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  • fungi  (29)
  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  (25)
  • Aflatoxin  (22)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 111 (1990), S. 55-59 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; dried-fish ; fungi ; salt-preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of dried-salted fish from markets in Kandy, Sri Lanka was studied with emphasis on visibly spoiled dried fish. A total of 61 fungal isolates from 25 dried-fish were isolated and identified. The most prevalent fungus wasAspergillus niger. Species ofAspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. restrictus, Aureobasidium spp.Basipetospora halophila (a genuinely halophilic fungus)Cladosporium herbarum, Gliomastix, spp.,Penicillium chalybeum andPenicillium expansum were present. The isolated fungi did not grow in synthetic media containing more than 30% sodium chloride.Aureobasidium spp. andGliomastix spp. did not grow on dried-fish under laboratory conditions. The protective exoskeleton appeared to prevent fungal growth on dried shrimp. TheA. flavus strains isolated were not aflatoxigenic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alterations in pathogenicity ; in vitro growth ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; reisolation ; subcultivation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thein vitro subcultivation of some microorganisms for long periods causes measurable loss of their pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from infected hosts. We compared the pathogenicity and thein vitro growth pattern of oneP. brasiliensis isolate (Pb 18) in its yeast phase, using the following samples: 1) The original pathogenic Pb 18 (OP). 2) Pb 18 attenuated by continuousin vitro subcultivation (AT). 3) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from susceptible B 10.A mice (RS). 4) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from resistant A/SN mice (RR). Pathogenicity was evaluated by anatomopathology and mortality of mice infected i.p. with 5×106 fungi. Median survival times of mice infected with OP ranged from 74 to 117 days during the first 51 months of subculturing; with more cycles of subculturing the median survival time increased, reaching 250 days at the 64th month. This indicated decreasing virulence of OP during this period of subculturing. Survival of mice infected with RS and RR was respectively 112 and 123 days, which is similar to the behavior of the OP variant. Thein vitro growth curve profile of RR showed significantly higher numbers of total and viable yeasts than the other studied variant. These results show that: 1) Pb 18 isolate loses its pathogenicity by continuous subcultivation. This phenomenon is reverted by reisolation from mice, independently from their susceptibility to the fungus; 2) thein vitro growth patterns of Pb 18 do not correlate with alterations in pathogenicity but are influenced by the host's environment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycelial conidia ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The conidia produced by the mycelial form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Several different conidial types were characterized. These included intercalary arthroconidia, several types of septate conidia that are formed from other conidia, pedunculate conidia, and terminal hyphal conidia. In addition, the ultrastructure of the supporting pedestal of the pedunculate conidium was found to be separated from the mother conidium by a septum in some instances, and at other times it was not.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 118 (1992), S. 103-107 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Soil ; fungi ; truffle ; Tirmania nivea ; T. pinoyi ; Terfezia boudieri ; T. claveryi ; Helianthemum lippi ; Saudi Arabia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil fungi of areas in the North-Eastern region of Saudi Arabia where truffles are native were surveyed. Forty-three species of fungi belonging to twenty genera were isolated. Most were recovered from soils underneath or around truffle ascocarps: thirty species from soil under the surface of Tirmania nivea ascocarps, twenty-four from Terfezia boudieri soil and twenty species each from Tirmania pinoyi and Terfezia claveryi soils. Rhizosphere soil of Helianthemum lippi, on the other hand, yielded twenty-four fungal species while only fourteen fungal species were found in soil without vegetation. The total counts of fungi/g soil were highest in soils from the under surface of truffles, followed by rhizosphere soil, with the lowest in soils without vegetation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Breast milk ; Ochratoxin A ; Sierra Leone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast milks from 113 mothers in two ‘Under-Five Clinics’ in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone, namely, Njala and Bo, were examined for their mycotoxin content. Only 10 were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight per cent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin A (OTA). Few samples (15%) had a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six (32%) had two mycotoxins and 50 (40%) had three or more. The occurrence of OTA in combination with various aflatoxins was recorded. It is concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to OTA and aflatoxins at levels which in some cases far exceed those permissible in animal feed in developed countries.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophyte ; drug resistance ; fungi ; griseofulvin resistance ; tioconazole resistance ; Trichophyton rubrum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The in vitro susceptibility of three clinicalTrichophyton rubrum isolates to griseofulvin and tioconazole, determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), was 2 and 0.5 to 1.0μg/ml, respectively. One mutant (gril) obtained after mutagenic treatment of one of these isolates was selected and showed simultaneous resistance to griseofulvin (MIC 〉 2000μg/ml) and tioconazole (MIC=1.0μg/ml). The clinical importance and the possibility of a multidrug resistance (MDR)-type mechanism being involved in this event is discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brain ; Aflatoxin ; Children ; Nigeria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autopsy brain (cerebrum) specimens from 18 kwashiorkor children and 19 children who had died from a variety of other diseases, at the Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in 81%, 15 specimens in each group. More than one type of aflatoxin was detected in 14 (37.8%) of all the specimens. Aflatoxin B1 and its reversible metabolite, aflatoxicol, were detected in 11 brain specimens of patients with kwashiorkor and 6 of those who died of other miscellaneous diseases; out of these 6, two died from measles and its complications. The frequent detection of aflatoxins in the brains of these children and sometimes in multiple forms may suggest that aflatoxins are stored in the brain tissue which could be related to the lipophilic nature of these compounds. These findings also suggest that although many children in the tropics are exposed to aflatoxins, the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxicol in the brains of kwashiorkor children may be a result of an impaired metabolism of these compounds by these children.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; Paracoccidioidomycosis ; fungal antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the occurrence of antigenic and biochemical variability among Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen batches prepared according to the same protocol. Initially (experiment #1), we analyzed two antigen lots of two human isolates (Bt1 & Bt2), cultured in two media (PYG: bactopeptone, yeast extract, glucose; MMM: McVeigh & Morton medium) in SDS-PAGE and in two immunological tests (imunodiffusion-ID and footpad swelling test-FPT). Afterwards (experiment #2), we compared the antigenic profile of three antigen batches from three human isolates (Bt1, Bt2 & Bt3) by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis (2 D-IEP) against a reference system for P. brasiliensis antigens. In experiment #1, there were important intra- and inter-strain antigenic differences between batches of the fungal isolates cultured on both media. The block titration of the antigen batches for the immunological tests revealed correlation between protein concentration and biological activity in ID and no correlation in FPT. In experiment #2, the reference system for P. brasiliensis showed 26 antigen peaks. There were important differences between batches prepared from the same isolate and between batches from different isolates. Our data suggested the occurrence of instability in the synthesis of antigenic components by a same P. brasiliensis isolate, under controlled incubation conditions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brazil ; dimorphic fungi ; ecology ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared the antigenic characteristics of two thermo-dependent dimorphic fungi isolated from soil in Botucatu, an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The soil isolates grew as cerebriform colonies at 37 °C (yeast form) and as cottonous colonies at 25 °C (mycelial form). No pathogenicity for ddY mice or hamsters were observed. In immunodiffusion test, there were precipitation bands between the 2 soil isolates and pooled PCM patient sera. There were also common precipitation bands at 21, 50 and 58 kDa between the soil isolates antigens and PCM patient sera by Western-blotting, but no gp43 kDa band. No gene for gp 43 kDa protein was detected in the soil isolates by PCR. The fact that these isolates were obtained from an endemic area of PCM and there were some antigenic similarities between the soil isolates and P. brasiliensis in immunodiffusion test and Western-blotting may have some importance in epidemiological surveys done with paracoccidioidin as well interfering with the immune response of the exposed population.
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