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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant cell, tissue and organ culture 14 (1988), S. 121-128 
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Dioscorea rotundata ; yam ; sucrose ; germplasm exchange ; propagation ; in vitro tuberization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nodal cuttings of white yam were induced to produce microtubers on a MS-revised medium supplemented with various concentrations of sucrose, 20 mgl−1 L-cysteine, 0.5 mgl−1 kinetin and 0.7% agar. The frequency of tuberization was affected by the daylength, which is optimal at 12 and 16 h of light depending on the sucrose concentration. The microtubers were planted in a seed bed and grown to maturity. The importance of in vitro tuberization of yam as a means of international germplasm distribution or exchange as well as for the propagation of planting material is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: cell division ; Euphorbia characias ; gamma-irradiation ; mass-spectrometry ; oxygen exchange ; sucrose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Gamma-irradiation (250 Gy) applied to photoautotrophic cell suspensions of Euphorbia characias L. in the exponential growth phase led to the arrest of cell division and to a subsequent overaccumulation of sucrose and dry matter. From the fourth day of culture, the chlorophyll content and gross photosynthesis were not depressed by gamma-treatment nor by sugar accumulation. In both cultures, no difference was observed between oxygen uptake in the light at CO2 saturating concentration and in the dark, suggesting that no change in energy-dissipative reactions took place after irradiation. A slight increase in oxygen uptake in both light and dark was observed in irradiated cells during the first four days. However, in the absence of limiting factors, the photosynthetic capacities of the dividing and irradiated non-dividing photoautotrophic cells were identical but higher than that of the non-dividing cells in the stationary growth phase. This suggests that gamma-irradiation arrests cell division by a mechanism different to that occuring in stationary-phase cultures. This may be of value in investigating the metabolism of secondary products.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: in vitro culture ; photosynthesis ; Rosa multiflora ; starch ; sucrose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Shootlets of Rosa multiflora L. cv. Montse were cultured in vitro with four different levels of sucrose (0, 1, 3 and 5%). Chloroplasts of shootlets grown in a medium without sucrose contained numerous, large plastoglobuli and were lacking in starch granules. The size and number of starch granules increased with the level of sucrose in the culture medium. Starch content in leaves of shootlets grown with 5% sucrose was higher (ca 1, 3%) than those grown with 3% (ca 0, 45%) and 1% sucrose (ca 0, 27%). Starch might be used by the in vitro shootlets during the acclimation period.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Murashige & Skoog medium ; nicotinic acid ; picloram ; pyridoxine ; sucrose ; thiamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, and picloram were stable in a liquid MS culture medium (pH 5.5–5.6) during autoclaving and during cell-free incubation in the dark at 5°C or 25°C for up to 6 weeks. Thiamine loss under the same conditions was 16% at 5°C and 18% at 25°C. Five percent of the sucrose in the liquid medium was hydrolyzed during autoclaving. During cell-free incubation in the light (100 μE m−2 s−1) at 25°C, pyridoxine was not detected after 6 days, while 78% of the picloram and 56% of the thiamine were degraded after 6 weeks. All of the niacin and pyridoxine, 13% of the picloram and 42% of the thiamine in a liquid MS culture medium were utilized in 4 days by potato (cv. Lemhi Russet) tuber suspension cultures growing in the dark at 25°C.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: sweet potato ; amylase ; electrophoretic forms ; sucrose ; glucose ; maltose ; starch ; cell culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cell cultures of sweet potato grown in media containing sucrose, glucose, maltose, or starch secreted amylase into the growth medium. The growth rate of cells was not appreciably affected by the carbon source employed for growth, although cells grown on sucrose had a slightly longer lag period before exponential growth occurred. Amylase levels inside the cells were not affected by carbon source, but the amount of amylase released into the medium was drastically affected. Maltose-grown cells released the most amylase while sucrose-grown cells released the least. Cells grown in the light released about twice as much amylase as cells grown in the dark when grown on glucose, maltose, or starch. Three amylase electrophoretic forms were found in the storage root tissue from which all cultures were derived. Cells grown in culture exhibited either two or three amylase forms, depending on the carbon source. The slowest migrating root amylase was found only in cells grown on starch. The root amylase having intermediate mobility was present in all cultures, as was a form having higher mobility than the most mobile root form. The fastest migrating electrophoretic form from the root was not present in any of the cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Belladonna lily ; Cape belladonna ; March lily ; micropropagation ; sucrose ; tissue culture ; twin-scales
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Amaryllis belladonna L. plants were multiplied successfully by means of tissue culture techniques. Different plant parts were tested as explant material, but plantlets could only be generated from the twin-scales and immature scapes. These in vitro-formed plantlets were divided into four parts and used for further multiplication. The twin-scale explants had the highest multiplication rate when a medium with 22.2 μM benzyladenine and 0.54 μM naphthaleneacetic acid was used. The sucrose concentration played an important role in the initiation of new plantlets, and the best results were obtained when a sucrose concentration of 2–3% was used. Anatomical observations were made during the initiation of the new plantlets.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: light ; Prunus cerasifera ; sucrose ; tissue culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Trials were carried out to test if the higher growth response shown by shoot clusters of Mr. S. 2/5, a clonal selection of Prunus cerasifera, submitted to short and frequent light-dark regimes could be related to the amount of sucrose added to growth medium. The reduction of sucrose from 30 gl-1 (control) to 22.5 gl-1, 15 gl-1 and 7.5 gl-1 caused a progressive and remarkable inhibition of shoot tip growth. With 15 gl-1 the value of some growth parameters was reduced by more than half. Under 16-h daylength, the best sucrose concentration was 30 gl-1, while with 4-h light-2-h dark no statistical differences appeared between 30 gl-1 and 22.5 gl-1 sucrose. Compared to 16-h light-8-h dark, the 4-h light-2-h dark cycle at the three highest sucrose concentrations gave rise to higher values of fresh and dry weight as well as increasing the number of axillary shoots produced. The increment in growth response induced by the shorter light-dark regime decreased with diminishing growth capacity in the cultures when sucrose concentration was lowered, but it was still appreciable even with 7.5 gl-1. Since the 4-h light-2-h dark cycle induced a favourable effect in culture growth with all sucrose concentrations, we conclude that the greater growth response observed with this light regime was not triggered by carbohydrate availability but by some other unknown factors.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: inoculum density ; cytokinin (zeatin) ; sucrose ; Daucus ; anthocyanin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Anthocyanin formation in a suspension culture of Daucus carota is induced by transfer from medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to one lacking 2,4-D. The specific yields were strongly influenced by the inoculum density. Inoculum density altered the effect of zeatin concentration on anthocyanin accumulation. The in part by increasing the sucrose levels. It was inferred from the results that sucrose was exhausted at a low concentration of sucrose and at a high cell density, resulting in the decrease of yield of anthocyanin.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: anthocyanins ; benzyl adenine ; cytokinin ; sucrose ; Vaccinium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The overriding influence of cytokinin source on flavonoid production in vitro was explored using a suspension culture system for Vaccinium pahalae. The substitution of kinetin by 20 μM benzyl adenine (BA) in the suspension culture media resulted in a three-fold increase in total anthocyanin yield, and a more rapid production during the cell culture cycle. Anthocyanin production reached a maximum after a 16–20 day interval in cultures containing an optimal kinetin concentration, but pigment accumulation peaked at only 12–16 days when BA was used as the sole cytokinin source. Unlike some other production systems which increase secondary metabolite production at the expense of cell growth, BA-supplementation promoted both increased growth and increased anthocyanin productivity. In BA-supplemented medium, cultures were not susceptible to typical osmotically-induced cell growth suppression. When, after multiple subcultures in kinetin-containing media, anthocyanin production capability was lost or diminished, productivity could be restored within 3 days after transfer of cells to a BA-supplemented medium.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: BA ; CCC ; Colocasia esculenta ; corm ; PP333 ; sucrose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract When in vitro plantlets were cultured in Murashige and Skoog liquid medium supplemented with 8–10% sucrose and 22–44 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, all of the stem explants formed corms. 170–850 μM paclobutrazol increased corm formation, whereas 1700 μM paclobutrazol inhibited corm development. Inclusion of 66 μM 6-benzylaminopurine in 170 μM paclobutrazol treatment resulted in smaller corms, and bigger corms formed in the combination of 1700 μM paclobutrazol and 66 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. No corms formed in 63–630 μM cycocel treatments. In vitro corm growth was also affected by the culture methods. Deep-layer agitated culture yielded corms of up to 2.03 g, with an average fresh weight of 0.7 g, 40 days after induction. In thin layer cultures, corms were up to 1.87 g, with an average fresh weight of 0.5 g. SDS-PAGE analysis of water-soluble proteins revealed changes of polypeptides with corm growth. Compared to smaller ones, corms over 0.2 g had higher dry matter, carbohydrate and anthocyanin content. These corms had a 99–100% survival rate upon transplanting directly to soil after storage at 4 °C for 10 months. This study indicates that the most economic production method of diploid taro seed corm is by thin-layer liquid culture in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 22–44 μM benzylaminopurine and 8–10% sucrose for 6 weeks. The formed corms can be stored at 4 °C up to 10 months and transplanted directly into soil without acclimatization.
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