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  • Candida albicans  (22)
  • zearalenone  (7)
  • dermatophytes  (6)
  • 1985-1989  (35)
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Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; medium ; physiology ; vitamin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth ofCandida albicans strain B 311-10 was observed in a minimal synthetic biotin-free medium, using different glucose concentrations, during the first 30 hours of its development at 28 °C. The yeast's growth was observed spectrophotometrically at 675 nm reading its optical density every hour. The minimal medium of Shepherdet al. [12], with glucose (15 g/L) and biotin was modified: this vitamin was eliminated and the concentration of glucose was gradually lowered to 0.5 g/L. At 5 g/L of glucose and without biotin very good growth was obtained. Based on our results during the first 30 hours of growth, biotin has no influence on the yeast's growth. This medium would be useful for the study of the physiology ofC. albicans during the first period of its development.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: reactive oxygen species ; Sporothrix schenkii ; Candida albicans ; polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of the supernatants obtained from the liquid culture medium ofSporothrix schenkii andCandida albicans on the generation of superoxide anion (O 2 − and hydroxyl radicals OH., the elements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and chemilimunescence (CL), a measure of several ROS, by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was examined. In our study, it was shown that the supernatant ofS. schenkii increased all types of ROS generation examined and CL, while that ofC. albicans increased OH. generation and CL. The effect of the supernatants ofS. schenkii on OH. generation and CL and that ofC. albicans on CL were most remarkable when the supernatant obtained 8 weeks after the inoculation was used. The supernatant ofS. schenkii was shown to be a much more potent stimulant than the supernatant ofC. albicans. This ROS-stimulating effect of the supernatant ofS. schenkii was heat stable but not dialyzable. These findings suggest the possible role of ROS produced by infiltrated PMNs in the inflammatory skin lesions induced byS. schenkii.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Nivalenol ; deoxynivalenol ; zearalenone ; Canadian cereals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An investigation for the occurrence of nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in cereals (ten wheat, one rye and one corn) harvested in Canada have been carried out using a procedure, which is rapid and sensitive for Fusarium mycotoxins. NIV, DON and ZEN were detected in 4, 9 and 9 out of ten wheat samples, and their average levels in the positives were 23 ng/g, 1257 ng/g and 9 ng/g, respectively. One rye and one corn were also contaminated with a minor amount of NIV. This is the first evidence for the natural occurrence of NIV in cereals grown in Canada, though its level was far less than DON.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: corn ; mycotoxins ; Indonesia ; poultry feed ; aflatoxin ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Every truck load of corn (n=52) entering and every batch of poultry feed (n=290) leaving a Bogor feedmill over one year was analysed for aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin. Fifty loads of corn and 274 of the batches of chicken feed contained aflatoxins. Zearalenone was detected in 11 corn samples but was not found in the formulated feed. Ochratoxin A was detected in one corn sample, but not in feed. Corn can account for all of the aflatoxin in the feed since levels were always lower in the finished product. There was no quantitative association between the proportion of bright green-yellow fluorescent, purple or mouldy kernels and the mycotoxin contents of the composite samples. Nevertheless, the absence of abnormal kernels indicates higher quality corn since the highest levels of mycotoxins occurred in the abnormal kernels.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Indirect immunoperoxidase staining ; fungal elements in tissue ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; Fusarium anthophilum ; Candida albicans ; Cryptococcus neoformans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study was performed in order to identify the fungi of four species (Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium anthophilum, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections by the indirect method of immunoperoxidase staining. Mature albino rabbits were immunized by formalin-killed organisms. The antibodies were prepared by precipitation at a 50% saturation of ammonium sulfate and were checked for cross-reactivities by Ouchterlony's double immunodiffusion and precipitin test. The immunoperoxidase staining was applied to the paraffin-embedded tissue sections of infected mice, human autopsy and biopsy specimens. Although each fungus was stained clearly the cell wall, cross-reactivities appeared among them, however it was possible to identify four fungi by absorption and dilution of the antisera.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; cows ; donkeys ; rabbits ; cats ; dogs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of hair of 111 cows, donkeys, rabbits, cats, and dogs were analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value of the different fungal species isolated were calculated. Total numbers of species 56, 45, 48, 23, and 11 were recovered from cows, donkeys, rabbits, cats, and dogs respectively. The majority of the keratinophilic fungi isolated were either well-known mycotic agents or have been recovered from various animal and human lesions. These comprised 87.8%, 66.7%, 61.4%, 59.3%, and 55.2% of the hair mycoflora in cats, dogs, rabbis, cows, and donkeys respectively. Seven species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, Microsporum gypseum, M. nanum, T. ajelloi, and M. canis. Cats harboured the largest number of dermatophytes (5 species), followed by cows (4 spp), rabbits (3 spp), and donkeys and dogs (1 sp). The role of these animals in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic fungi is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; mice infection ; patulin ; mortality ; humoral response
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mice receiving patulin (10 mg/kg) from 1 to 4 days showed enhancing resistance to intraperitoneal challenge with 108 viable Candida albicans at day 2. Resistance to. C. albicans infection (106 blastospores) appeared to be unchanged after cyclophosphamide oral administration (60 mg/kg). Immunoglobulins levels (IgA, IgM, IgG) are marked depressed (10 to 75%) in mice infected and/or treated by patulin and cyclophosphamide. The results show that an increase of neutrophil count may be among the factor underlying the late increase in resistance to C. albicans after administration of patulin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: anaerobiosis ; Candida albicans ; heterokaryons ; hybrids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary During aerobic replication, balanced heterokaryons (hets) of Candida albicans produced by fusing protoplasts of complementing auxotrophic strains characteristically segregate low frequencies of prototrophic monokaryons bearing hybrid nuclei formed either through karyogamy or unidirectional internuclear genetic transfers within het cells. Anaerobic growth causes exponential inactivation of hets and induces their production of hybrid monokaryons. Both responses are functions of heterokaryosis as such and not the genetic backgrounds of hets. Evidence is presented that (i) the nuclei of anaerobically generated hybrids arise through induction in hets of karyogamy not internuclear genetic transfers and that (ii) the events underlying that induction are different from those responsible for inactivation of the cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: keratinophilic fungi ; dermatophytes ; epidemiology ; sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of the hair in 285 sheep from the West Bank of Jordan was analysed and the frequency of occurrence and the relative importance value for different fungal species found were calculated. Ninenty six species which belong to 36 genera were isolated. Forty one of these species were either well-known agents of animal and human mycoses (Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum nanum, M. canis, and others), or have been isolated from human and animal lesions (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium tropicum, Acremonium kiliense, Aphanoascus fulvuscens, Aspergillus versicolor, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, and others). These pathogenic fungi comprised 75.4% of all fungi recovered from the hair of sheep. This animal seems to represent an adequate reservoir for several dermatophytes and several potentially pathogenic fungi.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 99 (1987), S. 21-24 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: amphotericin B ; clotrimazole ; Candida albicans ; agglutinins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Antifungal agents alter the function and morphology of Candida cell membranes and cell walls. We observed that brief (30 minute) exposure to either amphotericin B or clotrimazole inhibited the agglutination of Candida blastoconidia by murine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This inhibition required continuous drug presence. Neither amphotericin nor clotrimazole inhibited Candida agglutination by concanavalin A or pooled human serum. These results demonstrate that antifungal drugs can produce rapid changes in the surface characteristics of some fungi.
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