Betula pendula Roth
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract The goal of this research was to develop a rapid and efficient system for regenerating shoots from leaf explants of European birch, Betula pendula Roth. Single-node stem explants were established in culture, and microshoots were subcultured every 4 weeks through 12 subcultures. Leaves from glasshouse plants or subcultured shoots were excised from stems, cut into approximately 35-mm2 pieces, and placed on Woody Plant Medium (WPM) containing different combinations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0, 3, 6 or 9 μM) and benzyladenine (BA) (0, 7.5, 15 or 22.5 μM) in a 4×4 factorial design. The percentage of leaf pieces forming shoots and the number of shoots regenerated per explant were recorded after 4 weeks. Only media containing BA without NAA stimulated shoot formation on leaf explants. Fifteen micromolar BA induced the most shoots to form on leaf explants compared to 30, 45 or 60 μM of this cytokinin. In addition, shoot regeneration was enhanced up to four-fold between the first and eleventh subculture. Over 90% of the leaf explants regenerated shoots with an average of 18 buds formed per explant for the eleventh subculture. Almost twice as many explants formed shoots if their adaxial side was in contact with the medium rather than oriented away from it. The ability to regenerate shoots from leaves varied among plants, regardless of stock plant age. This reliable shoot regeneration system can be used for rapid shoot proliferation and potentially for genetic engineering of European birch.
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