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  • seismicity  (19)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 125 (1987), S. 993-1008 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Antarctica ; Erebus Volcano ; seismicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Mount Erebus is presently the only Antarctic volcano with sustained eruptive activity in the past few years. It is located on Ross Island and a convecting anorthoclase phonolite lava lake has occupied the summit crater of Mount Erebus from January 1973 to September 1984. A program to monitor the seismic activity of Mount Erebus named IMESS was started in December 1980 as an international cooperative program among Japan, the United States and New Zealand. A new volcanic episode began on 13 September, 1984 and continued until December. Our main observations from the seismic activity from 1982–1985 are as follows: (1) The average numbers of earthquakes which occurred around Mount Erebus in 1982, 1983 and January–August 1984 were 64, 134 and 146 events per day, respectively. Several earthquake swarms occurred each year. (2) The averag number of earthquakes in 1985 is 23 events per day, with only one earthquake swarm. (3) A remarkable decrease of the background seismicity is recognized before and after the September 1984 activity. (4) Only a few earthquakes were located in the area surrounding Erebus mountain after the September 1984 activity. A magma reservoir is estimated to be located in the southwest area beneath the Erebus summit, based on the hypocenter distributions of earthquakes.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 126 (1988), S. 279-318 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake prediction ; precursory quiescence ; quiescence ; seismicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Precursory seismic quiescence has played a major role in most of the succesful earthquake predictions made to date. In addition to these successes, the number of detailed post-mainshock documentations of precursory quiescence is steadily growing. These facts suggest that precursory quiescence will play an important role in earthquake prediction programs of the future. For this reason it is important to critically evaluate the present state of knowledge concerning this phenomenon. The history of observations of precursory seismic quiescence includes work on seismic gaps and ‘seismic preconditions’ as well as actual studies of temporal quiescence. These papers demonstrated the importance of quantitative evaluation of seismicity rates and the benefits of systematic analysis. During the early 1980's the impact of man-made effects on seismicity rates was demonstrated for the first time. Despite progress in catalog understanding, the identification and correction of man-made seismicity changes remains as the major barrier to earthquake prediction using these data. Effects of man-made changes are apparent in many past studies of seismicity patterns, making the results difficult to evaluate. Recent experience with real-time anomalies has demonstrated the necessity of determining the false alarm rates associated with quiescence precursors. Determination of false alarm rates depends on quantitative definitions of anomalies and statistical evaluations of their significance. A number of successful predictions, which have been made on the basis of seismic quiescence, provide important lessons for present and future work. There are many presently unanswered questions regarding seismic quiescence which must be answered before we can determine the reliability of this phenomena as a precursor.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Tilt ; strain ; seismicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Tilt and strainmeter data collected in the Friuli seismic area between 1977 and 1985 have been analyzed to study the stress-strain field and/or the elastic parameter variations in the area after the strong 1976 seismic event. We concentrated on three different frequency bands, respectively linked with the tidal waves, the seasonal effect and the secular one. The results from the first two bands point at an increase of the local rigidity modulus. Relevant stresses induced by the seasonal groundwater level variations have been found, thus supporting the hypothesis that they can act as triggering effects. The secular trend reveals significant tectonic stress modifications. It appears that the post-seismic tectonic stresses faded during 1981–1983, and were followed by a new loading phase.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Microearthquakes ; mine-induced seismicity ; seismicity ; Virginia coal mines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Microearthquake activity (impulsive, transient seismic events, with durations up to several seconds at a distance of 500 m, that exhibit a coda with a shift toward lower frequencies with increasing time) was monitored for a three-month period by a single seismograph sited directly above an undergound longwall mine in the coal-mining region of Buchanan County, Virginia, U.S.A. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if precursory increases in microseismicity prior to cavings (subsidence) of overburden in the mine were present and, if so, could they be detected by surface seismographic observations. The first two recording weeks were prior to the beginning of coal removal operations at the monitored mine. A comparision of the “before” and “after” levels of microearthquake occurrence indicated a sevenfold increase to about seven seismic events/hour that was attendant with the development of the time over the level of the background, non-coal-mining period seismicity. A total of over 15,000 microearthquakes were recorded during the monitoring period, most of which occurred during the actual coal-mining operations. The workday rate exceeded 30 seismic events/hour in contrast with the non-workday rate of about seven such events/hour. Rock and coal fracturing ahead of the mine plow are believed to be the primary cause of the majority of these very small seismic events. Cavings and rockbursts (violent eruptions that propel rock debris into the mine) also contributed to the total seismic activity. It appears that cavings, some of which were large enough to be felt on ground surface, are the primary source of the non-plowing related seismicity as larger free surface areas are opened underground. Any seismic activity premonitory to cavings, however, was effectively masked by the high workday rate. Thus, the use of surface seismic monitoring, in an attempt to document any increases of localized seismicity precursory to cavings, failed in this instance. The exact location of the mine and the survey dates are not given in this paper at the request of the mine operator.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquakes ; aftershocks ; spatial distribution ; central California ; seismicity ; patterns
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We examine the spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in four central California areas: the aftershock zones of the (1) 1984 Morgan Hill (2) 1979 Coyote Lake, and (3) 1983 Coalinga earthquakes, as well as (4) the aseismically creeping area around Hollister. The basic tool we use to analyze these data are frequency distributions of interevent distances between earthquakes. These distributions are evaluated on the basis of their deviation from what would be expected if earthquakes occurred randomly in the study areas. We find that both background seismic activity and aftershocks in the study areas exhibit nonrandom spatial distribution. Two major spatial patterns, clustering at small distances and anomalies at larger distances, are observed depending on tectonic setting. While both patterns are seen in the strike-slip environments along the Calaveras fault (Morgan Hill, Coyote Lake, and Hollister), aftershocks of the Coalinga event (a thrust earthquake) seem to be characterized by clustering only. The spatial distribution of earthquakes in areas gradually decreasing in size does not seem to support the hypothesis of a self-similar distribution over the range of scales studied here, regardless of tectonic setting. Spatial distributions are independent of magnitude for the Coalinga aftershocks, but events in strike-slip environments show increasing clustering with increasing magnitude. Finally, earthquake spatial distributions vary in time showing different patterns before, during, and following the end of aftershock sequences.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Rockburst ; microseismic ; geomechanics ; tomography ; stress cell ; borehole slotter ; extensometer ; seismicity ; anisotropy ; crosshole ; full-waveform ; sill pillar ; source mechanism ; double-couple ; dilution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Located in northern Québec, the Lac Shortt Mine was a small gold mine consisting of a thin subvertical orebody which was mined in three main phases. High stress and rockbursting conditions were experienced when ore was extracted in the upper zone between the surface and a depth of 500 metres during the first two phases of mining. Severe rockbursts were experienced in late 1989 near the shaft and in the footwall development following a deepening of the mine shaft to a depth of 830 m and partial development of footwall drift access for the third phase of mining (the mining of the lower zone starting at a depth of 830 m moving upward toward a depth of 500 m). A 16-channel Electrolab MP250 microseismic system, with a Queen's University Full-Waveform “piggy-back” system, was installed underground at the site due to these problems. It was expected that the thinning sill would be subjected to an ever-increasing load as the thickness of the 500 m sill pillar decreased in the face of the mining excavation from below. A monitoring program consisting of the microseismic monitoring system, a range of conventional geomechanics monitoring tools as well as the undertaking of periodic seismic tomography surveys to assess the ongoing state of stress and rock mass condition within the sill was therefore warranted. The anomalously high-magnitude stress field and the brittle rockmass created a situation in which rockmass failure was common and violent. In the creation and thinning of the sill pillar, the location of banded microseismic activity was crucial in tracing rockmass failure and the associated ground control problems. Reliable source-location determination enabled the identification of areas of stress increase. The movement of the rockmass “failure front” could be followed, and was responsible for stope dilution, footwall and orebody development deterioration, and caving. Source-mechanism analyses gave accurate double-couple solutions for approximately forty percent of these events having at least ten recognizable polarities. Results suggested movement along vertical north-south striking or vertical east-west striking features. Underground observation of damaged access points showed that vertical north-south striking joints were experiencing failure. The microseismic activity, which was consistently concentrated close to the southwest and northeast corners of current production stopes, could be explained by a stress field oriented obliquely to the strike of the orebody, as measured prior to shrinkage of the sill pillar byin situ stress measurements and observed borehole overbreaks. The orientations of theP andT axes for the microseismic activity further confirmed that the stress field oriented obliquely to strike. While an increase in compressional-wave velocity of 2.3 percent, corresponding to a measured stress increase of approximately 10 MPa could be measured by repeated tomographic surveys, it was relatively small and only a factor of two or so above the velocity measured uncertainty. The relative insensitivity of thein situ rock mass modulus to the applied stress is believed to be largely due to the rockmass discontinuities being relatively closed prior to stress increase, as substantiated by the small deformations seen by the extensometer and borehole camera. This situation existed because of the very high pre-mining stress level. The experimental demonstration that the rock could not absorb substantially increased load through the mechanism of discontinuity closure or tightening (which would be reflected in the modulus) may be evidence in itself of potentially burst-prone ground, such as encountered at Lac Shortt.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Stress constraints ; hydrofracturing ; faulting ; seismicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Faulting and seismicity in the upper continental crust require considerable differential stresses. Application of experimentally developed friction, fracture and flow laws shows that high differential stresses can only exist in the uppermost crust. Direct hydraulic fracturing measurements in deep boreholes seem to support this rock mechanics conclusion. The experimental data base presently consists of approximately 500 hydrofrac tests conducted in about 100 boreholes at about 30 different geographical locations. To illustrate the variation of measured stresses with depth, the data are expressed as dimensionless horizontal stresses in the formS H,h/Sv=(α/z)+β, whereS v=ρgz Extrapolation of the experimental data to greater depth shows that the minor horizontal stress approaches the valueS h/Sv=0.5 which limits friction on wet faults, and that the major horizontal stress approaches a value close toS H/Sv=1 at rather shallow depth (5 to 10 km.). This limits faulting and seismicity in most of the upper crust to either strike-slip or normal faults. The lower boundary for seismicity is mainly dependent on tectonic strain accumulation and rock creep at the environmental conditions at depth.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Eurasia-Africa plate boundary ; Mediterranean region ; regional stresses ; seismicity ; focal mechanism ; seismotectonics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The focal mechanism solutions of 83 European earthquakes withM〉6, selected from a total of 140, have been used to derive the directions of the principal axes of stress along the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa from the Azores islands to the Caucasus mountains. Along most of the region, the horizontalP-axes are at an angle of 45° to 90° with the trend of the plate boundary. HorizontalT-axes are concentrated in central Italy and northern Greece in association with normal faulting. Large strike-slip motion of right-lateral character takes place at the center of the Azores-Gibraltar fault and the North Anatolian fault. From Gibraltar to the Caucasus the boundary is complicated by the presence of secondary blocks and zones of extended deformations with earthquakes spread over wide areas. Intermediate and deep earthquakes are present at four areas with arc-like structure, namely, Gibraltar, Sicily-Calabria, Hellenic arc and Carpathians.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Subduction ; slab-tearing ; Kuril ; Honshu ; seismicity ; stress ; focal mechanism ; earthquakes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present a study of the lateral structure and mode of deformation in the transition between the Kuril and Honshu subduction zones. We begin by examining the source characteristics of the January 19, 1969, intermediate depth earthquake north of Hokkaido in the framework of slab-tearing, which for the December 6, 1978 event has been well documented by previous studies. We use a least-squares body wave inversion technique, and find that its focal mechanism is comparable to the 1978 event. To understand the cause of these earthquakes, which in the case of the 1978 event occurred on a vertical tear fault but does not represent “hinge” faulting, we examine the available International Seismological Centre [ISC] hypocenters and Harvard centroid-moment tensor [CMT] solutions to determine the state of stress, and lateral structure and segmentation in the Kuril and northern Honshu slabs. These data are evaluated in the framework of two models. Model (A) requires the subducting slab at the Hokkaido corner to maintain surface area. Model (B) requires slab subduction to be dominated by gravity, with material subducting in the down-dip direction. The distribution of ICS hypocenters shows a gap in deep seismicity down-dip of the Hokkaido corner, supporting model (B). From the CMT data set we find that three types of earthquake focal mechanisms occur. The first (type A) represents dip-slip mechanisms consistent with down-dip tension or compression in the slab in a direction normal to the strike of the trench. These events occur throughout the Honshu and Kuril slabs with focal mechanisms beneath Hokkaido showing NNW plungingP andT axes consistent with the local slab geometry. The second (type B) occurs primarily at depths over 300 km in the southern part of the Kuril slab with a few events in the northern end of the Honshu deep seismicity. These earthquakes have focal mechanisms with P axes oriented roughly E-W, highly oblique to the direction of compression found in the type A events, with which they are spatially interspersed. The third (type C) group of earthquakes are those events which do not fit in either of the first two groups and consist of either strike-slip focal mechanisms, such as the tearing events, or oddly oriented focal mechanisms. Examination of the stress axes orientations for these three types reveals that the compressional axes of the type C events are consistent with those of type B. The slab tearing events are just differential motion reflecting the E-W compressive states of stress which is responsible for the type B family of events. There is no need to invoke down-dip extension which does not fit the slab geometry. We conclude that these two states of stress can be explained as follows: 1) The type A events and the seismicity distribution support model (B). 2) The type B and C events upport model (A). The solution is that the slab subducts according to model (B), but the flow in the mantle maintains a different trajectory, possibly induced by the plate motions, which produces the second state of E-W compressive stress.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Asperity ; earthquake ; fracture mechanics simulation ; seismicity ; characteristic earthquakes ; b-value
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A model has been developed to simulate the statistical and mechanical nature of rupture on a heterogeneous strike-slip fault. The model is based on the progressive failure of circular asperities of varying sizes and strengths along a fault plane subjected to a constant far-field shear displacement rate. The basis of the model is a deformation and stress intensity factory solution for a single circular asperity under a unidirectional shear stress. The individual asperities are unified through the fault stiffness and the far-field stress and displacement. During fault deformation asperities can fail and reheal, resulting in changes in the local stresses in the asperities, stress drops, and changes in the stiffness of the fault. Depending on how the stress is redistributed following asperity failure and on the strenghts of the neighboring asperities an earthquake event can be the failure of one or more asperities. Following an earthquake event seismic source parameters such as the stress drop, energy change, and moment magnitude are calculated. Results from the model show a very realistic pattern of earthquake rupture, with reasonable source parameters, the proper magnitude-frequency behavior, and the development of characteristic earthquakes. Also the progression ofb-values in the model gives some insight into the phenomenon of ‘self-organized criticality.’
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