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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: mycotoxins ; Fusarium spp. ; trichothecenes ; maize ; deoxynivalenol ; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol ; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol ; zearalenone ; moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eighty-two cultures of Fusarium species isolated in 1986 from moldy maize in Minnesota were each cultured on rice for 4 weeks and found to produce the following mycotoxins: F. graminearum isolates, deoxynivalenol (DON, 4–225 μg/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 2–4μg/g), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, 1–35 μg/g) and zearalenone (ZEA, 5–4350 μg/g); F. moniliforme, fusarin C (detectable amounts to 1000 μg/g); F. mòniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans isolates, moniliformin (15–6775 μg/g); F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans isolates, fusaric acid (detectable amounts). Other mycotoxins screened for in each rice sample and not detected were T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, scirpenols, alpha and beta trans-zearalenols, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone. The rat feeding bioassay indicated that other, unidentified toxins may be present.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: corn ; mycotoxins ; Indonesia ; poultry feed ; aflatoxin ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Every truck load of corn (n=52) entering and every batch of poultry feed (n=290) leaving a Bogor feedmill over one year was analysed for aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin. Fifty loads of corn and 274 of the batches of chicken feed contained aflatoxins. Zearalenone was detected in 11 corn samples but was not found in the formulated feed. Ochratoxin A was detected in one corn sample, but not in feed. Corn can account for all of the aflatoxin in the feed since levels were always lower in the finished product. There was no quantitative association between the proportion of bright green-yellow fluorescent, purple or mouldy kernels and the mycotoxin contents of the composite samples. Nevertheless, the absence of abnormal kernels indicates higher quality corn since the highest levels of mycotoxins occurred in the abnormal kernels.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin B1 ; zearalenone ; deoxynivalenol ; irradiated maize grain ; Fusarium graminearum ; Aspergillus parasiticus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of inoculum size in the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined when Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 3000 and Fusarium graminearum ITEM 124 were cultured alone and in pairs on irradiated corn kernels at 28 °C and 0.97 water activity (aw). The highest levels of AFB1 produced by A. parasiticus were produced at the lowest levels of the inoculum (103 spores/ml). No significant differences were observed in ZEN and DON production at any inoculum level during the experimental period. When A. parasiticus was co-inoculated with F. graminearum both to the same inocula (106 spores/ml), AFB1 inhibition percentage were 60, 72 and 56% at 10, 20 and 35 days of incubation respectively, while at 106 spores/ml the percentages of inhibition were 34, 84 and 93% at 10, 20 and 35 days. In the mixture cultures A. parasiticus 103 × F. graminearum 106 spores/ml the percentage of inhibition of AFB1 oscillated in 99% during all the incubation. In the interaction A. parasiticus 106 spores/ml × F. graminearum 103 spores/ml the accumulation of AFB1 decreased in 80, 94 and 86% at 10, 20 and 35 days of incubation respectively. In single culture F. graminearum was inoculated with 103 or 106 spores/ml and the highest levels of ZEN and DON were detected at 35 days of incubation. The levels oscillated in 538–622 μg/kg for ZEN and 870–834 μg/kg for DON respectively. In paired cultures there were no significant differences in the levels regardless of the spore concentrations during the incubation time.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: New Zealand ; Fusarium ; mycotoxin ; deoxynivalenol ; acetyldeoxynivalenol ; fusarenon-X ; zearalenone ; wortmannin ; moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-two isolates of Fusarium were obtained from pasture grass and soil from various areas of New Zealand and identified as F. anthophilum [2], F. avenaceum [17], F. crookwellense [8], F. culmorum [4], F. graminearum [1], F. nivale [3], F. oxysporum [3], F. sambucinum [17], F. semitectum [1], F. tricinctum [1] and an unidentified Fusarium spp. [5]. These isolates were grown on autoclaved rice and tested for toxicity to rats in feeding tests. Eighty two percent of the isolates were toxic, of which twenty-four percent were severely toxic and caused hemorrhages of stomach and intestine, hematuria, and finally death. Cultures of the most toxic isolates contained 0.1 to 104 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.7 and 7 ppm of 15- and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol respectively, 0.2 to 4 ppm of fusarenon- X, 11 to 1021 ppm zearalenone, 40 to 272 ppm of the hemorrhagic factor (wortmannin), 2,100 to 7,200 ppm of moniliformin, 565 ppm of the cytotoxic factor (HM-8) and enniatin in substantial concentrations. F. sambucinum is reported as a moniliformin producer for the first time.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Trichothecenes ; mycotoxin ; Fusarium crookwellense ; zearalenone ; fusarian C
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eighteen Fusarium crookwellense isolates from the continents of Australia, Europe, and North America were compared for their ability to produce mycotoxins on corn at 25 °C after 2 weeks. Extracts from corn fermented with each Fusarium isolate were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) for mycotoxins. Toxins detected were zearalenone (13 isolates), fusarin C (11 isolates), nivalenol (4 isolates), and diacetoxyscirpenol (2 isolates). Zearalenone and fusarin C were produced by isolates from each continent, while nivalenol was detected in the Fusarium isolates originating from Australia and one isolate from the United States.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium ; maize ; moniliformin ; mycotoxins ; trichothecenes ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Forty Fusarium isolates obtained from maize fields were screened for moniliformin production on maize kernels. Twelve isolates, including seven of F. subglutinans, were found to produce moniliformin at levels ranging from 0.4 to 64 ppm. Twenty six isolates were also screened for production of deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone. Of these, 22, including all 11 isolates of F. graminearum, produced zearalenone at levels ranging from 0.1 to 96.0 ppm, while 13 produced T-2 toxin at low levels, (〈1.1 ppm). Deoxynivalenol and diacetoxyscirpenol were each produced by six isolates, also at low levels (〈1.0 ppm). Three isolates of F. graminearum and one of F. sambucinum produced four toxins simultaneously.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium crookwellense ; temperature ; zearalenone ; a-zearalenol ; nivalenol ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract After 6 weeks incubation on rice 2 strains of Fusarium crookwellense produced more zearalenone (6060–5010 mg/kg dry wt of culture) at ambient temperature (16–29°C) in daylight than at ambient temperature (18–23 °C) in darkness or at controlled temperatures of 11 °C, 20 °C or 25 °C in darkness. Yields at 25 °C were low. Incubation at 11 °C during the second 3 weeks incubation increased yields only when preliminary incubation had been at 25 °C. After 6 weeks incubation at controlled temperatures in darkness, 4 strains produced most zearalenone at 20 °C (2460-21 360 mg/kg), 1 strain at 11 °C (6570 mg/kg). Yields at a temperature oscillating daily from 10–20 °C were less than at 15 °C. One of the 5 strains produced appreciable amounts of a-zearalenol (1645 mg/kg at 20°C) and 2 of nivalenol (340 and 499 mg/kg at 20 °C).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Nivalenol ; deoxynivalenol ; zearalenone ; Canadian cereals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An investigation for the occurrence of nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in cereals (ten wheat, one rye and one corn) harvested in Canada have been carried out using a procedure, which is rapid and sensitive for Fusarium mycotoxins. NIV, DON and ZEN were detected in 4, 9 and 9 out of ten wheat samples, and their average levels in the positives were 23 ng/g, 1257 ng/g and 9 ng/g, respectively. One rye and one corn were also contaminated with a minor amount of NIV. This is the first evidence for the natural occurrence of NIV in cereals grown in Canada, though its level was far less than DON.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; cellulose ; citrinin ; mycotoxins ; mycoflora ; peanuts ; toxigenic ; trichothecenes ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract From 40 peanut seed samples collected in Egypt, forty-three species and one variety of fungi, belonging to 16 genera, were collected. The most dominant genera were Aspergillus (11 species + one variety), Penicillium (11 species) and Fusarium (4 species). From the preceding genera A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, P. chrysogenum and F. oxysporum were the most frequent species. Forty-nine isolates belonging to 12 species and one variety were tested for production of mycotoxins, after growth on liquid medium containing two carbon sources (sucrose or cellulose). Thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed that the quality and quantity of mycotoxins was higher on sucrose than cellulose. Mycotoxins identified were aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2, citrinin; fumagillin; diacetoxyscirpenol T-2 toxin; satratoxin H; and zearalenone.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: bioassay ; fusarochromanone ; moniliformin ; trichothecenes ; wortmannin ; zearalenone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-four isolates of the eight most common Fusarium species isolated from Norwegian cereals; F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, F. torulosum and F. tricinctum were studied for their cytotoxicity and ability to produce mycotoxins. The strains were cultivated on rice, and analysed for trichothecenes (all species), zearalenone (all species), fusarochromanone (F. equiseti), wortmannin (F. torulosum), moniliformin and enniatins (F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. torulosum). The cytotoxicity of the extracts were examined with an (in vitro) MTT-cell culture assay. All F. graminearum and five of seven F. culmorum isolates belonged to chemotype IA, producing deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, while the two other F. culmorum strains were nivalenol producers (chemotype II). The F. equiseti isolates and one of the F. poae isolates produced both type A and B trichothecenes, and relatively large quantities of fusarochromanone were detected in the F. equiseti cultures. All Fusarium species studied showed significant cytotoxicity, but with a large variation between species, and also within each species. F. sporotrichioides and F. equiseti showed the highest average cytotoxicity.
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