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  • organogenesis  (131)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: vegetative multiplication ; sugarbeet ; in vitro culture ; organogenesis ; Beta vulgaris
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In vitro vegetative multiplication of sugarbeet was obtained by culturing of inflorescence explants. Subapical segments or 5-mm-long tips from nine varieties developed axillary shoots (up to 50 per tip) on a medium containing indolebutyric acid (IBA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP). Zeatin was ineffective as cytokinin. Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhanced the process. Such vegetative shoots were subsequently isolated and were each allowed to develop up to 20 supplementary axillary shoots on a multiplication medium containing IBA, BAP, and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooting of shoots was obtained in the absence of growth regulators and plants were established.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: naranjilla ; organogenesis ; Solanum candidum ; Solanum quitoense ; Solanum sessiliflorum ; tissue culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Adventitious shoots and roots were regenerated from leaf segments of 3 Solanum species: S. candidum Lindl., S. quitoense Lam. and S. sessiliflorum Dunal. Leaf explants differentiated shoots on modified MS medium supplemented with 23–163 μM kinetin and 0–5.7 µM indoleacetic acid (IAA). Excised shoots were induced to form roots by transfer to media with benzyladenine (BA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 0.09 and 0.11 µM respectively for S. quitoense and 0.01 µM NAA for S. candidum and S. sessiliflorum. Adventitious roots were produced directly from leaf explants with 0–140 µM kinetin and 0–5.7 µM IAA in combination. Rooted plants were successfully established in the greenhouse.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Vigna radiata ; shoot regeneration ; callus ; organogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The morphogenetic responses of seedling explants of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv ML-5) were studied in vitro. Direct induction of shoots/plants was possible from shoot tip, cotyledon and cotyledonary node explants. Dedifferentiation of the explants viz; Shoot tip, cotyledons, cotyledonary node, primordial leaves and roots was obtained on basal medium supplemented with auxin and cytokinin. Shoot regeneration was limited to primary calli while rhizogenesis was of common occurrence in established calli. In addition to differences in hormonal requirements, the various explants showed preferential growth in different basal media.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Malus domestica ; organogenesis ; tissue culture ; thidiazuron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leaves taken from micropropagated shoots of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were cultured in vitro on Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) medium or the rice anther culture medium of Chu et al. (N6) containing various concentrations of either benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) plus naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Of the TDZ concentrations tested, 10 μM was most effective and it was equivalent to, or better than, 22 μM BA for both the percentage of leaves regenerating shoots and number of shoots formed per regenerating leaf in almost every experiment. Lower concentrations of NAA (1.1 and 5.4 μM) gave best results with both BA and TDZ. N6 medium gave consistently better results than LS. Lowering total salt concentration or total N concentration of LS to that of N6 did not improve the response nor did changing the NO3:NH4 ratio. The 3–4 leaves on the most distal part of the shoot were most responsive and tended to form the most adventitious shoots. Placing the leaf cultures in the dark for the first 2–3 weeks of the culture period produced the best results. Optimum results were obtained by culturing leaves from the distal part of the shoot in the dark for 2 weeks on N6 medium containing 10 μM TDZ and 1.1 or 5.4 μM NAA, then moving the cultures to 16 h daylight at a photon flux of 60 μmol s-1m-2.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Lycopersicon ; callus ; organogenesis ; shoot regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The organogenetic potential from callus of three tomato land races from the Canary Islands adapted to semi-arid environment (‘Salvaje’, ‘Rusa’ and ‘Especial’), and one tomato cultivar (‘Meltine’), were examined. The response of four explant types (cotyledon, shoot apex, hypocotyl and root) to nine PGR regimes (BAP at 1 or 2 or 5 mg/l) + either IAA (0.5 mg/l) or 2,4-D (0.5 or 1 mg/l) were measured. BAP at 5 mg/l+IAA at 0.5 mg/l induced most organogenesis in all the explant types for all genotypes. ‘Salvaje’ has one of the highest organogenetic potentials described in tomato.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum ; ascorbate ; callus cultures ; organogenesis ; shoot formation ; tobacco ; young and old callus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of ascorbic acid on growth and shoot formation in callus cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was investigated, using young (4–12 subcultures) and old (more than 30 subcultures) tissue. It was found that ascorbate, at levels of 4−8×10-4M, enhanced shoot formation in both young and old callus. Treatment with ascorbate also speeded up the shoot-forming process. In addition, ascorbate completely reversed the inhibition of shoot formation by gibberellic acid in young callus, but was less effective in old callus.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Gaillardia ; in vitro regeneration ; organogenesis ; tissue culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Young leaf and internodal stem segments of Gaillardia pulchella, collected from wild species re-established in the greenhouse, were used to initiate callus on Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with NAA (2.0 mgl−1) and BA (0.4 mgl−1). Callus formed after 10 to 14 days in the dark. Cultures were transferred to fresh medium and placed under lighted conditions where shoot formation occurred approximately 14 to 30 days after initiation. Callus sub-cultured at 14 to 21-day intervals continued to produce primordia for several weeks. Flowers were produced by regenerated shoots maintained on MS medium, but roots did not develop until the plantlets were transferred to soil conditions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: callus culture ; mature embryo ; mesocotyl ; organogenesis ; Tritioum aestivum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new, endosperm-supported callus induetion method was developed using mesocotyls of mature wheat embryos. After seed germination under aseptic condition, most of the germ tissues were cut off and only a few mm of the mesocotyl tissue with the scutellum was used for callus induction. The seeds were placed furrow downwards in 2,4-D solution (6–8 mg l-1). Proliferating callus tissues were already observed on the cut surface of the mesocotyls on the 2nd day after inoculation. On the MS nutrient medium, callus formation from the isolated scutella with attached mesocotyls was negligible even after 6 days. For shoot and root regeneration, the calli produced up to 10 days were removed from the seeds and transferred onto a hormone-free MS medium. As shown by histological methods, the plantlets regenerated via organogenesis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: benzyladenine ; explant size ; leaf disc ; organogenesis ; petunia ; timed exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of explant size, configuration, and duration of benzyladenine exposure on shoot organogenesis in Petunia x hybrida ‘Ultra Salmon’ leaf discs was determined. Leaf discs of 13, 10, 8, 5, and 3 mm diameter, and 10 mm with a 5 o4 3 mm hole and 13 mm with an 8 or 5 mm hole were tested. The smallest size and configuration for maximum shoot production and consistency of regeneration was a 10 mm whole disc. This was followed by the 8, 10 with a 3 mm hole, 5, 10 with a 5 mm hole and 3 mm disc respectively. Of all configurations tested, the 13 mm disc and the 13 mm disc with a 5 mm hole produced the most shoots. Exposure of leaf discs to benzyladenine-containing medium for 4 days or less resulted in no shoots being formed. Exposure for 10 days or more induced shoot regeneration on all discs tested. A delay of more than 2 days after excision, before plating on benzyladenine-containing medium, decreased shoot regeneration significantly. The explant configurations tested showed that: the area to cut edge ratio was a good predictor of shoot number for either of the two configurations when considered separately; and there are factors other than area to cut edge ratio involved in relating shoot production to explant configuration and size.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: culture media ; micropropagation ; organogenesis ; southern pines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protocols were developed for the micropropagation of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), loblolly (P. taeda L.) x shortleaf pine hybrids, and Virginia pine (P. virginiana Mill.). For meristematic tissue induction, modified Gresshoff & Doy (GD) medium with a high concentration of benzyladenine (BA) and short pulse treatment was best for loblolly x shortleaf hybrids whereas a lower concentration of BA and longer pulse treatment was best for shortleaf and Virginia pines. Shoot growth rate for all species was generally slower on Schenk & Hildebrandt medium than on GD medium. Addition of activated charcoal improved shoot growth of shortleaf pine but not of Virginia pine or the loblolly x shortleaf hybrids. Separation of shoots was beneficial before placing in the advanced growth medium. Both GD and Litvay's media produced good advanced shoot growth, especially following the addition of 0.5% activated charcoal. Individual shoot heights of 2–3 cm and 8–12 weeks of age after separation from the cluster were best for rooting. Root induction declined rapidly thereafter. Modified GD medium with 0.5 mg 1-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid plus 1.0 mg 1-1 3-indolebutyric acid and 20 g 1-1 sucrose was best for root induction for all species except shortleaf pine. Addition of activated charcoal produced better root systems. Too high a light intensity resulted in a lowered frequency of rooting. A large number of plantlets was produced.
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