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  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  (25)
  • Aflatoxin  (22)
  • zearalenone  (20)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: mycotoxins ; Fusarium spp. ; trichothecenes ; maize ; deoxynivalenol ; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol ; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol ; zearalenone ; moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eighty-two cultures of Fusarium species isolated in 1986 from moldy maize in Minnesota were each cultured on rice for 4 weeks and found to produce the following mycotoxins: F. graminearum isolates, deoxynivalenol (DON, 4–225 μg/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 2–4μg/g), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, 1–35 μg/g) and zearalenone (ZEA, 5–4350 μg/g); F. moniliforme, fusarin C (detectable amounts to 1000 μg/g); F. mòniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans isolates, moniliformin (15–6775 μg/g); F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans isolates, fusaric acid (detectable amounts). Other mycotoxins screened for in each rice sample and not detected were T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, scirpenols, alpha and beta trans-zearalenols, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone. The rat feeding bioassay indicated that other, unidentified toxins may be present.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alterations in pathogenicity ; in vitro growth ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; reisolation ; subcultivation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thein vitro subcultivation of some microorganisms for long periods causes measurable loss of their pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from infected hosts. We compared the pathogenicity and thein vitro growth pattern of oneP. brasiliensis isolate (Pb 18) in its yeast phase, using the following samples: 1) The original pathogenic Pb 18 (OP). 2) Pb 18 attenuated by continuousin vitro subcultivation (AT). 3) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from susceptible B 10.A mice (RS). 4) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from resistant A/SN mice (RR). Pathogenicity was evaluated by anatomopathology and mortality of mice infected i.p. with 5×106 fungi. Median survival times of mice infected with OP ranged from 74 to 117 days during the first 51 months of subculturing; with more cycles of subculturing the median survival time increased, reaching 250 days at the 64th month. This indicated decreasing virulence of OP during this period of subculturing. Survival of mice infected with RS and RR was respectively 112 and 123 days, which is similar to the behavior of the OP variant. Thein vitro growth curve profile of RR showed significantly higher numbers of total and viable yeasts than the other studied variant. These results show that: 1) Pb 18 isolate loses its pathogenicity by continuous subcultivation. This phenomenon is reverted by reisolation from mice, independently from their susceptibility to the fungus; 2) thein vitro growth patterns of Pb 18 do not correlate with alterations in pathogenicity but are influenced by the host's environment.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycelial conidia ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The conidia produced by the mycelial form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Several different conidial types were characterized. These included intercalary arthroconidia, several types of septate conidia that are formed from other conidia, pedunculate conidia, and terminal hyphal conidia. In addition, the ultrastructure of the supporting pedestal of the pedunculate conidium was found to be separated from the mother conidium by a septum in some instances, and at other times it was not.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Breast milk ; Ochratoxin A ; Sierra Leone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast milks from 113 mothers in two ‘Under-Five Clinics’ in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone, namely, Njala and Bo, were examined for their mycotoxin content. Only 10 were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight per cent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin A (OTA). Few samples (15%) had a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six (32%) had two mycotoxins and 50 (40%) had three or more. The occurrence of OTA in combination with various aflatoxins was recorded. It is concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to OTA and aflatoxins at levels which in some cases far exceed those permissible in animal feed in developed countries.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brain ; Aflatoxin ; Children ; Nigeria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autopsy brain (cerebrum) specimens from 18 kwashiorkor children and 19 children who had died from a variety of other diseases, at the Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in 81%, 15 specimens in each group. More than one type of aflatoxin was detected in 14 (37.8%) of all the specimens. Aflatoxin B1 and its reversible metabolite, aflatoxicol, were detected in 11 brain specimens of patients with kwashiorkor and 6 of those who died of other miscellaneous diseases; out of these 6, two died from measles and its complications. The frequent detection of aflatoxins in the brains of these children and sometimes in multiple forms may suggest that aflatoxins are stored in the brain tissue which could be related to the lipophilic nature of these compounds. These findings also suggest that although many children in the tropics are exposed to aflatoxins, the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxicol in the brains of kwashiorkor children may be a result of an impaired metabolism of these compounds by these children.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; Paracoccidioidomycosis ; fungal antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the occurrence of antigenic and biochemical variability among Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen batches prepared according to the same protocol. Initially (experiment #1), we analyzed two antigen lots of two human isolates (Bt1 & Bt2), cultured in two media (PYG: bactopeptone, yeast extract, glucose; MMM: McVeigh & Morton medium) in SDS-PAGE and in two immunological tests (imunodiffusion-ID and footpad swelling test-FPT). Afterwards (experiment #2), we compared the antigenic profile of three antigen batches from three human isolates (Bt1, Bt2 & Bt3) by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis (2 D-IEP) against a reference system for P. brasiliensis antigens. In experiment #1, there were important intra- and inter-strain antigenic differences between batches of the fungal isolates cultured on both media. The block titration of the antigen batches for the immunological tests revealed correlation between protein concentration and biological activity in ID and no correlation in FPT. In experiment #2, the reference system for P. brasiliensis showed 26 antigen peaks. There were important differences between batches prepared from the same isolate and between batches from different isolates. Our data suggested the occurrence of instability in the synthesis of antigenic components by a same P. brasiliensis isolate, under controlled incubation conditions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brazil ; dimorphic fungi ; ecology ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared the antigenic characteristics of two thermo-dependent dimorphic fungi isolated from soil in Botucatu, an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The soil isolates grew as cerebriform colonies at 37 °C (yeast form) and as cottonous colonies at 25 °C (mycelial form). No pathogenicity for ddY mice or hamsters were observed. In immunodiffusion test, there were precipitation bands between the 2 soil isolates and pooled PCM patient sera. There were also common precipitation bands at 21, 50 and 58 kDa between the soil isolates antigens and PCM patient sera by Western-blotting, but no gp43 kDa band. No gene for gp 43 kDa protein was detected in the soil isolates by PCR. The fact that these isolates were obtained from an endemic area of PCM and there were some antigenic similarities between the soil isolates and P. brasiliensis in immunodiffusion test and Western-blotting may have some importance in epidemiological surveys done with paracoccidioidin as well interfering with the immune response of the exposed population.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: corn ; mycotoxins ; Indonesia ; poultry feed ; aflatoxin ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Every truck load of corn (n=52) entering and every batch of poultry feed (n=290) leaving a Bogor feedmill over one year was analysed for aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin. Fifty loads of corn and 274 of the batches of chicken feed contained aflatoxins. Zearalenone was detected in 11 corn samples but was not found in the formulated feed. Ochratoxin A was detected in one corn sample, but not in feed. Corn can account for all of the aflatoxin in the feed since levels were always lower in the finished product. There was no quantitative association between the proportion of bright green-yellow fluorescent, purple or mouldy kernels and the mycotoxin contents of the composite samples. Nevertheless, the absence of abnormal kernels indicates higher quality corn since the highest levels of mycotoxins occurred in the abnormal kernels.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 144 (1998), S. 131-133 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: armadillo ; Dasypus novemcinctus ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; paracoccidioidomycosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A study conducted in a rural area of Ibiá, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was recently isolated from soil, sought to determine if the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus developed paracoccidioidomycosis. Out of 21 armadillos captured in the area, one had a lung granuloma containing fungal cells attributable to those of P. brasiliensis. The present report presents the first histopathological evidence for the presence of this pathogen in the lungs of an armadillo. This finding permitted us to establish a linkage between the two species and to suggest that fungal infections of humans and of armadillos occur in the same agricultural and forest microenvironment that they share.
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