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  • Candida albicans  (70)
  • mycotoxin  (25)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: lung ; macrophage ; neutrophil ; Candida albicans ; cyclophosphamide ; cortisone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortisone (CA) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) treatment of mice was used to investigate the relative contributions of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and inflammatory neutrophils (PMN) in the initial defense against intratracheal challenge (IT) with Candida albicans. Mice treated with either CA or Cy were susceptible to IT challenge with 10–100 x less C. albicans than were untreated mice. Untreated mice rapidly eliminated C. albicans from their lungs with the majority of the organisms being cleared within three hours of challenge. Mice treated with CA initially cleared some of the C. albicans but were unable to clear all the C. albicans as did the untreated mice. Mice treated with Cy were unable to clear C. albicans from their lungs. Candida albicans did not disseminate from the lungs of untreated mice, while in both of the treated groups, C. albicans disseminated to the liver, spleen, brain and kidneys, rapidly killing the treated hosts. Analysis of the changes in cells in lung lavage fluids collected at various times after C. albicans challenge, revealed that large numbers of PMN accumulated in the lungs of both untreated and CA-treated mice, whereas PMN were virtually undetectable in lavage fluids from Cy-treated mice. Resident PAM from untreated mice were able to kill approximately 70 % of 105 C. albicans in a 3 hr in vitro killing assay. By contrast, at similar effector: target ratios, resident PAM from Cy-treated mice killed only about 20% of the inoculum and resident PAM from CA-treated mice were unable to kill C. albicans. PMNs from both untreated and CA-treated mice killed approximately 70% of 105 C. albicans in vitro. The data indicates that both PAM and PMN were critical to the initial clearance of C. albicans from pulmonary tissue. The accumulation of PMN in the lungs appeared to be required for the complete clearance of C. albicans from the lungs yet was not sufficient to inhibit dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs in CA-treated mice. The presence of PAM with in vitro candidacidal abilities appeared to be required for both the clearance of C. albicans and inhibition of dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs. Compromise of either PAM or PMN function can lead to increased pulmonary susceptibility to C. albicans.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: cell wall extract ; trichothecene ; mycotoxin ; host-parasite interaction ; Cucumis melo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Addition of fruit cell wall extracts from two muskmelon cultivars into liquid media affected mycotoxin production by a strain of Myrothecium roridum pathogenic to muskmelon. Cell wall extracts from a susceptible cultivar (‘Iroquois’) significantly increased toxin production while cell wall extracts from a resistant cultivar (‘Hales Best’) significantly inhibited toxin production. Media containing 0.1 or 1.0 mg ml−1 stimulated toxin production more than media containing 10 or 100 mg ml−1 of cell wall extracts. Previous studies in our laboratory suggest that roridin E may be involved in virulence or pathogenicity of M. roridum; the present study indicates that cell wall polysaccharides as well as other materials present in cell wall preparations from susceptible host tissue provide a better substrate for toxin production than cell wall preparation from resistant host tissue.
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  • 3
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    Springer
    Mycopathologia 108 (1989), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidiasis ; clotrimazole ; fluconazole ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of human mucosal surfaces. Colonization of oral and vaginal mucosa by this yeast is antagonized by the resident normal bacterial population. However, antibacterial therapy can alter the normal flora to allow fungal cells to attach, grow and invade host tissues. We studied the antimicrobic activity of fluconazole against clinical isolates of oral and vaginal bacteria and Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; we also compared the bactericidal activity of fluconazole with clotrimazole in vitro by microbiologie assay. Fluconazole lysed fungi but did not change the ultrastructure of bacteria. Clotrimazole, but not fluconazole, was bactericidal against lactobacillus and streptococcus, the principal species of the oral and vaginal cavities. We conclude that Candida albicans, but not oral and vaginal bacteria, is susceptible to fluconazole. These observations help explain the antimycotic specificity of fluconazole and its efficacy against candidiasis in humans.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; yeast-mycelium transition ; calcium ; calmodulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition of Candida albicans (3153A) was induced by 1.5 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O in defined liquid medium, pH 7, at 25 °C. Germ tube formation was detected after approximately 8 h and peaks of maximum germination occurred at approximately 20 h in all experimental treatments. Non-toxic concentrations of the calmodulin inhibitor R24571 almost completely suppressed germ tube formation whereas trifluoperazine (TFP) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were only about half as effective. Further Ca2+ addition failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of R24571 and induced only about 10% of the cells inhibited by TFP or A23187 to germinate.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Emestrin ; mycotoxin ; mycotoxicosis ; Emericella striata ; mouse liver ; mouse lymphoid tissue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of emestrin (EMS), a secondary metabolite of the Emericella species, on male ICR mice were examined. The intraperitoneal LD50 values of EMS were 17.7 and 13.0 mg/kg at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. The target organs of EMS were the heart, liver and thymus. In doses over 30 mg/kg the experimental animals died from cardiac failure shortly after the injections. Several survivors that were given EMS in doses under 20 mg/kg showed severe centrilobular necrosis in the liver at 24 hr. Marked degeneration of mitochondria was seen in electron micrographs of both cardiac muscle cells and hepatocytes. In the degenerated hepatocytes, prominent proliferation of RER, membrane-limited inclusions containing both ribosome-like granules and RER, and fenestrated lamella-like structures were observed. Massive necrosis of lymphocytes was always observed in the cortical layer of the thymus of the survivors within 24 hr, while bilateral adrenalectomized mice showed no discernible pathomorphological changes in the lymphoid tissues. Pretreatment of mice with diethyl maleate increased the incidence and severity of hepatic necrosis, whereas that with either cysteine or CoCl2 reduced the severity of centrilobular necrosis of the liver. Pretreatment with phenobarbital had no significant effect on EMS-induced hepatic lesions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium ; trichothecene ; cytotoxicity ; bioassay ; mycotoxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-six trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides (MC-72083) and Fusarium sambucinum were screened for relative cytotoxicity in cultured baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. The relative cytotoxicity was measured as LC100. The most cytotoxic trichothecenes were T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml) and the recently isolated 4-propanoyl HT-2 (5 ng/ml) and 3′-hydroxy T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml). T-2 tetraol (1 × 104 ng/ml), 8-β-hydroxytrichothecene (1 × 104 ng/ml), sporotrichiol (2 × 104 ng/ml), 8-oxodiacetoxyscirpenol (6 × 104 ng/ml) and 8-acetyl T-2 tetraol (1 × 105 ng/ml) were the least toxic of the regular trichothecenes. None of the modified trichothecenes or the apotrichothecene were very cytotoxic: 8-β-hydroxysambucoin (2 × 103 ng/ml), FS-1 (5 × 103 ng/ml), 8-α-hydroxysambucoin (8 × 104 ng/ml) and trichotriol (1 × 105 ng/ml). The modified trichothecenes, FS-2 and FS-3, were not toxic even at 1 × 105 ng/ml. The baby hamster kidney cell bioassay proved to be a very sensitive and reproducible means of screening new trichothecene mycotoxins for relative cytotoxicity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; ammonium ; physiology ; medium ; growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans strain B 311-10 with and without starvation was cultivated in the minimal synthetic medium of Shepherd et al. [18], modified without biotin, aminoacids, low glucose concentration [20] and with decreasing amounts of (NH4)2SO4, to determine the optimal growth requirement for this strain. All the experiments were carried out under sterile conditions at 25 °C in a thermostat with initial O.D.s (675 nm) of 0.500 and 0.100. Cell growth was generally monitored everyday for six days with a spectrophotometer by determining the absorbance of the cultures at 675 nm. All the experiments were repeated three times and a statistical analysis of the data with a probability of 99% and 1% of error was performed to confirm the validity of the results. Best growth was obtained with starved cells at an initial O.D. of 0.100 and with a 0.1 g/L concentration of (NH4)2SO4. At this concentration, the growth of C. albicans B 311-10 was best between the first and the fourth day with the maximum at the third day. With (NH4)2SO4 concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 g/L, cell growth was the same.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antibiotic ; dothistromin ; haemolysis ; mycotoxin ; phototoxicity ; phytotoxicity ; tautomers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The toxicity of the fungal phytotoxin dothistromin (l) to microorganisms, its lysis of human red blood corpuscles and beetroot tissue, and its unexpectedly selective inhibition of radicle elongation for Trigonella foenum-graecum were strongly light-dependent. Dothistromin was also toxic to Artemia salina but without requiring light activation. It was not active as a wilt or necrosis toxin, possible because of its ready adsorption onto external plant tissue.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; adenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate ; cyclic AMP ; yeast-mycelium transition ; dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition in Candida albicans was induced by exogenous yeast extract, adenosine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 3′∶5′ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and its analogue N6, O2′-dibutyryl adenosine 3′∶5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) in defined liquid medium at 25°C. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was found to delay germ tube formation in yeast cells, whereas the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, theophylline and caffeine, induced a Y-M transition. Intracellular and extracellular cyclic AMP levels increased during the yeast-mycelium transition and maximum levels of intracellular cyclic AMP coincided with maximum germ tube formation. Of the many inducers and inhibitors of germ tube and mycelium formation in C. albicans tested, including incubation at 37°C or in the presence of 1.5mM CaCl2, the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (R24571) added together with CaCl2 induced the highest intra- and extracellular cyclic AMP levels. These results confirm the involvement of cyclic AMP in the yeast-mycelium transition of C. albicans.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal azoles ; Antifungal drug antagonism ; Candida albicans ; Imidazoles ; Miconazole ; Triazoles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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