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  • Candida albicans  (70)
  • fungi  (29)
  • dermatophytes  (19)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: lung ; macrophage ; neutrophil ; Candida albicans ; cyclophosphamide ; cortisone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortisone (CA) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) treatment of mice was used to investigate the relative contributions of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and inflammatory neutrophils (PMN) in the initial defense against intratracheal challenge (IT) with Candida albicans. Mice treated with either CA or Cy were susceptible to IT challenge with 10–100 x less C. albicans than were untreated mice. Untreated mice rapidly eliminated C. albicans from their lungs with the majority of the organisms being cleared within three hours of challenge. Mice treated with CA initially cleared some of the C. albicans but were unable to clear all the C. albicans as did the untreated mice. Mice treated with Cy were unable to clear C. albicans from their lungs. Candida albicans did not disseminate from the lungs of untreated mice, while in both of the treated groups, C. albicans disseminated to the liver, spleen, brain and kidneys, rapidly killing the treated hosts. Analysis of the changes in cells in lung lavage fluids collected at various times after C. albicans challenge, revealed that large numbers of PMN accumulated in the lungs of both untreated and CA-treated mice, whereas PMN were virtually undetectable in lavage fluids from Cy-treated mice. Resident PAM from untreated mice were able to kill approximately 70 % of 105 C. albicans in a 3 hr in vitro killing assay. By contrast, at similar effector: target ratios, resident PAM from Cy-treated mice killed only about 20% of the inoculum and resident PAM from CA-treated mice were unable to kill C. albicans. PMNs from both untreated and CA-treated mice killed approximately 70% of 105 C. albicans in vitro. The data indicates that both PAM and PMN were critical to the initial clearance of C. albicans from pulmonary tissue. The accumulation of PMN in the lungs appeared to be required for the complete clearance of C. albicans from the lungs yet was not sufficient to inhibit dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs in CA-treated mice. The presence of PAM with in vitro candidacidal abilities appeared to be required for both the clearance of C. albicans and inhibition of dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs. Compromise of either PAM or PMN function can lead to increased pulmonary susceptibility to C. albicans.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 108 (1989), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidiasis ; clotrimazole ; fluconazole ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of human mucosal surfaces. Colonization of oral and vaginal mucosa by this yeast is antagonized by the resident normal bacterial population. However, antibacterial therapy can alter the normal flora to allow fungal cells to attach, grow and invade host tissues. We studied the antimicrobic activity of fluconazole against clinical isolates of oral and vaginal bacteria and Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; we also compared the bactericidal activity of fluconazole with clotrimazole in vitro by microbiologie assay. Fluconazole lysed fungi but did not change the ultrastructure of bacteria. Clotrimazole, but not fluconazole, was bactericidal against lactobacillus and streptococcus, the principal species of the oral and vaginal cavities. We conclude that Candida albicans, but not oral and vaginal bacteria, is susceptible to fluconazole. These observations help explain the antimycotic specificity of fluconazole and its efficacy against candidiasis in humans.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; yeast-mycelium transition ; calcium ; calmodulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition of Candida albicans (3153A) was induced by 1.5 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O in defined liquid medium, pH 7, at 25 °C. Germ tube formation was detected after approximately 8 h and peaks of maximum germination occurred at approximately 20 h in all experimental treatments. Non-toxic concentrations of the calmodulin inhibitor R24571 almost completely suppressed germ tube formation whereas trifluoperazine (TFP) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were only about half as effective. Further Ca2+ addition failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of R24571 and induced only about 10% of the cells inhibited by TFP or A23187 to germinate.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 111 (1990), S. 55-59 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; dried-fish ; fungi ; salt-preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of dried-salted fish from markets in Kandy, Sri Lanka was studied with emphasis on visibly spoiled dried fish. A total of 61 fungal isolates from 25 dried-fish were isolated and identified. The most prevalent fungus wasAspergillus niger. Species ofAspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. restrictus, Aureobasidium spp.Basipetospora halophila (a genuinely halophilic fungus)Cladosporium herbarum, Gliomastix, spp.,Penicillium chalybeum andPenicillium expansum were present. The isolated fungi did not grow in synthetic media containing more than 30% sodium chloride.Aureobasidium spp. andGliomastix spp. did not grow on dried-fish under laboratory conditions. The protective exoskeleton appeared to prevent fungal growth on dried shrimp. TheA. flavus strains isolated were not aflatoxigenic.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; ammonium ; physiology ; medium ; growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans strain B 311-10 with and without starvation was cultivated in the minimal synthetic medium of Shepherd et al. [18], modified without biotin, aminoacids, low glucose concentration [20] and with decreasing amounts of (NH4)2SO4, to determine the optimal growth requirement for this strain. All the experiments were carried out under sterile conditions at 25 °C in a thermostat with initial O.D.s (675 nm) of 0.500 and 0.100. Cell growth was generally monitored everyday for six days with a spectrophotometer by determining the absorbance of the cultures at 675 nm. All the experiments were repeated three times and a statistical analysis of the data with a probability of 99% and 1% of error was performed to confirm the validity of the results. Best growth was obtained with starved cells at an initial O.D. of 0.100 and with a 0.1 g/L concentration of (NH4)2SO4. At this concentration, the growth of C. albicans B 311-10 was best between the first and the fourth day with the maximum at the third day. With (NH4)2SO4 concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 g/L, cell growth was the same.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1985/87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M.fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; adenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate ; cyclic AMP ; yeast-mycelium transition ; dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition in Candida albicans was induced by exogenous yeast extract, adenosine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 3′∶5′ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and its analogue N6, O2′-dibutyryl adenosine 3′∶5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) in defined liquid medium at 25°C. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was found to delay germ tube formation in yeast cells, whereas the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, theophylline and caffeine, induced a Y-M transition. Intracellular and extracellular cyclic AMP levels increased during the yeast-mycelium transition and maximum levels of intracellular cyclic AMP coincided with maximum germ tube formation. Of the many inducers and inhibitors of germ tube and mycelium formation in C. albicans tested, including incubation at 37°C or in the presence of 1.5mM CaCl2, the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (R24571) added together with CaCl2 induced the highest intra- and extracellular cyclic AMP levels. These results confirm the involvement of cyclic AMP in the yeast-mycelium transition of C. albicans.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 118 (1992), S. 103-107 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Soil ; fungi ; truffle ; Tirmania nivea ; T. pinoyi ; Terfezia boudieri ; T. claveryi ; Helianthemum lippi ; Saudi Arabia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil fungi of areas in the North-Eastern region of Saudi Arabia where truffles are native were surveyed. Forty-three species of fungi belonging to twenty genera were isolated. Most were recovered from soils underneath or around truffle ascocarps: thirty species from soil under the surface of Tirmania nivea ascocarps, twenty-four from Terfezia boudieri soil and twenty species each from Tirmania pinoyi and Terfezia claveryi soils. Rhizosphere soil of Helianthemum lippi, on the other hand, yielded twenty-four fungal species while only fourteen fungal species were found in soil without vegetation. The total counts of fungi/g soil were highest in soils from the under surface of truffles, followed by rhizosphere soil, with the lowest in soils without vegetation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal azoles ; Antifungal drug antagonism ; Candida albicans ; Imidazoles ; Miconazole ; Triazoles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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