement in treated cells established that induced segregants arise through either reciprocal or nonreciprocal recombinations. The frequency distributions of classes of reciprocal and nonreciprocal recombinants for these markers conformed with those previously obtained following induction by ultraviolet radiation, indicating that the probabilities of recombinational events within the chromosomal regions defined by the markers are not biased by the differences in kinds of initial DNA lesions caused by the two recombinagens. A panel of four protoplast fusion hybrids considered deficient for DNA repair because of enhanced susceptibilities to UV induced cellular inactivation and mitotic recombination exhibited corresponding increased sensitivities to caffeine, signifying that DNA damage induced by caffeine is subject to repair. Caffeine did not affect behavior of a variant strain exhibiting high frequency phenotypic switching between minute smooth and large rough colonial forms, and no evidence for mutagenicity of the drug was obtained with systems for detection of forward or reverse mutations. The mechanism of caffeine's recombinagenicity, and the implications of that property for genetic studies of C. albicans are discussed.
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